Jiangxi

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Jiangxi
江西
Province of Jiangxi
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese江西省 (Jiāngxī Shěng)
  AbbreviationJX / (pinyin :Gàn; Gan Chinese: Kōm)
   Gan Kongsi
   Hakka Pinyim Gong1 Si1 Sen3
SanQingShan9.jpg
Jiangxi in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Jiangxi Province
Coordinates: 27°18′N116°00′E / 27.3°N 116.0°E / 27.3; 116.0
CountryChina
Named for Short for Jiangnanxi Circuit ( 江南 西 )
Capital Nanchang
Largest City Ganzhou
Divisions11 prefectures, 99 counties, 1549 townships
Government
  Type Province
  Body Jiangxi Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Yin Hong
   Congress chairmanYin Hong
   Governor Ye Jianchun
   CPPCC chairman Tang Yijun
Area
  Total166,919 km2 (64,448 sq mi)
  Rank 18th
Highest elevation2,158 m (7,080 ft)
Population
 (2020) [1]
  Total45,188,635
  Rank 13th
  Density270/km2 (700/sq mi)
   Rank 16th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 99.7%
She – 0.2%
  Languages and dialects Gan, Hakka, Huizhou, Wu, Jianghuai Mandarin
GDP [2]
  Total CN¥ 2.569 trillion
US$ 372 billion
  Per capitaCN¥ 56,853
US$ 8,240
ISO 3166 code CN-JX
HDI (2019)0.741 [3] (high) (19th)
Website jiangxi.gov.cn
  1. /æŋˈʃ,iɒŋ-/ ; [4] 江西 ; formerly romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi [5]
  2. 江南西道; 'Circuit of Western Jiangnan '; Gan: Kongnomsitau) [7]
  3. pinyin:Gàn; Gan: Gōm
  4. 贛鄱大地
  5. 红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Xinjian (Xinjian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New district established after census: Chaisang (Jiujiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. 1 2 New districts established after census: Nankang (Nankang CLC), Ganxian (Ganxian County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. 1 2 New district established after census: Dongxiang (Dongxiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  10. 1 2 New district established after census: Guangfeng (Guangfeng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  11. 1 2 New district established after census: Yujiang (Yujiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  12. Gongqingcheng CLC was established by splitting from parts of De'an County after census.
  13. Xingzi County is currently known as Lushan CLC after census.
Jiangxi
Jiangxi (Chinese characters).svg
"Jiangxi" in Chinese characters
 
 
Most populous cities in Jiangxi
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [17]
RankPop.RankPop.
Nan Chang Teng Wang Ge .jpg
Nanchang
Bin Jiang Yan Chang  - panoramio.jpg
Ganzhou
1 Nanchang 2,824,00011 Fengcheng 375,400 Fuzhou, Jiangxi 20150825 173108.jpg
Fuzhou
Jiujiang 02.jpg
Jiujiang
2 Ganzhou 1,790,00012 Yingtan 305,300
3 Fuzhou 806,80013 Ruijin 302,500
4 Jiujiang 774,90014 Gao'an 268,700
5 Shangrao 752,20015 Zhangshu 251,700
6 Yichun 700,00016 Ruichang 220,600
7 Jingdezhen 535,40017 Leping 172,900
8 Xinyu 485,30018 Gongqingcheng 149,000
9 Ji'an 483,10019 Guixi 145,000
10 Pingxiang 454,10020 Dexing 83,300

Politics

The Politics of Jiangxi is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Jiangxi is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Jiangxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Jiangxi Chinese Communist Party Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Jiangxi CCP Party Chief".

Economy

Rice is the dominant crop in Jiangxi. Cash crops commonly grown include cotton and rapeseed. Jiangxi is the leading producer of kumquats in China, particularly Suichuan County. [18]

Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium, thorium, tantalum, niobium, among others. Noted centers of mining include Dexing (copper) and Dayu County (tungsten).

It is located in extreme proximity to some of the richest provinces of China (Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian), which are sometimes blamed for taking away talent and capital from Jiangxi. [19]

Jiangxi has the lowest wages and third lowest property prices in all of China., [19] As of 2016 Jiangxi's nominal GDP was CNY 1.84 trillion or US$276.48 billion, and a per capita of CNY 40,400 or US$6,082. [20]

Historical GDP of Jiangxi Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008) [20]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [21] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20161,836,440276,477524,5629.040,400608211,5406.64233.5009
20151,672,378268,508471,1599.136,968593510,4156.22843.5495
20141,571,463255,822442,6169.734,89056809,8276.14283.5504
20131,441,019232,678402,86810.132,12251878,9806.19323.5769
20121,294,888205,131364,67511.028,96745898,1586.31253.5508
20111,170,282181,192333,84212.426,29240717,5006.45883.5055
2010945,126139,615285,48514.021,36831566,4546.76953.3106
2009765,518112,065242,44413.217,43725535,5226.83103.1575
2008697,105100,374219,43613.315,98623025,0326.94513.1768
2007580,02576,279192,38613.213,38917614,4417.60403.0149
2006482,05360,470167,51312.311,19714053,8917.97182.8777
2005405,67649,523141,89412.99,47811573,3158.19172.8590
2000200,30724,19673,6618.048515861,7848.27842.7193
1995116,97314,00742,8576.828963471,0618.35102.7294
199042,8628,96125,1744.511342376664.78321.7026
198520,7897,07914,83114.85972034262.93661.4017
198011,1157,4187,4324.23422282291.49841.4955
19788,7005,59513.32761771.5550

Economic and technological development zones

Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone is located in Nanchang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, it was approved by the State Council on May 8, 2006, and passed the national acceptance inspection on Sep 7th, 2007. It has a planning area of 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) and now has built 0.31 km2 (0.12 sq mi). It enjoys simple and convenient customs clearances, and special preferential policies both for Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone and NCHDZ. [22]

Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone (NCHDZ for short hereafter) is the only national grade high-tech zoned in Jiangxi, it was established in Mar. 1991. The zone covers an area of 231 km2 (89 sq mi), in which 32 km2 (12 sq mi) have been completed. NCHDZ possesses unique nature condition and sound industry foundation of accepting electronics industry. NCHDZ has brought 25% industrial added value and 50% industrial benefit and tax to Nanchang city by using only 0.4% land area. [23]

Demographics

She ethnic townships in Jiangxi She ethnic townships in Jiangxi.png
She ethnic townships in Jiangxi

The population of Jiangxi is approximately 39.66 million. [28] 99.73% of that is Han Chinese, predominantly Gan and Hakka. Ganzhou, Jiangxi's largest city, has an especially large number of Hakka. Ethnic minorities include She.

Jiangxi and Henan both have the most unbalanced gender ratios of all Chinese provinces. Based on a 2009 British Medical Journal study, the ratio is over 140 boys for every 100 girls in the 1–4 age group. [29]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [30] 23,988,000    
1928 [31] 20,323,000−15.3%
1936-37 [32] 15,805,000−22.2%
1947 [33] 12,507,000−20.9%
1954 [34] 16,772,865+34.1%
YearPop.±%
1964 [35] 21,068,019+25.6%
1982 [36] 33,184,827+57.5%
1990 [37] 37,710,281+13.6%
2000 [38] 40,397,598+7.1%
2010 [39] 44,567,475+10.3%

In 2019 the most-common surname in Jiangxi was Liú (刘), the only province where this was the case. Overall Liu is the fourth-most common surname in the country. [40]

Religion

Religion in Jiangxi [41] [note 1]

   Chinese folk religion (24.05%)
   Christianity (2.31%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (73.64%)

The predominant religions in Jiangxi are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 24.05% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 2.31% of the population identifies as Christian. [41]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 73.64% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Culture

Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen. Porcelain Workshop, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi, China.jpg
Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen.

Jiangxi is the main area of concentration of the Gan varieties of Chinese, spoken over most of the northern two-thirds of the province. Examples include the Nanchang dialect, Yichun dialect and Ji'an dialect. The southern one-third of the province speaks Hakka. There are also Mandarin, Huizhou, and Wu dialects spoken along the northern border.

Ganju (Jiangxi opera) is the type of Chinese opera performed in Jiangxi.

Although little known outside of the province, Jiangxi cuisine is rich and distinctive. Flavors are some of the strongest in China, with heavy use of chili peppers and especially pickled and fermented products.

Jingdezhen is widely regarded as the producer of the best porcelain in China. [42]

Jiangxi also was a historical center of Chan Buddhism.

Prominent examples of Hakka architecture can be found in Jiangxi.

Transportation

As of January 2015, Jiangxi had two Yangtze River crossings, both in Jiujiang.

Rail

The Beijing–Kowloon Railway and Shanghai–Kunming Railway crisscross the province and intersect at Nanchang, which also has a high-speed rail link to Jiujiang. In addition, Jiangxi is connected by rail to Anhui Province via the Anhui–Jiangxi and Tongling–Jiujiang Railways; to Hubei via the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway; and to Fujian via the Yingtan–Xiamen, Hengfeng–Nanping, Ganzhou–Longyan and Xiangtang–Putian Railways.

Tourism

The mountain peaks of Mount Lu National Park. Mount Lushan - fog.JPG
The mountain peaks of Mount Lu National Park.

There are several famous mountains in Jiangxi Province, including Mount Lu in Jiujiang, Mount jinggang at the border of Jiangxi province and Hunan province, Mount Sanqing in Yushan county.

Near the northern port city of Jiujiang lies the well-known resort area of Mount Lu. Also near the city is the Donglin Temple, an important Buddhist temple in china.

Near the small city of Yingtan is the resort area of Longhushan, which purports to be the birthplace of Taoism and hence has great symbolic value to Taoists. The region has many temples, cave complexes, mountains and villages.

The Mount Lu National Park has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996.

Kuling located on the top of Mount Lu is a summer resort developed by European in the 19th century. There were 3000 European living in Kuling, Mount Lu, Jiujiang in summer time in 1920 s.

In 2007, Jiangxi (specifically the Mount Lu West Sea, located in Jiujiang) was the filming location for the fifteenth series of the American TV show Survivor .

Flora and fauna

The mountainous terrain and large forest coverage of Jiangxi has made it historically one of the more wild places of central China. South China tigers have been seen as recently as fifteen or twenty years ago and projects are underway to document evidence of existing tigers, if there are any. Several mountain areas along the northern border with Hunan and Hubei are potential sites for "wilderness" preserves specifically for protecting or even reintroducing tigers.

Other wildlife, though not plentiful, are more numerous in Jiangxi than in many other developed areas of China. Numerous species of birds are common, especially around the marshes of Lake Poyang in the north. Though protected, mammals such as muntjac, wild boar, civet cats, and pangolins, are still common enough that they'll even occasionally be seen in markets for sale as game meat, or possibly even in a forest.

The late Paleocene mesonychid, Jiangxia chaotoensis was found in the province, and named after it.

Education

Colleges and universities

List of colleges and universities in Jiangxi:

Sister provinces

See also

Notes

    1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [41] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.
    2. This may include:

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