Jiangxi

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Jiangxi Province

江西省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese江西省 (Jiāngxī Shěng)
  AbbreviationJX / (pinyin :Gàn; Gan Chinese: Kōm)
   Gan Kongsi
   Hakka Pinyim Gong1 Si1 Sen3
SanQingShan9.jpg
Jiangxi in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Jiangxi Province
Coordinates: 27°18′N116°00′E / 27.3°N 116.0°E / 27.3; 116.0 Coordinates: 27°18′N116°00′E / 27.3°N 116.0°E / 27.3; 116.0
Capital
(and largest city)
Nanchang
Divisions11 prefectures, 99 counties, 1549 townships
Government
   Secretary Liu Qi
  Governor Yi Lianhong
Area
  Total166,919 km2 (64,448 sq mi)
Area rank 18th
Highest elevation
2,158 m (7,080 ft)
Population
 (2013) [1]
  Total45,200,000
  Rank 13th
  Density270/km2 (700/sq mi)
  Density rank 16th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 99.7%
She – 0.2%
  Languages and dialects Gan, Hakka, Huizhou, Wu, Jianghuai Mandarin
ISO 3166 code CN-JX
GDP (2017 [2] ) CNY 2.08 trillion
USD 308.34 billion (16th)
 • per capita CNY 45,187
USD 6,693 (20th)
HDI (2018)0.727 [3] (high) (23rd)
Website http://www.jiangxi.gov.cn/
(in Chinese)
Jiangxi
Jiangxi (Chinese characters).svg
"Jiangxi" in Chinese characters
Chinese 江西
Gan Kong si
Postal Kiangsi
Literal meaning"Western Jiang[nan]"

Jiangxi ( Loudspeaker.svg 江西 ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese: Kongsi, Hakka: Gong Si) [4] is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. [5]

Contents

The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao ( 西 ; 'Circuit of Western Jiangnan '; Gan: Kongnomsitau). [6] The abbreviation for Jiangxi is " " (pinyin:Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".

After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution. The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin, which is sometimes called the "Former Red Capital" (红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu), or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan'an.

The southern half of Jiangxi is hilly and mountainous, with ranges and valleys interspersed; notable mountains and mountains ranges include Mount Lu, the Jinggang Mountains and Mount Sanqing. The northern half is comparatively lower in altitude. The Gan River flows through the province.

Although the majority of Jiangxi's population is Han Chinese, Jiangxi is linguistically diverse. It is considered the center of Gan Chinese; Hakka Chinese, a close variety of Gan, is also spoken to some degree. Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium, thorium, tantalum, niobium.

History

Jiangxi is centered on the Gan River valley, which historically provided the main north-south transport route of south China. The corridor along the Gan River is one of the few easily traveled routes through the otherwise mountainous and rugged terrain of the south-eastern mountains. This open corridor was the primary route for trade and communication between the North China Plain and the Yangtze River valley in the north and the territory of modern Guangdong province in the south. As a result, Jiangxi has been strategically important throughout much of China's history.

Jiangxi was outside the sphere of influence of early Chinese civilization during the Shang dynasty (16th to 11th centuries BC). It is likely that peoples collectively known as the Baiyue inhabited the region. During the Spring and Autumn period, the northern part of modern Jiangxi formed the western frontier of the state of Wu. After Wu was conquered by the state of Yue (a power based in modern northern Zhejiang) in 473 BC, the state of Chu (based in modern Hubei) took over northern Jiangxi and there may have been some Yue influence in the south. Chu subjugated Yue in 333 BC. In 223 BC, when Qin conquered Chu, a majority of the Jiangxi area was recorded to be put under Jiujiang Commandary situated in Shouchun (壽春). [7] However the commandary was ineffective and ended shortly when Qin falls.

Yuzhang Commandery (豫章, Gan: Ì-zong) was established in Jiangxi at the beginning of the Han dynasty, possibly before the death of Xiang Yu in 202 BC, and it's also the very first commandery set up by Chinese dynasty in Jiangxi. It was named after the Yuzhang River (豫章江, Gan: Ì-zong Kong), the original name of Gan River. "Gan" has become the abbreviation of the province. In 201, eight counties were added to the original seven of Qin,[ citation needed ] and three more were established in later years. Throughout most of the Han dynasty the commandery's eighteen counties covered most of the modern province of Jiangxi. The county seats of Nanchang, Gan, Yudu, Luling among others were located at the sites of modern major cities. Other counties, however, have been moved or abolished in later centuries.

Under the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty, Yuzhang Commandery was assigned to Yangzhou Province, as part of a trend to establish provinces ( zhou ) all across China. In 291 AD, during the Western Jin dynasty, Jiangxi became its own Zhou called Jiangzhou (江州, Gan: Kong-chiu). During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Jiangxi was under the control of the southern dynasties, and the number of zhou slowly grew.

During the Sui dynasty, there were seven commanderies and twenty-four counties in Jiangxi. During the Tang dynasty, another commandery and fourteen counties were added. Commanderies were then abolished, becoming zhou (henceforth translated as "prefectures" rather than "provinces").

Circuits were established during the Tang dynasty as a new top-level administrative division. At first Jiangxi was part of the Jiangnan Circuit (lit. "Circuit south of the Yangtze"). In 733, this circuit was divided into western and eastern halves. Jiangxi was found in the western half, which was called Jiangnanxi Circuit (lit. "Western circuits south of the Yangtze"). This is the source of the modern name "Jiangxi".

The Tang dynasty collapsed in 907, heralding the division of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Jiangxi first belonged to Wu (, Gan: Ng), then to Southern Tang (南唐, Gan: Nām-thóng). Both states were based in modern-day Nanjing, further down the Yangtze River.

During the Song dynasty, Jiangnanxi Circuit was reestablished with nine prefectures and four army districts (with sixty-eight districts).

During the Yuan dynasty, the circuit was divided into thirteen different circuits, and Jiangxi Province was established for the first time. This province also included the majority of modern Guangdong. Jiangxi acquired (more or less) its modern borders during the Ming dynasty after Guangdong was separated out. There has been little change to the borders of Jiangxi since.

After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution. The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin, which is sometimes called the "Former Red Capital" (红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu), or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan'an.

From 1930 to 1934, the National Government carried out five military campaigns against the Jiangxi Soviet area. Its brutal two-party battles and cleansing (including the internal cleansing of the Red Army and the cleaning of the post-war government) caused a large number of deaths or escapes, causing the population of Jiangxi to drop by 40%, until only 13.8 million people were left in 1936.

In 1936, after the opening of the Yuehan Railway in Hunan, Jiangxi lost its important position regarding north-south traffic. In 1937, the east-west Zhegan Railway was opened to traffic, which changed the original traffic patterns in Jiangxi to a large extent. The Jiujiang Port (九江港) began to decline in importance.

Following the Doolittle Raid during World War II, most of the B-25 American crews that came down in China eventually made it to safety with the help of Chinese civilians and soldiers. The Chinese people who helped them, however, paid dearly for sheltering the Americans. The Imperial Japanese Army began the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign to intimidate the Chinese from helping downed American airmen. The Japanese killed an estimated 250,000 civilians while searching for Doolittle’s men. [8]

Geography

Jiangxi in 1936 Ya Xin Di Xue She 1936Nian <<Xiu Zhen Zhong Hua Quan Tu >> --09Jiang Xi Sheng .jpg
Jiangxi in 1936
Nanchang City Nanchang Bayi Guangchang 20120723-14.jpg
Nanchang City
Xinyu City XinYu.jpg
Xinyu City
Pingxiang City Ayfg-sjgc-yj21.jpg
Pingxiang City

Mountains surround Jiangxi on three sides, with the Mufu Mountains, Jiuling Mountains, and Luoxiao Mountains on the west; Huaiyu Mountains and Wuyi Mountains on the east; and the Jiulian Mountains (九连山) and Dayu Mountains in the south. The southern half of the province is hilly with ranges and valleys interspersed; while the northern half is flatter and lower in altitude. The highest point in Jiangxi is Mount Huanggang (黄岗山) in the Wuyi Mountains, on the border with Fujian. It has an altitude of 2,157 metres (7,077 ft).

The Gan River dominates the province, flowing through the entire length of the province from south to north. It enters Lake Poyang in the north, the largest freshwater lake of China; that lake in turn empties into the Yangtze River, which forms part of the northern border of Jiangxi. Important reservoirs include the Xiushui Tuolin Reservoir in the northwest of the province on the Xiushui River, and the Wan'an Reservoir(zh) in the upper section of the Gan.

Jiangxi has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa under the Köppen climate classification), with short, cool, damp winters, and very hot, humid summers. Average temperatures are about 3 to 9 °C (37 to 48 °F) in January and 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F) in July. Annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,900 millimetres (47 to 75 in), much of it falling in the heavy rains occurring in late spring and summer.

Nanchang, the provincial capital and the most densely populated city, is one of the largest Chinese metropolises. Nanchang is the hub of Jiangxi civilization throughout its history, which plays a leading role in the commercial, intellectual and industrial and political fields. [9] Ganzhou is the largest subdivision of Jiangxi.

Major cities in Jiangxi include:

Administrative divisions

Jiangxi is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Jiangxi
Division code [10] DivisionArea in km2 [11] Population 2010 [12] SeatDivisions [13]
Districts Counties CL cities
360000Jiangxi Province166900.0044,567,475 Nanchang city266212
360100 Nanchang city7432.185,042,565 Donghu District 63
360200 Jingdezhen city5256.231,587,477 Changjiang District 211
360300 Pingxiang city3823.991,854,510 Anyuan District 23
360400 Jiujiang city18796.794,728,763 Xunyang District 373
360500 Xinyu city3177.681,138,873 Yushui District 11
360600 Yingtan city3556.741,124,906 Yuehu District 21
360700 Ganzhou city39317.148,368,440 Zhanggong District 3132
360800 Ji'an city25283.804,810,340 Jizhou District 2101
360900 Yichun city18637.675,419,575 Yuanzhou District 163
361000 Fuzhou city18811.123,912,312 Linchuan District 29
361100 Shangrao city22826.046,579,714 Xinzhou District 381

These prefecture-level cities are in turn subdivided into 100 county-level divisions (23 districts, 11 county-level cities, and 66 counties). Those in turn are divided into 1548 township-level divisions (770 towns, 651 townships, seven ethnic townships, and 120 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Jiangxi for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [14] District area [14] City proper [14] Census date
1 Nanchang [lower-alpha 1] 2,223,6612,357,8395,042,5662010-11-01
(1)Nanchang (new district) [lower-alpha 1] 390,719795,412see Nanchang2010-11-01
2 Pingxiang 716,229893,5501,854,5152010-11-01
3 Jiujiang [lower-alpha 2] 611,321704,9864,728,7782010-11-01
(3)Jiujiang (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 93,035159,909see Jiujiang2010-11-01
4 Ganzhou [lower-alpha 3] 605,231642,6538,368,4472010-11-01
(4)Ganzhou (new districts) [lower-alpha 3] 430,6801,334,600see Ganzhou2010-11-01
5 Xinyu 567,820839,4881,138,8742010-11-01
6 Fuzhou [lower-alpha 4] 482,9401,089,8883,912,3072010-11-01
(6)Fuzhou (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 169,404438,319see Fuzhou2010-11-01
7 Yichun 461,8171,045,9525,419,5912010-11-01
8 Jingdezhen 430,084473,5611,587,4772010-11-01
9 Fengcheng 379,9141,336,392see Yichun2010-11-01
10 Ji'an 328,318538,6994,810,3392010-11-01
11 Shangrao [lower-alpha 5] 298,975416,2196,579,7472010-11-01
(11)Shangrao (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 392,302752,953see Shangrao2010-11-01
12 Gao'an 295,507811,633see Yichun2010-11-01
13 Leping 286,351810,353see Jingdezhen2010-11-01
14 Ruijin 216,229618,885see Ganzhou2010-11-01
15 Guixi 210,319558,451see Yingtan2010-11-01
16 Yingtan [lower-alpha 6] 191,893214,2291,125,1562010-11-01
(16)Yingtan (new district) [lower-alpha 6] 131,470352,476see Yingtan2010-11-01
17 Zhangshu 188,586555,120see Yichun2010-11-01
18 Ruichang 150,531419,047see Jiujiang2010-11-01
19 Dexing 148,565293,201see Shangrao2010-11-01
(20) Gongqingcheng [lower-alpha 7] 118,986118,986see Jiujiang2010-11-01
(21) Lushan [lower-alpha 8] 101,630245,526see Jiujiang2010-11-01
22 Jinggangshan 86,673152,310see Ji'an2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Xinjian (Xinjian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Chaisang (Jiujiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New districts established after census: Nankang (Nankang CLC), Ganxian (Ganxian County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Dongxiang (Dongxiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Guangfeng (Guangfeng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Yujiang (Yujiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. Gongqingcheng CLC was established by splitting from parts of De'an County after census.
  8. Xingzi County is currently known as Lushan CLC after census.

Politics

The Politics of Jiangxi is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Jiangxi is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Jiangxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Jiangxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Jiangxi CPC Party Chief".

Economy

Rice is the dominant crop in Jiangxi. Cash crops commonly grown include cotton and rapeseed. Jiangxi is the leading producer of kumquats in China, particularly Suichuan County. [15]

Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium, thorium, tantalum, niobium, among others. Noted centers of mining include Dexing (copper) and Dayu County (tungsten).

It is located in extreme proximity to some of the richest provinces of China (Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian), which are sometimes blamed for taking away talent and capital from Jiangxi. [16]

Jiangxi has the lowest wages and third lowest property prices in all of China., [16] As of 2016 Jiangxi's nominal GDP was CNY 1.84 trillion or USD 276.48 billion, and a per capita of CNY 40,400 or USD 6,082. [17]

Historical GDP of Jiangxi Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008) [17]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [18] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20161,836,440276,477524,5629.040,400608211,5406.64233.5009
20151,672,378268,508471,1599.136,968593510,4156.22843.5495
20141,571,463255,822442,6169.734,89056809,8276.14283.5504
20131,441,019232,678402,86810.132,12251878,9806.19323.5769
20121,294,888205,131364,67511.028,96745898,1586.31253.5508
20111,170,282181,192333,84212.426,29240717,5006.45883.5055
2010945,126139,615285,48514.021,36831566,4546.76953.3106
2009765,518112,065242,44413.217,43725535,5226.83103.1575
2008697,105100,374219,43613.315,98623025,0326.94513.1768
2007580,02576,279192,38613.213,38917614,4417.60403.0149
2006482,05360,470167,51312.311,19714053,8917.97182.8777
2005405,67649,523141,89412.99,47811573,3158.19172.8590
2000200,30724,19673,6618.048515861,7848.27842.7193
1995116,97314,00742,8576.828963471,0618.35102.7294
199042,8628,96125,1744.511342376664.78321.7026
198520,7897,07914,83114.85972034262.93661.4017
198011,1157,4187,4324.23422282291.49841.4955
19788,7005,59513.32761771.5550

Economic and technological development zones

Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone is located in NanChang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, it was approved by the State Council on May 8, 2006, and passed the national acceptance inspection on Sep 7th, 2007. It has a planning area of 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) and now has built 0.31 km2 (0.12 sq mi). It enjoys simple and convenient customs clearances, and special preferential policies both for Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone and NCHDZ. [19]

Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone (NCHDZ for short hereafter) is the only national grade high-tech zoned in Jiangxi, it was established in Mar. 1991. The zone covers an area of 231 km2 (89 sq mi), in which 32 km2 (12 sq mi) have been completed. NCHDZ possesses unique nature condition and sound industry foundation of accepting electronics industry. NCHDZ has brought 25% industrial added value and 50% industrial benefit and tax to Nanchang city by using only 0.4% land area. [20]

Demographics

She ethnic townships in Jiangxi She ethnic townships in Jiangxi.png
She ethnic townships in Jiangxi

The population of Jiangxi is approximately 39.66 million. [22] 99.73% of that is Han Chinese, predominantly Gan and Hakka. Ganzhou, Jiangxi's largest city, has an especially large number of Hakka. Ethnic minorities include She.

Jiangxi and Henan both have the most unbalanced gender ratios of all Chinese provinces. Based on a 2009 British Medical Journal study, the ratio is over 140 boys for every 100 girls in the 1-4 age group. [23]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [24] 23,988,000    
1928 [25] 20,323,000−15.3%
1936-37 [26] 15,805,000−22.2%
1947 [27] 12,507,000−20.9%
1954 [28] 16,772,865+34.1%
YearPop.±%
1964 [29] 21,068,019+25.6%
1982 [30] 33,184,827+57.5%
1990 [31] 37,710,281+13.6%
2000 [32] 40,397,598+7.1%
2010 [33] 44,567,475+10.3%

In 2019 the most-common surname in Jiangxi was Liú (刘), the only province where this was the case. Overall Liu is the fourth-most common surname in the country. [34]

Religion

Religion in Jiangxi [35] [note 1]

   Christianity (2.31%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (73.64%)

The predominant religions in Jiangxi are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 24.05% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 2.31% of the population identifies as Christian. [35]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 73.64% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Culture

Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen. Porcelain Workshop, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi, China.jpg
Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen.

Jiangxi is the main area of concentration of the Gan varieties of Chinese, spoken over most of the northern two-thirds of the province. Examples include the Nanchang dialect, Yichun dialect and Ji'an dialect. The southern one-third of the province speaks Hakka. There are also Mandarin, Huizhou, and Wu dialects spoken along the northern border.

Ganju (Jiangxi opera) is the type of Chinese opera performed in Jiangxi.

Although little known outside of the province, Jiangxi cuisine is rich and distinctive. Flavors are some of the strongest in China, with heavy use of chili peppers and especially pickled and fermented products.

Jingdezhen is widely regarded as the producer of the best porcelain in China. [36]

Jiangxi also was a historical center of Chan Buddhism.

Prominent examples of Hakka architecture can be found in Jiangxi.

Transportation

As of January 2015, Jiangxi had two Yangtze River crossings, both in Jiujiang.

Rail

The Beijing–Kowloon Railway and Shanghai–Kunming Railway crisscross the province and intersect at Nanchang, which also has a high-speed rail link to Jiujiang. In addition, Jiangxi is connected by rail to Anhui Province via the Anhui–Jiangxi and Tongling–Jiujiang Railways; to Hubei via the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway; and to Fujian via the Yingtan–Xiamen, Hengfeng–Nanping, Ganzhou–Longyan and Xiangtang–Putian Railways.

Tourism

The mountain peaks of Lushan National Park. Mount Lushan - fog.JPG
The mountain peaks of Lushan National Park.

There are several famous mountains in Jiangxi Province, including Mount Lu in Jiujiang city, Mount jinggang at the boarder of jiangxi province and Hunan province, Mount Sanqing in Yushan county.

Near the northern port city of Jiujiang lies the well-known resort area of Mount Lu. Also near the city is the Donglin (East Wood) Temple , one important Buddhist temple in china.

Near the small city of Yingtan is the resort area of Longhushan, which purports to be the birthplace of Taoism and hence has great symbolic value to Taoists. The region has many temples, cave complexes, mountains and villages.

The Lushan National Park has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996.

In 2007, Jiangxi (specifically the Zhelin Reservoir, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Nanchang) was the filming location for the fifteenth series of the American TV show Survivor .

Flora and fauna

The mountainous terrain and large forest coverage of Jiangxi has made it historically one of the more wild places of central China. South China tigers have been seen as recently as fifteen or twenty years ago and projects are underway to document evidence of existing tigers, if there are any. Several mountain areas along the northern border with Hunan and Hubei are potential sites for "wilderness" preserves specifically for protecting or even reintroducing tigers.

Other wildlife, though not plentiful, are more numerous in Jiangxi than in many other developed areas of China. Numerous species of birds are common, especially around the marshes of Lake Poyang in the north. Though protected, mammals such as muntjac, wild boar, civet cats, and pangolins, are still common enough that they'll even occasionally be seen in markets for sale as game meat, or possibly even in a forest.

The late Paleocene mesonychid, Jiangxia chaotoensis was found in the province, and named after it.

Education

Colleges and universities

Sister Provinces

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [35] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:

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Anhui is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the East China region. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a short section in the north.

Wuchang District District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, and stood on the right (southeastern) bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River. The two other cities, Hanyang and Hankou, were on the left (northwestern) bank, separated from each other by the Han River.

Shaanxi Province in Northwest China

Shaanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).

Henan Province of China

Henan is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is a birthplace of Chinese civilization, with over 3,000 years of recorded history and remained China's cultural, economical and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago.

Hunan Province of China

Hunan is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the South Central China region. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed, it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west and Chongqing to the northwest. Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous province by population and the 10th most extensive province by area. Its 2018 nominal GDP was more than 500 billion USD, which is among the top 30th largest sub-national economy in the world with its PPP GDP over 1 trillion USD.

Jiangsu Province of China

Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, as well as tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.

Jilin Province of China

Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. The name "Jilin" originates from ᡤᡳᡵᡳᠨ a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river".

Guizhou Province of China

Guizhou is a landlocked province in the southwest of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the central part of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to the south, Yunnan to the west, Sichuan to the northwest, the municipality of Chongqing to the north, and Hunan to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 34 million, ranking 19th among the provinces in China.

Heilongjiang Province of China

Heilongjiang is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.

Qinghai Province of China

Qinghai is a landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. As one of the largest province-level administrative divisions of China by area, the province is ranked fourth largest in area and has the third smallest population. Its capital and largest city is Xining.

Nanchang Prefecture-level city in Jiangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Nanchang is the capital and largest city of Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China. As of November 2017, the total population in Nanchang City was 5,246,600, while the urban population is 2,887,800. Located in the north-central part of the province and in the hinterland of Poyang Lake Plain, it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake. Because of its strategic location connecting the prosperous East and South China, it has become a major railway hub in Southern China in recent decades.

East China Place

East China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.

Autonomous regions of China Peoples Republic of China province-level subdivision

An autonomous region is a first-level administrative division of China. Like Chinese provinces, an autonomous region has its own local government, but an autonomous region has more legislative rights. An autonomous region is the highest level of minority autonomous entity in China, which has a comparably higher population of a particular minority ethnic group.

Shangluo Prefecture-level city in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Shangluo is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shaanxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Henan to the northeast and Hubei to the southeast. Part of the Shannan region of the province, it is located in the eastern part of the Qin Mountains. The name, Shangluo, comes from Han Dynasty when four famous people were settled in Shang Mountain to avoid war and famine.

Ezhou Prefecture-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Ezhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hubei Province, China. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 1,048,668, of which 668,727 lived in the core Echeng District. The Ezhou - Huanggang built-up area was home to 1,035,496 inhabitants from the Echeng and Huangzhou, Huanggang Districts.

Yangxin County, Hubei County in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Yangxin County is a county within the prefecture-level city of Huangshi in southeastern Hubei province, People's Republic of China. The county is mostly rural but is more prosperous than its neighbor, Tongshan County. According to the Fifth Population Census of China (2000), the county's population was 949,102 giving it a population density of 341 people per square kilometer.

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