Metropolis

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Skyline of Tokyo, the world's most populous metropolis, with Mount Fuji in the background Skyscrapers of Shinjuku 2009 January.jpg
Skyline of Tokyo, the world's most populous metropolis, with Mount Fuji in the background
New York has garnered the nickname Metropolis to describe the city in the daytime in popular culture, contrasting with Gotham, sometimes used to describe New York at night. Pano Manhattan2007 amk.jpg
New York has garnered the nickname Metropolis to describe the city in the daytime in popular culture, contrasting with Gotham , sometimes used to describe New York at night.

A metropolis ( /mɪˈtrɒpəlɪs/ ) [2] is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Ancient Greek (μητρόπολις) and means the "mother city" of a colony (in the ancient sense), that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation.

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A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which is not the core of that agglomeration, is not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. The plural of the word is metropolises, [3] although the Latin plural is metropoles, from the Greek metropoleis (μητρoπόλεις).

For urban centers outside metropolitan areas that generate a similar attraction on a smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis ("regio" for short) was introduced by urban and regional planning researchers in Germany in 2006. [4]

Etymology

Metropolis (μητρόπολις) is a Greek word, coming from μήτηρ, mḗtēr meaning "mother" and πόλις, pólis meaning "city" or "town", which is how the Greek colonies of antiquity referred to their original cities, with whom they retained cultic and political-cultural connections. The word was used in post-classical Latin for the chief city of a province, the seat of the government and, in particular, ecclesiastically for the seat or see of a metropolitan bishop to whom suffragan bishops were responsible. [5] This usage equates the province with the diocese or episcopal see. [6]

Africa

Cairo Skyline Nile-Cairo.jpg
Cairo Skyline
Casablanca city Metropolis Casablanca Metropolis.jpg
Casablanca city Metropolis

Angola

Luanda is the capital and largest city in Angola. It is Angola's primary port, and its major industrial, cultural and urban centre. Its metropolitan area is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city in the world, with over 8.3 million inhabitants. [7]

Democratic Republic of Congo

Kinshasa is a megacity with a population of about 15 million. Kinshasa is Africa's third-largest urban area after Cairo and Lagos. [8] It is projected to be one of the ten biggest cities in the world in 2050. [9]

Egypt

Cairo [8] and Alexandria are considered Egypt's biggest metropolises.

Ethiopia

Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia, and where the African Union is headquartered. As of 2008 the metro population is approximately 4.5 million. [10]

Ghana

Accra is an economic and administrative hub, and serves as the anchor of the larger Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA). [11]

Ivory Coast

According to the 2014 census, Abidjan's population was 4.7 million, which is 20 percent of the overall population of the country, and this also makes it the sixth most populous city proper in Africa, after Lagos, Cairo, Kinshasa, Dar es Salaam, and Johannesburg. It has officially been designated as the "economic capital" of the country. In 2020 the Urban area population was over 5 million inhabitants. [12]

Kenya

Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya. The city proper had a population of 4,397,073 in the 2019 census, while the metropolitan area has a population of 9,354,580. [13]

Nigeria

Lagos is projected to be one of the ten biggest cities in the world in 2050. [8] As of 2015, unofficial figures put the population of "Greater Metropolitan Lagos", which includes Lagos and its surrounding metro area, extending as far as into Ogun State, at approximately 21 million. [14] [15]

Tanzania

With a population increase of 5.6 percent per year from 2002 to 2012, Dar es Salaam is the third-fastest-growing city in Africa, after Bamako and Lagos, and the ninth-fastest-growing in the world. The metro population is expected to reach 15.12 million by 2020. [16] [17]

Uganda

Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda. Kampala's metropolitan area is estimated at 6,709,900 people in 2019 by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics [18] in an area of 8,451.9 square kilometres (3,263.3 sq mi). Kampala is reported to be among the fastest-growing cities in Africa, with an annual population growth rate of 4.03 percent. [19]

Asia

Afghanistan

The capital city, Kabul, has grown to become the country's sole metropolis, and is the only city with more than one million people. [20]

Bangladesh

Dhaka is Bangladesh's largest city Dhaka night (29254803070).jpg
Dhaka is Bangladesh's largest city

In the People's Republic of Bangladesh, there are eleven metropolitan areas: Dhaka North, Dhaka South, Gazipur, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Sylhet, Barisal, and Rangpur. Lands are highly priced and residents are considered to have a better urban lifestyle. Special police departments are allotted for the metropolitan cities, and there are city corporations for which mayors are elected for five-year regimes. Most of these cities have population density of 35,000/square mile or more. Dhaka is the wealthiest city out of all of them and is considered a Megacity because its population surpassed 10 million. [21]

China

Shanghai is the largest city in China Shanghai skyline unsplash.jpg
Shanghai is the largest city in China

China(People's Republic of China) is the fourth-largest country by geographical area and the most populous country with over 1.4 billion people and is also known for its large number of metropoles, with recognised "tiers" that classify mainland metropoles. Nationally, the largest metropoles include Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, the first four being the "First-Tier Cities" (一线城市). Second-tier cities are numerous and consist of regional centres, such as Nanjing, Chongqing, Chengdu, Shenyang, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Wuhan, Changsha, Xi'an, Jinan, Qingdao, etc. Many of China's metropoles constitute a city cluster, such as the Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis and the Pearl River Delta.

India

India; (Republic of India) is the seventh-largest country by geographical area and the second-most populous country with over 1.3 billion people. The 74th Amendment to the Indian Constitution defines a metropolitan area as an area having a population of 10 Lakh or 1 Million or more, comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or more Municipalities or Panchayats or other contiguous areas, specified by the Governor by public notification to be a Metropolitan area. The important Metropolises in India are Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, , Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Visakhapatnam, Kochi, Patna, Bangalore

Indonesia

Jakarta, the largest and busiest city in Indonesia Kuningan Skyline from Transjakarta Corridor 13.jpg
Jakarta, the largest and busiest city in Indonesia

In Indonesia, the metropolitan cities are in Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi), the biggest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia and the fifth metropolitan area in the world (2007). The other cities are Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang and Medan.

Iran

Tehran is Iran's largest city North of Tehran Skyline view.jpg
Tehran is Iran's largest city

In Iran, the metropolitan cities are in Tehran and Mashhad, and other cities such as Shiraz, Karaj, Isfahan, Tabriz, Ahvaz, and Kermanshah.

Japan

The Japanese legal term to (都) is by designation to be translated as "metropolis". [22] however existing translations predate the designation. Structured like a prefecture instead of a normal city, there is only one to in Japan, namely Tokyo. As of 2020, Japan has 12 other cities with populations greater than one million. The same Kanji character in Chinese, or in generic Japanese (traditional or non-specific), translates variously—city, municipality, special municipality—all qualify.

Kazakhstan

In Kazakhstan, Almaty is the largest city whilst the capital Nur-Sultan is the second largest, Shymkent is the third largest city, all three having populations of over one million each.

Lebanon

Beirut, Sidon, and Tripoli are three of the main metropolitan areas along the Lebanese coast. Most of Lebanon's metropolitan areas and biggest cities are situated along the coast.

Pakistan

According to the census of 2017, there are about 12 metropolitan areas in Pakistan each with a metro population of at least 2 million and city proper population of at least 0.5 million. [23] [24] [25] Karachi is the largest metropolitan area of Pakistan with a population of about 16.01 million, followed by Lahore (11.12 million), Faisalabad (7.873 million), Islamabad-Rawalpindi (7.412 million), Gujranwala (5.01 million), Multan (4.745 million), Peshawar (4.269 million), Sargodha (3.903 million), Sialkot (3.893 million), Bahawalpur (3.668 million), Quetta (2.275 million) and Hyderabad (2.199 million). [26]

Philippines

Metro Manila, the most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines Ortigas Tonight.jpg
Metro Manila, the most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines

The Philippines has three metropolises as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority. They are Manila, Cebu, and Davao [27]

Metropolitan Manila, or Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the city of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines. It is composed of 17 cities namely Manila, Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Pasig, Parañaque, Quezon City, San Juan, Taguig, Valenzuela and Pateros. The region is the political, economic, social, cultural, and educational center of the Philippines. As proclaimed by Presidential Decree No. 940, Metro Manila as a whole is the Philippines' seat of government but the city of Manila is the capital. The largest city in the metropolis is Quezon City, while the largest business district is the Makati Central Business District.

Singapore

Skyline of Singapore metropolis Aerial view of the Civic District, Singapore River and Central Business District, Singapore - 20080518.jpg
Skyline of Singapore metropolis

The Republic of Singapore is a sovereign city-state and a metropolis.

South Korea

In the Republic of Korea there are seven special and metropolitan cities at autonomous administrative levels. These are the most populous metropolitan areas in the country. In decreasing order of the population of 2015 census, they are Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju and Ulsan.

According to the census of 2015, cities of Changwon and Suwon also qualify for being elevated to the level of metropolitan cities (having population over 1 million), but any future plans to promote them into metropolitan city are unlikely to be accepted because of political concerns about the structure of administrative divisions. There are also some county-level cities with increasing population near 1 million, namely Goyang, Yongin, and Seongnam, but they are also unlikely to be promoted into metropolitan city because they are all satellite cities of Seoul.

Sri Lanka

The City of Colombo is the largest city in Sri Lanka. The Colombo Metropolitan Area is Sri Lanka's most urbanized region with a population of over 5 million people. [28] [29] [30] [31]

Taiwan

Taipei, the largest city in Taiwan, is the political, economic, and cultural center of the Taiwanese. The Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area consists of 4 administrative regions (Taipei, New Taipei, Keelung, and Taoyuan) with a total of more than 9 million people inhabited. [32] It also houses the largest international airport in Taiwan and the 36th busiest airport in the world – Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport, which has an annual passenger traffic of nearly 50 million.

The second largest metropolis in Taiwan is Kaohsiung, which is both the economic and cultural center of southern Taiwan with the largest sea port in Taiwan – the Kaohsiung Port and the second busiest international airport in Taiwan – Kaohsiung International Airport. It has a population of nearly 3 million inhabitants. [33]

Turkey

Levent, Istanbul, Turkey Istanbul IMG 7257 1725.jpg
Levent, Istanbul, Turkey

In Turkey the metropolitan cities are described as "büyükşehir". There are 30 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey now. The largest by far is İstanbul, followed by Ankara, İzmir and Bursa.

United Arab Emirates

Skyline of Dubai Dubai Skyline mit Burj Khalifa (18241030269).jpg
Skyline of Dubai

There are 8 metropolises in the UAE: Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Al Ain, Ajman, Ras Al-Khaimah, Fujairah, and Umm Al-Quwain. Of these, Dubai is the largest. [34]

Uzbekistan

Tashkent is Uzbekistan's most populous city and the only with over one million residents.

Europe

Austria

Vienna is the capital city of Austria, an old imperial city, and the seat of many international organisations, including OPEC, as well as hosting a main office of the United Nations. Together with its cultural acumen and history, these features make Vienna a true global metropolis, the only one in Austria.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo, the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo City Panorama.JPG
Sarajevo, the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, seat of the country's Presidency, government, parliament and the only metropolis in the country. [35]

Czech Republic

Prague is the Czech Republic's only metropolis, with more than 1.3 million people living within the city limits and with more than 2.6 million living in its metropolitan area. This makes the Prague metropolitan area one of largest in Europe. [36]

Denmark

In Denmark the only metropolis is the capital, Copenhagen, situated in the Capital Region of Denmark. It has more than 750,000 people living in city proper and 1.28 million in its urban area. [37]

Finland

Finland's capital, Helsinki, along with the neighboring areas (including Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa) forms a metropolitan area with an approximate population of 1.45 million people. This area is the only metropolis in the country.

France

A 2014 law allowed any group of communes to cooperate in a larger administrative division called a métropole . One métropole, Lyon, also has status as a department.

France's national statistics institute, Insee, designates 12 of the country's urban areas as metropolitan areas. Paris, Lyon and Marseille are the biggest, the other nine being Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, Nice, Nantes, Strasbourg, Rennes, Grenoble and Montpellier. [38]

Germany

The largest German city by administrative borders is Berlin, while Rhine-Ruhr is the largest metropolitan area (with more than 10 million people). The importance of a city is measured with three groups of indicators, also called metropolitan functions: The decision making and control function, the innovation and competition function, and the gateway function. These functions are seen as key domains for metropolitan regions in developing their performance.

In spatial planning, a metropolis is usually observed within its regional context, thus the focus is mainly set on the metropolitan regions. These regions can be mono central or multi central. Eleven metropolitan regions have been defined due to these indicators: Berlin-Brandenburg, Bremen-Oldenburg, Dresden-Halle-Leipzig, Frankfurt-Rhine-Main, Hamburg, Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg, Munich, Nuremberg, Rhine-Neckar, Rhine-Ruhr (with Cologne/Bonn), and Stuttgart. [39]

Hungary

Budapest has a population of 1 750 000, more than eight times the population of the second largest city, Debrecen.

Italy

As of January 1, 2015, there are 14 "metropolitan cities" in Italy. Rome, Milan, Naples and other big cores have taken in urban zones from their surrounding areas and merged them into the new entities, which have been home for one out of three Italians. The provinces remained in the parts of the country not belonging to any Città Metropolitana. [40]

Netherlands

The Randstad is in the Blue Banana and encompasses both the Amsterdam metropolitan area and Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area.

Poland

Warsaw, the capital and largest city of Poland Warsaw skyline Swietokrzyski Bridge.jpg
Warsaw, the capital and largest city of Poland

The Union of Polish Metropoles (Polish : Unia Metropolii Polskich ), established in 1990, is an organization of the largest cities in the country. Currently twelve cities are members of the organization, of which 11 have more than a quarter-million inhabitants. The largest metropolitan area in Poland, if ranked solely by the number of inhabitants, is the Silesian Metropolis (in fact a metroplex), with around 3 million inhabitants (5 million inhabitants in the Silesian metropolitan area), followed by Warsaw, with around 1.7 million inhabitants in the city proper and 3.1 million in the Warsaw metropolitan area. The Silesian Metropolis is an initiative of recent years attempting to unite a large conurbation into one official urban unit. Other Polish metropoles are Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Tricity, Szczecin and Bydgoszcz.

Romania

Romania has one big metropolis, Bucharest with a population of around 2.5 million people. Other metropolitan areas with populations of about half a million people are Cluj-Napoca, Iași, Timișoara, Brașov, Constanța, Galați and Craiova.

Russia

Moscow is the capital and largest city of Russia, with a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits, [41] while over 17 million residents in the urban area, [42] and over 20 million residents in the Moscow Metropolitan Area. [43] Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe, [42] the most populous metropolitan area in Europe, [43] and also the largest city by land area on the European continent. [44] Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants. [45] Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk.

Spain

Spain has around 15 metropolitan areas with a population greater than 500,000 people. The largest is Madrid, located in the center of the Iberian peninsula and its the seat of the government and the monarch of Spain, with a metropolitan area of almost 7 million people surpassing the limits of its own autonomous community and making it one of the largest of Europe; Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain its metropolitan area comprise 5.5 million people with its limits surpassing its own province, other large cities are Valencia, and Sevilla.

London is the largest city in the UK City of London skyline from London City Hall - Oct 2008.jpg
London is the largest city in the UK

United Kingdom

In the UK, the term the Metropolis was used to refer to London, or the London conurbation. The term is retained by the London police force, the Metropolitan Police Service (the "Met"). The chief officer of the Metropolitan Police is formally known as the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. Since 1974 six conurbations (outside London) have been known as metropolitan counties, each divided into metropolitan districts. Other conurbations in the United Kingdom are also sometimes considered to be metropolitan areas, most notably South Yorkshire (centred on the city of Sheffield), the West Midlands (centred on the city of Birmingham), West Yorkshire (centred on the city of Leeds), Merseyside (centred on the city of Liverpool), Greater Manchester and Greater Glasgow which make up the most densely populated areas in the British Isles outside London.

North America

Canada

Canada's six largest metropoles are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core where the urban core has a population of at least 100,000. [46] Canada's most populated metropole is the City of Toronto, with a population of 2.7 million and a metropolitan population of over 6 million people. It is also the heart of Canada's finance and banking industry.

Mexico City is Mexico's capital and largest city Ciudad.de.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Paseo.Reforma.Skyline.jpg
Mexico City is Mexico's capital and largest city

Mexico

In Mexico, the term metropolis is used to refer to an urban area of economic, political, and cultural importance. Mexico City represents all three factors as it is the country's capital and financial center with 27 million people. Other metropolises are Monterrey and Guadalajara, both metropolitan areas with a population over 6,000,000 inhabitants.

New York is the largest city in the U.S. Top of Rock Cropped.jpg
New York is the largest city in the U.S.

United States

In the United States, an incorporated area or group of areas having a population more than 50,000 is required to have a metropolitan planning organization in order to facilitate major infrastructure projects and to ensure financial solvency. Thus, a population of 50,000 or greater has been used as a de facto standard to define a metropolis in the United States. A similar definition is used by the United States Census Bureau. The bureau defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area as "at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants." The six largest metropolitan areas in the USA are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, and Washington, D.C., with New York being the largest.

Oceania

Australia

The Government of Australia defines a metropolitan area as any statistical division or district with a population of more than 100,000. [47] According to this definition, there are at least 16 metropolitan areas in Australia, including every state capital. By population the largest of these metropolitan areas is Sydney (urban area population at 2016 Census of 5,029,768) and the smallest is Darwin, Northern Territory (Urban area population at 2016 census of 145,916). [48]

South America

Aerial view of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires - Monserrat - Avenida 9 de Julio.jpg
Aerial view of Buenos Aires
Sao Paulo is Brazil's largest city Skyline of Sao Paulo at dusk (318298).jpg
São Paulo is Brazil's largest city
Financial district of Santiago, Chile. J28 293 >>Sanhattan<<.jpg
Financial district of Santiago, Chile.

Argentina

In Argentina, Buenos Aires is the principal metropolis with a population of around fifteen and a half million. [49] The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the third-largest conurbation in Latin America. [50] Buenos Aires is the main political, financial, industrial, commercial, and cultural hub of Argentina.

Brazil

In Brazil, the Greater São Paulo is the principal metropolis with over 21 million inhabitants. In the larger cities, such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (population 6.3 million), favelas (slums) grew up over decades as people migrated from rural areas in order to find work. The term used in Brazilian Portuguese for a metropolitan area is Região Metropolitana. Other metropolises in Brazil with more than one million inhabitants include: Belém, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Campinas, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Maceió, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador and São Luís.

Chile

The primary metropolis in Chile is its capital: the city of Santiago, with a population of 7 million, living across its metropolitan area. Santiago is the main political, financial, industrial, commercial, and cultural hub of Chile. The other two metropolises in the country are the conurbations of Valparaíso and Concepción with a population of nearly 1 million each.

Colombia

In Colombia, Bogotá is the main metropolis with over 13 million inhabitants residing in its Metropolitan Area, which includes boroughs like Soacha, Mosquera, Cota, and Chía. The second metropolis in Colombia is Medellín, which includes such boroughs as Envigado, Itagüi, La Estrella, and Sabaneta. This metropolitan area is known for having the first and only Metro in Colombia, the Medellín Metro. Bogotá has the Transmilenio, a Rapid Transit Metro-bus system.

Peru

The Lima metropolitan area is Peru's capital and largest city with over 10 million inhabitants, more than one third of the total national population.

Metropolis as a mainland area

In France, Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands, the word metropolis (métropole (Fr.) / metrópole (Port.) / metrópoli (Spa.) / metropool (Dutch)) designates the mainland part of a country situated on or close to the European mainland; in the case of France, this means France without its overseas departments. For Portugal and Spain during the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire period, the term was used to designate Portugal or Spain minus its colonies (the Ultramar). In France métropole can also be used to refer to a large urban agglomeration; for example, "La Métropole de Lyon" (the Lyon Metropolis).

See also

Other city types

Lists

Planning theories

Others

Related Research Articles

Megacity metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people

A megacity is a very large city, typically with a population of more than 10 million people. Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2018 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban agglomerations having over 10 million inhabitants. A University of Bonn report held that they are "usually defined as metropolitan areas with a total population of 10 million or more people". Others list cities satisfying criteria of either 5 or 8 million and also have a population density of 2,000 per square kilometre. The terms conurbation, metropolis, and metroplex are also applied to the latter.

Metropolitan area Region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated but economically-linked surroundings

A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative jurisdiction, sharing industries, commercial areas, transport network, infrastructures and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, and even states and nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions.

Lagos Metropolis in Nigeria

Lagos is the second most populous city in Africa with a population of 14.8 million as of 2015 within the city proper. The Lagos metropolitan area has a total population of roughly 23.5 million as of 2018, making it the most populous conurbation in Africa. Lagos is a major African financial centre and is the economic hub of Lagos State and Nigeria at large. Lagos is also among the top ten of the worlds fastest growing cities and urban areas. The megacity has the fourth-highest GDP in Africa and houses one of the largest and busiest seaports on the continent. It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world.

Conurbation Group of settlements linked by continuous urban area

A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area.

Greater Tokyo Area Place in Japan

The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, consisting of the Kantō region of Japan as well as the prefecture of Yamanashi of the neighboring Chūbu region. In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, one of the most common being Capital Region.

Rhine-Ruhr Urban area in Germany

The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is the largest metropolitan region in Germany, with over ten million inhabitants. A polycentric conurbation with several major urban concentrations, the region covers an area of 7,268 square kilometres (2,806 sq mi), entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region spreads from the Ruhr area (Dortmund-Essen-Duisburg-Bochum) in the north to the urban areas of the cities of Mönchengladbach, Düsseldorf, Wuppertal, Leverkusen, Cologne, and Bonn in the south. The location of the Rhine-Ruhr at the heart of the European Blue Banana makes it well connected to other major European cities and metropolitan areas such as the Randstad, the Flemish Diamond and the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region.

Lagos State State of Nigeria

Lagos sometimes referred to as Lagos State to distinguish it from Lagos Metropolitan Area, is a state located in the southwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The smallest in area of Nigeria's 36 states, with a population of over 15 million, Lagos State is arguably the most economically important state of the country, containing Lagos, the nation's largest urban area. It is a major financial centre and would be the fifth-largest economy in Africa if it were a country.

Randstad Conurbation in Netherlands

The Randstad is a conurbation in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities and their surrounding areas. Among other things, it contains the Port of Rotterdam, the Port of Amsterdam, and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. With a population of approximately 8.4 million people it is one of the largest metropolitan regions in Europe, comparable in population size to the Milan metropolitan area or the San Francisco Bay Area, and covers an area of approximately 8,287 km2 (3,200 sq mi). With a population density of 1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi) it also is one of the most important and densely populated economic areas in northwestern Europe. It encompasses both the Amsterdam metropolitan area and Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area. It is part of the larger Blue Banana megalopolis.

Biobío Region Region of Chile

The Biobío Region, is one of Chile's sixteen regions. With a population of 1.5 million, thus being the third most populated region in Chile, it is divided into three provinces: Arauco, Biobío and Concepción. The latter contains its capital and largest city, Concepción, a major city and metro area in the country. Los Ángeles, capital of the Biobío Province, is another important city in the region.

Urban area Human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment

An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets; in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources led to a human impact on the environment. "Agglomeration effects" are in the list of the main consequences of increased rates of firm creation since. This is due to conditions created by a greater level of industrial activity in a given region. However, a favorable environment for human capital development would also be generated simultaneously.

Greater Helsinki Metropolitan area in Uusimaa, Finland

Greater Helsinki is the metropolitan area surrounding Helsinki, the capital city of Finland. It includes the smaller Capital Region urban area.

Greater Glasgow Human settlement in United Kingdom

Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area. It does not relate to municipal government boundaries and its territorial extent is defined by the General Register Office for Scotland, which determines settlements in Scotland for census and statistical purposes. Greater Glasgow had a population of 1,199,629 at the time of the 2001 UK Census making it the largest urban area in Scotland and the fifth-largest in the United Kingdom. However, the population estimate for the Greater Glasgow 'settlement' in mid-2016 was 985,290 – the reduced figure explained by the removal of the Motherwell & Wishaw (124,790), Coatbridge & Airdrie (91,020) and Hamilton (83,730) settlement areas east of the city due to small gaps between the populated postcodes. The 'new towns' of Cumbernauld and East Kilbride (75,120) were never included in these figures despite their close ties to Glasgow due to having a clear geographical separation from the city.

City proper Geographical area contained within the defined boundary of a city

A city proper is the geographical area contained within city limits. The term, proper, is not exclusive to cities; it can describe the geographical area within the boundaries of any given locality. The United Nations defines the term as "the single political jurisdiction which contains the historical city centre."

The metropolitan areas of Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city. The phenomenon of metropolization in Mexico is relatively recent, starting in the 1940s, and due to the accelerated level of urbanization in the country, the definition of a metropolitan area is reviewed periodically by the Mexican population and census authorities.

Copenhagen metropolitan area

The Copenhagen metropolitan area or Metropolitan Copenhagen is a large commuter belt surrounding Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It includes Copenhagen Municipality, Frederiksberg and surrounding municipalities stretching westward across Zealand. It has a densely-populated core surrounded by suburban settlements.

Greater Rio de Janeiro Human settlement in Brazil

Greater Rio de Janeiro, officially the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America. It consists of 22 municipalities, including the state capital, Rio de Janeiro.

Katowice urban area

The Katowice urban area, also known as the Upper Silesian urban area, is an urban area/conurbation in southern Poland, centered on Katowice. It is located in the Silesian Voivodeship and in a small part of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The Katowice urban area is the largest urban area in Poland and one of the largest in the European Union.

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Further reading