Municipal corporation

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A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

Municipal corporation as local self-government

Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town.[ citation needed ]

Canada

In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities.

India

Chennai Corporation headquarters Ripon Building panorama.jpg
Chennai Corporation headquarters

The Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world outside the United Kingdom. [4]

Ireland

The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils"; other borough corporations were renamed "borough councils". [5]

After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Waterford (county boroughs) and Drogheda, Kilkenny, Sligo, Clonmel, and Wexford (non-county boroughs). Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as "The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire". [6] Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937; it was formally styled "the Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Galway", [7] but referred to as "the Corporation". [8]

New Zealand

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand. The term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. [9]

United States

Municipal corporation as enterprises

Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed primarily by local government officials, and with majority public ownership". [1] Some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, [2] although this is not always the case. [1] Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, and follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services. [3] They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. [1]

See also

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Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County in the Republic of Ireland

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Galway City Council

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Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 United Kingdom legislation

The Municipal Corporations Act (Ireland) 1840, An Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in Ireland, was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 10 August 1840. It was one of the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Acts 1840 to 1888.

The Local Government Act, 2001 was enacted by the Oireachtas of Ireland on 21 July 2001. Most of the provisions of the Act came into operation on 1 January 2002. The act was a restatement and amendment of previous legislation, which was centred on the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898. The 2001 act remains in force, although significantly amended by the Local Government Reform Act 2014.

Corporation of Dún Laoghaire

The Corporation of Dún Laoghaire was a local authority in County Dublin, in the Ireland from 1930 to 1994, covering the municipal borough of Dún Laoghaire.

Dublin County was a parliamentary constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas from 1921 to 1969. The method of election was the single transferable vote form of proportional representation (PR-STV).

In local government in the Republic of Ireland, the chief executive of a city or county is the senior permanent official of its local authority. Whereas the county council and city council are elected officials who formulate policy, the chief executive is an appointed official who manages the implementation of policy. The position was introduced in 1929–42 based on the American council–manager government model, and until 2014 the chief executive was styled the county manager or city manager. Their salaries range from €132,511 to €189,301 per annum. The County and City Management Association is the professional association for chief executives, and it is affiliated to the International City/County Management Association (ICMA).

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council is the authority responsible for local government in the county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Ireland. It is one of three local authorities that comprised the former Dublin County Council before its abolition and one of four councils in the Dublin Region. As a county council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001. The council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transportation, urban planning and development, amenity and culture, and environment. The council has 40 elected members. Elections are held every five years and are by single transferable vote. The head of the council has the title of Cathaoirleach (Chairperson). The county administration is headed by a Chief Executive, Philomena Poole. The county town is Dún Laoghaire. It serves a population of approximately 206,260.

City status in Ireland

In Ireland, the term city has somewhat differing meanings in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

Galway is a barony in Ireland, comprising the city of Galway and parts of the surrounding county of Galway. It is coterminous with the former County of the Town of Galway, a county corporate created by the town's 1610 charter and abolished by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.

County Hall, Dún Laoghaire

County Hall is a municipal facility in Marine Road, Dún Laoghaire in the county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Ireland.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Voorn, Bart, Marieke L. Van Genugten, and Sandra Van Thiel (2017) (2017). "The efficiency and effectiveness of municipally owned corporations: A systematic review" (PDF). Local Government Studies. 43 (5): 820–841. doi:10.1080/03003930.2017.1319360. hdl:2066/176125.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. 1 2 Tavares, Antonio F., and Pedro J. Camoes (2007) (2007). "Local service delivery choices in Portugal: A political transaction costs network". Local Government Studies. 33 (4): 535–553. doi:10.1080/03003930701417544.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. 1 2 Grossi, G., and Reichard, C. (2008) (2008). "Municipal corporatization in Germany and Italy". Public Management Review. 10 (5): 597–617. doi:10.1080/14719030802264275.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. "The first corporation". Chennai: The Hindu. 2003-04-02. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  5. "Local Government Act, 2001". Irish Statute Book . p. §11(3), §11(4), Schedule 2. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  6. "Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1930, Section 3". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  7. "Local Government (Galway) Act, 1937, Section 3". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  8. "Local Government (Galway) Act, 1937, Section 2". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  9. "New Zealand Constitution Act 1852". Victoria University of Wellington - New Zealand Electronic Text Collection. 30 June 1852. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
Municipal incorporation
Municipal disincorporation / dissolution