Municipal corporation

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A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. [1] The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

Municipal corporation as local self-government

Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town.[ citation needed ]

Canada

In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities.

India

Chennai Corporation headquarters Ripon Building panorama.jpg
Chennai Corporation headquarters

The Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world outside the United Kingdom. [4]

Ireland

The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils"; other borough corporations were renamed "borough councils". [5]

After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Waterford (county boroughs) and Drogheda, Kilkenny, Sligo, Clonmel, and Wexford (non-county boroughs). Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as "The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire". [6] Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937; it was formally styled "the Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Galway", [7] but referred to as "the Corporation". [8]

New Zealand

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand. The term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. [9]

United Kingdom

The ancient boroughs of England and Wales were typically incorporated by a royal charter, though some were boroughs by prescription. The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 and Municipal Corporations Act 1882 abolished the corporations of rotten boroughs and other small rural areas. The Local Government Act 1888 aligned the powers of the remaining borough corporations with those of the new urban district councils. All borough corporations were replaced under the Local Government Act 1972 with councils not designated as "corporations", with the exception of the City of London Corporation.

The corporations of the burghs of Scotland were similar in origin and were reformed or replaced in the nineteenth century before being abolished by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. The Irish borough corporations within what is now Northern Ireland were reformed by the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 and Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 and replaced by the Local Government Act (Northern Ireland) 1972.

United States

Municipal corporation as enterprises

Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed primarily by local government officials, and with majority public ownership". [1] Some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, [2] although this is not always the case. [1] Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, and follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services. [3] They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Dublin City Council Local government authority for Dublin City in Ireland

Dublin City Council is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Dublin in Ireland. As a city council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001. Until 2001, the council was known as "Dublin Corporation". The council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transportation, urban planning and development, amenity and culture and environment. The council has 63 elected members and is the largest local council in Ireland. Elections are held every five years and are by single transferable vote. The head of the council has the honorific title of Lord Mayor. The city administration is headed by a Chief Executive, Owen Keegan. The council meets at City Hall, Dublin.

Dublin County Council was a local authority for the administrative county of County Dublin in Ireland.

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County in Ireland

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Dublin Region in the province of Leinster. It is named after the former borough of Dún Laoghaire and the barony of Rathdown. Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 218,018 at the time of the 2016 census.

Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002. Broadly similar structures existed in Scotland from 1833 to 1975 with the reform of royal burghs and creation of police burghs.

Galway City Council

Galway City Council is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Galway in Ireland. As a city council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001. The council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transportation, urban planning and development, amenity and culture, and environment. The council has 18 elected members. Elections are held every five years and are by single transferable vote. The head of the council has the title of Mayor. The city administration is headed by a Chief Executive, Brendan McGrath. The council meets at City Hall, College Road, Galway.

A Vocational Education Committee (VEC) was a statutory local education body in the Republic of Ireland that administered some secondary education, most adult education and a very small amount of primary education in the state. Before 1992 VECs had authority over the Dublin Institute of Technology and the Regional Technical Colleges. They existed from 1930 to 2013, when they were replaced by Education and Training Boards.

The office of Mayor of Galway is an honorific title used by the Irish: Cathaoirleach of Galway City Council. The council has jurisdiction throughout its administrative area of the city of Galway which is the largest city in the province of Connacht, in Ireland. The current mayor is Cllr. Mike Cubbard, Independent.

Local electoral area

A local electoral area is an electoral area for elections to local authorities in Ireland. All elections use the single transferable vote. The Republic of Ireland is divided into 166 LEAs, with an average population of 28,700 and average area of 423.3 square kilometres (163.4 sq mi). The boundaries of LEAs are defined by statutory instrument, usually based lower-level units called electoral divisions (EDs), with a total of 3,440 EDs in the state.

Local government in the Republic of Ireland Tier of administration in Ireland

Local government in the Republic of Ireland's functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City, or City and County Councils. The principal decision-making body in each of the thirty-one local authorities is composed of the members of the council, elected by universal franchise in local elections every five years from multi-seat local electoral areas using the single transferable vote. Local authorities are the closest and most accessible form of Government to people in their local community. Many of the authorities' statutory functions are, however, the responsibility of ministerially appointed career officials termed Chief executives. The competencies of the city and county councils include planning, transport infrastructure, sanitary services, public safety and the provision of public libraries.

Sanitary districts were established in England and Wales in 1875 and in Ireland in 1878. The districts were of two types, based on existing structures:

Corporation of Dún Laoghaire

The Corporation of Dún Laoghaire was a local authority in County Dublin, in the Ireland from 1930 to 1994, covering the municipal borough of Dún Laoghaire.

Town commissioners were elected local government bodies established in urban areas in Ireland in the 19th century. Larger towns with commissioners were converted to urban districts by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, with the smaller commissions continuing to exist beyond partition in 1922. The idea was a standardisation of the improvement commissioners established in an ad-hoc manner for particular towns in Britain and Ireland in the eighteenth century. The last town commissioners in Northern Ireland were abolished in 1962, while in the Republic of Ireland the remaining commissions were renamed as town councils in 2002, and abolished and replaced with municipal districts by the Local Government Reform Act 2014.

The Chief Executive of a city or county is the senior permanent official in local government in the Republic of Ireland. Whereas the county council and city council are elected officials who formulate policy, the chief executive is an appointed official who manages the implementation of policy. The position was introduced in 1929–42 based on the American council–manager government model, and until 2014 the chief executive was styled the county manager or city manager. Their salaries range from €132,511 to €189,301 per annum. The County and City Management Association is the professional association for chief executives, and it is affiliated to the International City/County Management Association (ICMA).

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council Local government authority for county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown in Ireland

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council is the authority responsible for local government in the county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Ireland. It is one of three local authorities that comprised the former Dublin County Council before its abolition on 1 January 1994 and one of four councils in the Dublin Region. As a county council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001. The council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transportation, urban planning and development, amenity and culture, and environment. The council has 40 elected members. Elections are held every five years and are by single transferable vote. The head of the council has the title of Cathaoirleach (Chairperson). The county administration is headed by a Chief Executive, Philomena Poole. The county town is Dún Laoghaire. It serves a population of approximately 206,260.

City status in Ireland

In Ireland, the term city has somewhat differing meanings in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

Galway (barony)

Galway is a barony in Ireland, comprising Galway city and surrounding parts of County Galway. The barony is coterminous with the former County of the Town of Galway, a county corporate created by the town's 1610 charter and abolished by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.

County Hall, Dún Laoghaire

County Hall is a municipal facility in Marine Road, Dún Laoghaire in the county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Ireland.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Voorn, Bart, Marieke L. Van Genugten, and Sandra Van Thiel (2017) (2017). "The efficiency and effectiveness of municipally owned corporations: A systematic review" (PDF). Local Government Studies. 43 (5): 820–841. doi: 10.1080/03003930.2017.1319360 . hdl:2066/176125.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. 1 2 Tavares, Antonio F., and Pedro J. Camoes (2007) (2007). "Local service delivery choices in Portugal: A political transaction costs network". Local Government Studies. 33 (4): 535–553. doi:10.1080/03003930701417544.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. 1 2 Grossi, G., and Reichard, C. (2008) (2008). "Municipal corporatization in Germany and Italy". Public Management Review. 10 (5): 597–617. doi:10.1080/14719030802264275.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. "The first corporation". The Hindu . Chennai. 2003-04-02. Archived from the original on 2004-01-28. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  5. "Local Government Act, 2001". Irish Statute Book . p. §11(3), §11(4), Schedule 2. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  6. "Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1930, Section 3". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  7. "Local Government (Galway) Act, 1937, Section 3". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  8. "Local Government (Galway) Act, 1937, Section 2". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  9. "New Zealand Constitution Act 1852". Victoria University of Wellington - New Zealand Electronic Text Collection. 30 June 1852. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
Municipal incorporation
Municipal disincorporation/dissolution