Municipal corporation

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A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations. [1] [2] [3]

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions.

City Large and permanent human settlement

A city is a large human settlement. Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process.

County Geographical and administrative region in some countries

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes, in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. The modern French is comté, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, Gau, etc..

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Municipal corporation as local self-government

Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town.[ citation needed ]

Municipality An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

A city charter or town charter is a legal document (charter) establishing a municipality such as a city or town. The concept developed in Europe during the Middle Ages.

Town settlement that is bigger than a village but smaller than a city


A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.

Canada

In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities.

Provinces and territories of Canada Top-level subdivisions of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area.

India

Chennai Corporation headquarters Ripon Building panorama.jpg
Chennai Corporation headquarters

The Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. [4]

Ireland

The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils"; other borough corporations were renamed "borough councils". [5]

Borough An administrative division in some English-speaking countries

A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely.

The Local Government Act, 2001 was enacted by the Oireachtas of Ireland on 21 July 2001. Most of the provisions of the Act came into operation on 1 January 2002. The act was a restatement and amendment of previous legislation, which was centred on the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898. The 2001 act remains in force, although significantly amended by the Local Government Reform Act 2014.

County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in Northern Ireland. In the Republic of Ireland they remain in existence but have been renamed cities under the provisions of the Local Government Act 2001. The Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 re-introduced the term for certain "principal areas" in Wales. Scotland did not have county boroughs but instead counties of cities. These were abolished on 16 May 1975. All four Scottish cities of the time — Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, and Glasgow — were included in this category. There was an additional category of large burgh in the Scottish system, which were responsible for all services apart from police, education and fire.

After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Waterford (county boroughs) and Drogheda, Kilkenny, Sligo, Clonmel, and Wexford (non-county boroughs). Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire". [6] Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937; it was formally styled "the Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Galway”, [7] but referred to as "the Corporation". [8]

Partition of Ireland the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, on 3 May 1921; the latter became independent in 1922 and is now the Republic of Ireland, while the former still remains in the UK

The partition of Ireland divided the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. It took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Today the former is still known as Northern Ireland and forms part of the United Kingdom, while the latter is now a sovereign state also named Ireland and sometimes called the Republic of Ireland.

Irish Free State Sovereign state in northwest Europe (1922–1937), Dominion status to 1922, succeeded by Ireland

The Irish Free State was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and British Crown forces.

Cork (city) City in Munster, Ireland

Cork is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,657 in 2016.

New Zealand

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand. The term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. [9]

United States

In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law, usually after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population.[ citation needed ]

Municipal corporation as enterprises

Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed primarily by local government officials, and with majority public ownership". [1] Some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, [2] although this is not always the case. [1] Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, and follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services. [3] They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

A riding is an administrative jurisdiction or electoral district, particularly in several current or former Commonwealth countries.

An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.

South Dublin County in the Republic of Ireland

South Dublin is a county in Ireland, within the province of Leinster, and the Dublin Region, a successor to County Dublin, from which its name derives. South Dublin County Council is the local authority for the county. The county contains both dense suburbs of Dublin and stretches of unpopulated mountain. In 2011 it had a population of 278,749, making it the third most populous county in the state.

Dublin County Council was a local authority for the administrative county of County Dublin in the Republic of Ireland. It was established by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County in the Republic of Ireland

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Dublin Region in the province of Leinster. It is named after the former borough of Dún Laoghaire and the barony of Rathdown. Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 218,018 at the time of the 2016 census.

Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002. Broadly similar structures existed in Scotland from 1833 to 1975 with the reform of royal burghs and creation of police burghs.

Galway City Council

Galway City Council is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Galway in Ireland. As a city council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001. The council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transportation, urban planning and development, amenity and culture, and environment. The council has 18 elected members. Elections are held every five years and are by single transferable vote. The head of the council has the title of Mayor. The city administration is headed by a Chief Executive, Brendan McGrath. The council meets at City Hall, College Road, Galway.

The office of Mayor of Galway is an honorific title used by the Irish: Cathaoirleach of Galway City Council. The Council has jurisdiction throughout its administrative area of the city of Galway which is the largest city in the province of Connacht, in Ireland.

A local electoral area (LEA) is an electoral area for elections to local authorities in Ireland. All elections use the single transferable vote. The boundaries of LEAs are defined by statutory instrument in terms of lower-level units called electoral divisions (EDs).

Local government in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, local government functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City, or City and County Councils. The principal decision-making body in each of the thirty-one local authorities is composed of the members of the council, elected by universal franchise in local elections every five years. Irish Local Authorities are the closest and most accessible form of Government to people in their local community. Many of the authorities' statutory functions are, however, the responsibility of ministerially appointed career officials termed Chief executives. The competencies of the city and county councils include planning, transport infrastructure, sanitary services, public safety and the provision of public libraries.

Municipal Corporations Act 1835 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Municipal Corporations Act 1835, sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the incorporated boroughs of England and Wales. The legislation was part of the reform programme of the Whigs and followed the Reform Act 1832, which had abolished most of the rotten boroughs for parliamentary purposes.

Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840

The Municipal Corporations Act (Ireland) 1840, An Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in Ireland, was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 10 August 1840. It was one of the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Acts 1840 to 1888.

Corporation of Dún Laoghaire

The Corporation of Dún Laoghaire was a local authority in County Dublin, in the Ireland from 1930 to 1994, covering the municipal borough of Dún Laoghaire.

In the United States, the meaning of "village" varies by geographic area and legal jurisdiction. In many areas, "village" is a term, sometimes informal, for a type of administrative division at the local government level. Since the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from legislating on local government, the states are free to have political subdivisions called "villages" or not to and to define the word in many ways. Typically, a village is a type of municipality, although it can also be a special district or an unincorporated area. It may or may not be recognized for governmental purposes.

The word Sovereign is borrowed from Old French soverain, which is ultimately derived from the Latin word superānus, meaning "above". It's a title which can be given to people in various categories.

City status in Ireland

In Ireland, the term city has somewhat differing meanings in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

Galway is a barony in Ireland, comprising the city of Galway and parts of the surrounding county of Galway. It is coterminous with the former County of the Town of Galway, a county corporate created by the town's 1610 charter and abolished by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Voorn, Bart, Marieke L. Van Genugten, and Sandra Van Thiel (2017) (2017). "The efficiency and effectiveness of municipally owned corporations: A systematic review". Local Government Studies. 43 (5): 820–841. doi:10.1080/03003930.2017.1319360. hdl:2066/176125.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. 1 2 Tavares, Antonio F., and Pedro J. Camoes (2007) (2007). "Local service delivery choices in Portugal: A political transaction costs network". Local Government Studies. 33 (4): 535–553. doi:10.1080/03003930701417544.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. 1 2 Grossi, G., and Reichard, C. (2008) (2008). "Municipal corporatization in Germany and Italy". Public Management Review. 10 (5): 597–617. doi:10.1080/14719030802264275.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. "The first corporation". Chennai: The Hindu. 2003-04-02. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  5. "Local Government Act, 2001". Irish Statute Book . p. §11(3), §11(4), Schedule 2. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  6. "Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1930, Section 3". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  7. "Local Government (Galway) Act, 1937, Section 3". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  8. "Local Government (Galway) Act, 1937, Section 2". Irish Statute Book . Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  9. "New Zealand Constitution Act 1852". Victoria University of Wellington - New Zealand Electronic Text Collection. 30 June 1852. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
Municipal incorporation
Municipal disincorporation / dissolution