Cycling infrastructure

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Cycling infrastructure being placed in Chicago, Illinois. Chicago Bicycle Program 01.jpg
Cycling infrastructure being placed in Chicago, Illinois.
Signposted greenway, bordering on a gracht in Nordhorn, Germany Bikepath in Nordhorn, Germany.jpg
Signposted greenway, bordering on a gracht in Nordhorn, Germany
Cyclists use a segregated cut through of a busy interchange in London at rush hour. Cyclists at Hyde Park corner roundabout in London.jpg
Cyclists use a segregated cut through of a busy interchange in London at rush hour.

Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure permissible for use by cyclists, including the network of roads and streets used by motorists, except where cyclists are excluded (e.g., many freeways/motorways), along with bikeways from which motor vehicles are excluded – including bike paths, bike lanes, cycle tracks, rail trails and, where permitted, sidewalks. Cycling infrastructure also includes amenities such as bike racks for parking, shelters, service centers and specialized traffic signs and signals. Cycling modal share is strongly associated with the size of local cycling infrastructure. [1]

Contents

This fietspad (bicycle path) is in the Netherlands safely linking housing with decent street lights. Fietspad PeeWee32.jpg
This fietspad (bicycle path) is in the Netherlands safely linking housing with decent street lights.

The manner in which the public road network is designed, built and managed can have a significant effect on the utility and safety of cycling. The cycling network may be able to provide the users with direct, convenient routes minimizing unnecessary delay and effort in reaching their destinations. Settlements with a dense road network of interconnected streets tend to be viable utility cycling environments.

History

The history of cycling infrastructure starts from shortly after the bike boom of the 1880s when the first short stretches of dedicated bicycle infrastructure were built, through to the rise of the automobile from the mid-20th century onwards and the concomitant decline of cycling as a means of transport, to cycling's comeback from the 1970s onwards.

Bikeways

A bikeway is a lane, route, way or path which in some manner is specifically designed and /or designated for bicycle travel. [2] Bike lanes demarcated by a painted marking are quite common in many cities. Cycle tracks demarcated by barriers, bollards or boulevards are quite common in some European countries such as the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. They are also increasingly common in major cities elsewhere, such as New York, Melbourne, Ottawa, Vancouver and San Francisco. Montreal and Davis, California, which have had segregated cycling facilities with barriers for several decades, are among the earliest examples in North America.

Various guides exist to define the different types of bikeway infrastructure, including UK Department for Transport manual The Geometric Design of Pedestrian, Cycle and Equestrian Routes, [3] Sustrans Design Manual, [4] UK Department of Transport Local Transport Note 2/08: Cycle infrastructure design [5] the Danish Road Authority guide Registration and classification of paths, [6] the Dutch CROW, [7] the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide to Bikeway Facilities, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), [8] [9] and the US National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) Urban Bikeway Design Guide. [10]

In the Netherlands, most one way cycle paths are at least 2.5 metres wide. [11] The Netherlands also has protected intersection to cyclists crossing roads.

Protected intersection design based on a common Dutch model, preserving the physical segregation of the cycle lane throughout the intersection.

Terms

Segregated cycle facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Fahrradstrasse means "bicycle street." Fahrradstrasse.jpg
Segregated cycle facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Fahrradstraße means "bicycle street."

Some bikeways are separated from motor traffic by physical constraints (e.g. barriers, parking or bollards)—bicycle trail, cycle track—but others are partially separated only by painted markings—bike lane, buffered bike lane, and contraflow bike lane. Some share the roadway with motor vehicles—bicycle boulevard, sharrow, advisory bike lane—or shared with pedestrians—shared use paths and greenways

Segregation

The term bikeway is largely used in North America to describe all routes that have been designed or updated to encourage more cycling or make cycling safer. In some jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom, segregated cycling facility is sometimes preferred to describe cycling infrastructure which has varying degrees of separation from motorized traffic, or which has excluded pedestrian traffic in the case of exclusive bike paths. [12]

There is no single usage of segregation; in some cases it can mean the exclusion of motor vehicles and in other cases the exclusion of pedestrians as well. Thus, it includes bike lanes with solid painted lines but not lanes with dotted lines and advisory bike lanes where motor vehicles are allowed to encroach on the lane. [13] It includes cycle tracks as physically distinct from the roadway and sidewalk (e.g. barriers, parking or bollards). [14] And it includes bike paths in their own right of way exclusive to cycling. Paths which are shared with pedestrians and other non-motorized traffic are not considered segregated and are typically called shared use path, multi-use path in North America and shared-use footway in the UK.

Safety

There have been a lot of studies on the safety of all types of bikeways. Proponents say that segregation of cyclists from fast or frequent motorized traffic is necessary to provide a safe and welcoming cycling environment. Opponents point out the increased risk from various types of infrastructure including shared use paths.

Legislation

Different countries have different ways to legally define and enforce bikeways.

Bikeway controversies

Some detractors argue that one must be careful in interpreting the operation of dedicated or segregated bikeways/cycle facilities across different designs and contexts; what works for the Netherlands won't necessarily work elsewhere, or claiming that bikeways increase urban air pollution. [15]

Other transportation planners consider an incremental, piecemeal approach to bike infrastructure buildout ineffective and advocate for complete networks to be built in a single phase. [16]

Proponents point out that cycling infrastructure including dedicated bike lanes has been implemented in many cities; when well-designed and well-implemented they are popular and safe, and they are effective at relieving both congestion and air pollution. [17]

Bikeway selection

Jurisdictions have guidelines around the selection of the right bikeway treatments in order make routes more comfortable and safer for cycling.

A study reviewing the safety of "road diets" (motor traffic lane restrictions) for bike lanes found in summary that crash frequencies at road diets in the period after installation were 6% lower, road diets do not affect crash severity, or result in a significant change in crash types. This research was conducted by looking at areas scheduled for conversion before and after the road diet was performed. While also comparing similar areas that had not received any changes. It is noted that further research is recommended to confirm findings. [18]

Bikeway types

Bikeways can fall into these main categories: separated in-roadway bikeways such as bike lanes and buffered bike lanes; physically separated in-roadway bikeways such as cycle tracks; right-of-way paths such as bike paths and shared use paths; and shared in-roadway bikeways such as bike boulevards, shared lane markings, and advisory bike lanes. The exact categorization changes depending on the jurisdiction and organization, while many just list the types by their commonly used names [19] [20] [21]

Separated in-roadway bikeway

Physically separated, in-roadway

Extremely broad separated bike lanes on Dronning Louises Bro in Copenhagen, Denmark. Normally filled with bicycles, as it has been the busiest stretch of bicycle lane in the world. The title has been taken over by Knippelsbro, another bridge in Copenhagen. Dronning Louises Bro 2012.jpg
Extremely broad separated bike lanes on Dronning Louises Bro in Copenhagen, Denmark. Normally filled with bicycles, as it has been the busiest stretch of bicycle lane in the world. The title has been taken over by Knippelsbro, another bridge in Copenhagen.

A Cycle track, also called separated bike lane or protected bike lane, is a physically marked and separated lane dedicated for cycling that is on or directly adjacent to the roadway but typically excludes all motorized traffic with some sort of vertical barrier. [24]

Bike paths

Bike paths are paths with their own right of way dedicated to cycling, though in many cases shared with pedestrians and other non-motorized traffic.

Former railroad line transformed into a shared use path in England Cressbrook tunnel2.jpg
Former railroad line transformed into a shared use path in England

Shared use paths

Baana, a 1.3 kilometres (0.81 mi) long pedestrian and cycling path in the center of Helsinki, Finland Baana 2018.jpg
Baana, a 1.3 kilometres (0.81 mi) long pedestrian and cycling path in the center of Helsinki, Finland

A shared use path supports multiple modes, such as walking, bicycling, inline skating and people in wheelchairs.

This includes greenways, which are trails along a strip of undeveloped land, in an urban area, set aside for recreational use or environmental protection. [25] [26] Greenways are frequently created out of disused railways, canal towpaths, utility or similar rights of way, or derelict industrial land. Greenways also can also be linear parks, and can serve as wildlife corridors.

Shared in-roadway bikeways

Bicycle boulevards

A bicycle boulevard is a low speed street which has been optimized for bicycle traffic. Bicycle boulevards discourage cut-through motor vehicle traffic but allow local motor vehicle traffic. They are designed to give priority to cyclists as through-going traffic.

Shared lane markings

A shared lane marking is a street marking that indicates the preferred lateral position for cyclists (to avoid the door zone and other obstacles) where dedicated bike lanes are not available.

Advisory bike lane

Advisory bike lane as implemented in Netherlands. Seen in Ouddorp in Alkmaar, North Holland. Fietsstrook Herenweg Oudorp.jpg
Advisory bike lane as implemented in Netherlands. Seen in Ouddorp in Alkmaar, North Holland.

An advisory bike lane is a roadway striping configuration which provides for two-way motor vehicle and bicycle traffic using a central vehicular travel lane and "advisory" bike lanes on either side. The center lane is dedicated to, and shared by, motorists traveling in both directions. The center lane is narrower than two vehicular travel lanes and has no centerline; some are narrower than the width of a car. Cyclists are given preference in the bike lanes but motorists can encroach into the bike lanes in order to pass other motor vehicles after yielding to cyclists. Advisory bike lanes are normally installed on low volume streets. [13]

Advisory bike lanes have a number of names. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration calls them "Advisory Shoulders". [27] In New Zealand, they are called 2-minus-1 roads. They are called Schutzstreifen (Germany), Suggestiestrook (Netherlands), and Suggestion Lanes (a literal English translation of Suggestiestrook). [28]

Cyclists are legally allowed to travel on many roadways in accordance with the rules of the road for drivers of vehicles.

Road shoulder

A road shoulder is a reserved lane on the verge of a roadway that is often used by bicyclists and also serves as an emergency stopping lane for motor vehicles.

Bicycle superhighways

Denmark and the Netherlands have pioneered the concept of "bicycle superhighways". The first Dutch route opened in 2004 between Breda and Etten-Leur; many others have been added since then. [29] In 2017 several bicycle superhighways were opened in the Arnhem-Nijmegen region, with the RijnWaalpad as the best example of this new type of cycling infrastructure.

The first Danish route, C99, opened in 2012 between the Vesterbro rail station in Copenhagen and Albertslund, a western suburb. The route cost 13.4 million DKK and is 17.5 km long, built with few stops and new paths away from traffic. "Service stations" with air pumps are located at regular intervals, and where the route must cross streets, handholds and running boards are provided so cyclists can wait without having to put their feet on the ground. [30] Similar projects have since been built in Germany among other countries.

The cost of building a bicycle super highway depends on many things, but is usually between €300000/km (for a wide dedicated cycle track) and €800000/km (when complex civil engineering structures are needed). [31]

Cycling-friendly streetscape modifications

Ciclovia Adriatica, in Italy Ciclovia Adriatica ad Alba Adriatica (Teramo).JPG
Ciclovia Adriatica, in Italy

There are various measures cities and regions often take on the roadway to make it more cycling friendly and safer. Aspects of infrastructure may be viewed as either cyclist-hostile or as cyclist-friendly. Measures to encourage cycling include traffic calming; traffic reduction; junction treatment; traffic control systems to recognize cyclists and give them priority; exempt cyclists from banned turns and access restrictions; implement contra-flow cycle lanes on one-way streets; implement on-street parking restrictions; provide advanced stop lines/bypasses for cyclists at traffic signals; marking wide curb/kerb lanes; and marking shared bus/cycle lanes. [32]

Traffic reduction

Removing traffic can be achieved by straightforward diversion or alternatively reduction. Diversion involves routing through-traffic away from roads used by high numbers of cyclists and pedestrians. Examples of diversion include the construction of arterial bypasses and ring roads around urban centres.

Indirect methods involve reducing the infrastructural capacity dedicated to moving motorized vehicles. This can involve reducing the number of road lanes, closing bridges to certain vehicle types and creating vehicle restricted zones or environmental traffic cells. In the 1970s the Dutch city of Delft began restricting private car traffic from crossing the city center. [33] Similarly, Groningen is divided into four zones that cannot be crossed by private motor-traffic, (private cars must use the ring road instead). [34] Cyclists and other traffic can pass between the zones and cycling accounts for 50%+ of trips in Groningen (which reputedly has the third-highest proportion of cycle traffic of any city). The Swedish city of Gothenburg uses a similar system of traffic cells. [35]

Another approach is to reduce the capacity to park cars. Starting in the 1970s, the city of Copenhagen, where now 36% of the trips are done by bicycle, [36] adopted a policy of reducing available car parking capacity by several per cents per year. The city of Amsterdam, where around 40% of all trips are by bicycle, [37] adopted similar parking reduction policies in the 80s and 90s.

Direct traffic reduction methods can involve straightforward bans or more subtle methods like road pricing schemes or road diets. The London congestion charge reportedly resulted in a significant increase in cycle use within the affected area. [38]

Traffic calming

Speed reduction has traditionally been attempted by statutory speed limits and enforcing the assured clear distance ahead rule.

Recent implementations of shared space schemes have delivered significant traffic speed reductions. The reductions are sustainable, without the need for speed limits or speed limit enforcement. In Norrköping, mean traffic speeds in 2006 dropped from 21 to 16 km/h (13 to 10 mph) since the implementation of such a scheme. [39]

Even without shared street implementation, creating 30 km/h zones (or 20 mph zone) has been shown to reduce crash rates and increase numbers of cyclists and pedestrians. [40] Other studies have revealed that lower speeds reduce community severance caused by high speed roads. Research has shown that there is more neighborhood interaction and community cohesion when speeds are reduced to 20 mph. [41]

One-way streets

German research indicates that making one-way streets two-way for cyclists results in a reduction in the total number of collisions. [42] In Belgium, all one-way streets in 50 km/h zones are by default two-way for cyclists. [43] A Danish road directorate states that in town centres it is important to be able to cycle in both directions in all streets, and that in certain circumstances, two-way cycle traffic can be accommodated in an otherwise one-way street. [44]

Two-way cycling on one-way streets

Two opened One-way streets for cyclists with additional signs (Germany) Contra-flow-cycling in oneway streets, signs in Marburg Sudviertel 2017-04-22.jpg
Two opened One-way streets for cyclists with additional signs (Germany)

One-way street systems can be viewed as either a product of traffic management that focuses on trying to keep motorized vehicles moving regardless of the social and other impacts, such as by some cycling campaigners, [45] or seen as a useful tool for traffic calming, and for eliminating rat runs, in the view of UK traffic planners. [46]

One-way streets can disadvantage cyclists by increasing trip-length, delays and hazards associated with weaving maneuvers at junctions. [32] In northern European countries such as the Netherlands, however, cyclists are frequently granted exemptions from one-way street restrictions, which improves cycling traffic flow while restricting motorized vehicles. [47]

German research indicates that making one-way streets two-way for cyclists results in a reduction in the total number of collisions. [48]

There are often restrictions to what one-way streets are good candidates for allowing two-way cycling traffic. In Belgium road authorities can in principle allow any one-way streets in 50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) zones to be two-way for cyclists if the available lane is at least 3 metres (9.8 ft) wide (area free from parking) and no specific local circumstances prevent it. [49] Denmark, a country with high cycling levels, does not use one-way systems to improve traffic flow. [50] Some commentators argue that the initial goal should be to dismantle large one-way street systems as a traffic calming/traffic reduction measure, followed by the provision of two-way cyclist access on any one-way streets that remain. [51]

Intersection/Junction design

In general, junction designs that favour higher-speed turning, weaving and merging movements by motorists tend to be hostile for cyclists. Free-flowing arrangements can be hazardous for cyclists and should be avoided. [32] Features such as large entry curvature, slip-roads and high flow roundabouts are associated with increased risk of car–cyclist collisions. [52] [53] Cycling advocates argue for modifications and alternative junction types that resolve these issues such as reducing kerb radii on street corners, eliminating slip roads and replacing large roundabouts with signalized intersections. [51] [54]

Protected intersection

Another approach which the Netherlands innovated is called in North America a protected intersection that reconfigures intersections to reduce risk to cyclists as they cross or turn. Some American cities are starting to pilot protected intersections.

Bike box

A bike box or an advanced stop line is a designated area at the head of a traffic lane at a signalized intersection that provides bicyclists with a safer and more visible way to get ahead of queuing traffic during the red signal phase. [55]

Roundabouts

A bicycle signal light in Toronto BicycleSignalToronto2.jpg
A bicycle signal light in Toronto

On large roundabouts of the design typically used in the UK and Ireland, cyclists have an injury accident rate that is 14-16 times that of motorists. [53] Research indicates that excessive sightlines at uncontrolled intersections compound these effects. [52] [56] In the UK, a survey of over 8,000 highly experienced and mainly adult male Cyclists Touring Club members found that 28% avoided roundabouts on their regular journey if at all possible. [57] The Dutch CROW guidelines recommend roundabouts only for intersections with motorized traffic up to 1500 per hour. In order to accommodate greater volumes of traffic, they recommend traffic light intersections or grade separation for cyclists. [58] Examples of grade separation for cyclists include tunnels, or more spectacularly, raised "floating" roundabouts for cyclists. [59]

Traffic signals/Traffic control systems

How traffic signals are designed and implemented directly impacts cyclists. [60] For instance, poorly adjusted vehicle detector systems, used to trigger signal changes, may not correctly detect cyclists. This can leave cyclists in the position of having to "run" red lights if no motorized vehicle arrives to trigger a signal change. [61] Some cities use urban adaptive traffic control systems (UTCs), which use linked traffic signals to manage traffic in response to changes in demand. [60] There is an argument that using a UTC system merely to provide for increased capacity for motor traffic will simply drive growth in such traffic. [62] However, there are more direct negative impacts. For instance, where signals are arranged to provide motor traffic with so-called green waves, this can create "red waves" for other road users such as cyclists and public transport services. [60] Traffic managers in Copenhagen have now turned this approach on its head and are linking cyclist-specific traffic signals on a major arterial bike lane to provide green waves for rush hour cycle-traffic. [63] However, this would still not resolve the problem of red-waves for slow (old and young) and fast (above average fitness) cyclists. Cycling-specific measures that can be applied at traffic signals include the use of advanced stop lines and/or bypasses. In some cases cyclists might be given a free-turn or a signal bypass if turning into a road on the nearside. [32]

One of the mountain pass cycling milestones placed along the climb to the Col d'Izoard in the French Alps. 2014 Mountain pass cycling milestone - Col d'Izoard Guillestre.jpg
One of the mountain pass cycling milestones placed along the climb to the Col d'Izoard in the French Alps.

Signposting

In many places worldwide special signposts for bicycles are used to indicate directions and distances to destinations for cyclists. Apart from signposting in and between urban areas, [64] mountain pass cycling milestones have become an important service for bicycle tourists. They provide cyclists with information about their current position with regard to the summit of the mountain pass. [65]

Numbered-node cycle networks are increasingly used in Europe to give flexible, low-cost signage.

Widening outside lanes

One method for reducing potential friction between cyclists and motorized vehicles is to provide "wide kerb", or "nearside", lanes (UK terminology) or "wide outside through lane" (U.S. terminology). These extra-wide lanes increase the probability that motorists pass cyclists at a safe distance without having to change lanes. [66] [67] This is held to be particularly important on routes with a high proportion of wide vehicles such as buses or heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). They also provide more room for cyclists to filter past queues of cars in congested conditions and to safely overtake each other. Due to the tendency of all vehicle users to stay in the center of their lane, it would be necessary to sub-divide the cycle lane with a broken white line to facilitate safe overtaking. Overtaking is indispensable for cyclists, as speeds are not dependent on the legal speed limit, but on the rider's capability.

A buffered bike lane in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada. Hwy7BikeLane5.jpg
A buffered bike lane in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada.

The use of such lanes is specifically endorsed by Cycling: the way ahead for towns and cities, the European Commission policy document on cycle promotion. [68]

Shared space

New Road, Brighton - Shared Space scheme reduced motor traffic by 93%. New Road, Brighton - shared space.jpg
New Road, Brighton - Shared Space scheme reduced motor traffic by 93%.

Shared space schemes extend this principle further by removing the reliance on lane markings altogether, and also removing road signs and signals, allowing all road users to use any part of the road, and giving all road users equal priority and equal responsibility for each other's safety. Experiences where these schemes are in use show that road users, particularly motorists, undirected by signs, kerbs, or road markings, reduce their speed and establish eye contact with other users. Results from the thousands of such implementations worldwide all show casualty reductions and most also show reduced journey times. [69] After the partial conversion of London's Kensington High Street to shared space, accidents decreased by 44% (the London average was 17%). [69]

A shared bus and cycle lane in Mannheim, Germany Busspur und Haltestelle in Mannheim 100 9128.jpg
A shared bus and cycle lane in Mannheim, Germany

CFI argues for a marked lane width of 4.25 metres (13.9 ft). [32] On undivided roads, width provides cyclists with adequate clearance from passing HGVs while being narrow enough to deter drivers from "doubling up" to form two lanes. This "doubling up" effect may be related to junctions. At non-junction locations, greater width might be preferable if this effect can be avoided. The European Commission specifically endorses wide lanes in its policy document on cycling promotion, Cycling: the way ahead for towns and cities. [68]

Shared bus and cycle lanes

Shared bus and cycle lanes are also a method for providing a more comfortable and safer space for cyclists. Depending on the width of the lane, the speeds and number of buses, and other local factors, the safety and popularity of this arrangement vary.

In the Netherlands mixed bus/cycle lanes are uncommon. According to the Sustainable Safety guidelines they would violate the principle of homogeneity and put road users of very different masses and speed behaviour into the same lane, which is generally discouraged. [70]

Road surface

Bicycle tires being narrow, road surface is more important than for other transport, for both comfort and safety. The type and placement of storm drains, manholes, surface markings, and the general road surface quality should all be taken into account by a bicycle transportation engineer. Drain grates, for example, must not catch wheels.

Trip-end facilities

Bicycle parking/storage arrangements

Bicycle parking at the Alewife subway station in Cambridge, Massachusetts, located at the intersection of three cycle paths. Bicycle parking at Alewife station, August 2001.jpg
Bicycle parking at the Alewife subway station in Cambridge, Massachusetts, located at the intersection of three cycle paths.
Multi-storey bicycle parking in Amsterdam. Bicycle parking lot.jpg
Multi-storey bicycle parking in Amsterdam.

As secure and convenient bicycle parking is a key factor in influencing a person's decision to cycle, decent parking infrastructure must be provided to encourage the uptake of cycling. [71] Decent bicycle parking involves weather-proof infrastructure such as lockers, stands, manned or unmanned bicycle parks, [72] as well as bike parking facilities within workplaces to facilitate bicycle commuting. It also will help if certain legal arrangements are put into place to enable legitimate ad hoc parking, for example to allow people to lock their bicycles to railings, signs and other street furniture when individual proper bike stands are unavailable. [73]

Other trip end facilities

Some people need to wear special clothes such as business suits or uniforms in their daily work. In some cases the nature of the cycling infrastructure and the prevailing weather conditions may make it very hard to both cycle and maintain the work clothes in a presentable condition. It is argued that such workers can be encouraged to cycle by providing lockers, changing rooms and shower facilities where they can change before starting work. [74]

Theft reduction measures

The theft of bicycles is one of the major problems that slow the development of urban cycling. Bicycle theft discourages regular cyclists from buying new bicycles, as well as putting off people who might want to invest in a bicycle.

Several measures can help reduce bicycle theft:

Certain European countries apply such measures with success, such as the Netherlands or certain German cities using registration and recovery. Since mid-2004, France has instituted a system of registration, in some places allowing stolen bicycles to be put on file in partnership with the urban cyclists' associations. This approach has reputedly increased the stolen bicycle recovery rate to more than 40%. By comparison, before the commencement of registration, the recovery rate in France was about 2%.

In some areas of the United Kingdom, bicycles fitted with location tracking devices are left poorly secured in theft hot-spots. When the bike is stolen, the police can locate it and arrest the thieves. This sometimes leads to the dismantling of organized bicycle theft rings, as bike theft generally enjoys a very low priority with the police.

Bicycle lift

Bicycle lift in Trondheim, Norway Bicycle lift in Trondheim 2.jpg
Bicycle lift in Trondheim, Norway

Bicycle lifts are used to haul bikes up stairs and steep hills. They are used to improve accessibility and encourage casual cycling.

Bike escalators are widely used in East Asia and are used in parts of Europe.

Impact

According to a 2019 study, protected and separated bike infrastructure is associated with greater safety outcomes for all road users. [76]

A 2021 review of existing research found that closing car lanes and replacing them with bike lanes or pedestrian lanes had positive or non-significant economic effects. [77]

A 2021 case-control study of cities found that redistributing street space for cycling infrastructure – for so-called "pop-up bike lanes" during the COVID-19 pandemic – lead to large additional increases in cycling. These may have substantial environmental and health benefits [78] which contemporary decision-makers have pledged to genuinely strive for with set goals such as CO2 emissions reductions of 55% by 2030 by the EU, climate change mitigation responsibilities of the Paris Agreement and EU air quality rules. [79] [80]

Integration with public transit

Bike commuters disembark at Palo Alto Station in Palo Alto, California Urban Cycling -1.jpg
Bike commuters disembark at Palo Alto Station in Palo Alto, California

Cycling is often integrated with other transport. For example, in the Netherlands and Denmark a large number of train journeys may start by bicycle. In 1991, 44% of Dutch train travelers went to their local station by bicycle and 14% used a bicycle at their destinations. [81] The key ingredients for this are claimed to be:

It has been argued in relation to this aspect of Dutch or Danish policy that ongoing investment in rail services is vital to maintaining their levels of cycle use.

Cycling and public transport are well integrated in Japan. [83] Starting in 1978, Japan expanded bicycle parking supply at railway stations from 598,000 spaces in 1977 to 2,382,000 spaces in 1987. As of 1987, Japanese provisions included 516 multi-story garages for bicycle parking. [84]

In January 2007, the European parliament adopted a motion decreeing that all international trains must carry bicycles. [85] In some cities, bicycles may also be carried on local trains, trams and buses so that they may be used at either end of the trip. The Rheinbahn transit company in Düsseldorf permits bicycle carriage on all its bus, tram and train services at any time of the day. [86] In Munich bicycles are allowed on the S-Bahn commuter trains outside of rush hours, [87] and folding bikes are allowed on city busses. In Copenhagen, you can take your bicycle with you in the S-tog commuter trains, all times a day with no additional costs. [88] In France, the prestigious TGV high-speed trains are even having some of their first class capacity converted to store bicycles. [89] There have also been schemes, such as in Victoria, British Columbia, Acadia, and Canberra, Australia to provide bicycle carriage on buses using externally mounted bike carriers. [90] [91] [92]

Kojaku Kotsu bus in Shiga Prefecture, Japan Koujyaku bicycle bus.JPG
Kōjaku Kōtsū bus in Shiga Prefecture, Japan

In some Canadian cities, including Edmonton, Alberta and Toronto, Ontario, busses on most city routes have externally mounted carriers for bicycles, and bikes are allowed on the light rail trains at no extra cost outside of rush hour. [93] [94] All public transit buses in Chicago and suburbs allow up to two bikes at all times. [95] [96] [97] The same is true of Grand River Transit buses in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. [98] Trains allow bikes with some restrictions. [96] [99] Where such services are not available, some cyclists get around this restriction by removing their pedals and loosening their handlebars as to fit into a box or by using folding bikes that can be brought onto the train or bus like a piece of luggage. The article on buses in Christchurch, New Zealand lists 27 routes with bike racks.

However, there are strong cultural variations in how cycling is treated in such situations. For instance in the Irish university city of Galway, the same town that suggested cyclists dismount and walk across each intersection, the secure parking of bikes is forbidden within the grounds of the central train station. However, cut-price car parking is available for motorists holding a valid train ticket.

Bikesharing systems

A bicycle sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a very short-term basis. Bike share schemes allow people to borrow a bike from point "A" and return it at point "B". Many of the bicycle sharing systems are on a subscription basis.

Examples of cycling infrastructure

See also

Organizing bodies:

Muli-modal road safety:

Related Research Articles

Bike path Bikeway separated from motorized traffic and dedicated to cycling or shared with pedestrians or other non-motorized users

A bike path is a bikeway separated from motorized traffic and dedicated to cycling or shared with pedestrians or other non-motorized users. In the US a bike path sometimes encompasses shared use paths, "multi-use path", or "Class III bikeway" is a paved path that has been designated for use by cyclists outside the right of way of a public road. It may or may not have a center divider or stripe to prevent head-on collisions. In the UK, a shared-use footway or multi-use path is for use by both cyclists and pedestrians.

Living street Traffic calming in spaces shared between road users

A living street is a street designed in the interests of pedestrians and cyclists. Living streets also act as social spaces, allowing children to play and encouraging social interactions on a human scale, safely and legally. These roads are still available for use by motor vehicles, however their design aims to reduce both the speed and dominance of motorised transport. This is often achieved using the shared space approach, with greatly reduced demarcations between vehicle traffic and pedestrians. Vehicle parking may also be restricted to designated bays. These street design principles first became popularized in the Netherlands during the 1970s, and the Dutch word woonerf is often used as a synonym for living street.

Bike lane

Bike lanes (US) or cycle lanes (UK) are types of bikeways (cycleways) with lanes on the roadway for cyclists only. In the United Kingdom, an on-road cycle-lane can be firmly restricted to cycles or advisory. In the United States, a designated bicycle lane or class II bikeway (Caltrans) is always marked by a solid white stripe on the pavement and is for 'preferential use' by bicyclists. There is also a class III bicycle route, which has roadside signs suggesting a route for cyclists, and urging sharing the road. A class IV separated bike way (Caltrans) is a bike lane that is physically separate from motor traffic and restricted to bicyclists only.

Vehicular cycling Practice of riding bicycles on roads while obeying roadway rules

Vehicular cycling is the practice of riding bicycles on roads in a manner that is in accordance with the principles for driving in traffic, and in a way that places responsibility for safety on the individual.

Bicycle transportation planning and engineering

Bicycle transportation planning and engineering are the disciplines related to transportation engineering and transportation planning concerning bicycles as a mode of transport and the concomitant study, design and implementation of cycling infrastructure. It includes the study and design of dedicated transport facilities for cyclists as well as mixed-mode environments and how both of these examples can be made to work safely. In jurisdictions such as the United States it is often practiced in conjunction with planning for pedestrians as a part of active transportation planning.

Bicycle safety

Bicycle safety is the use of road traffic safety practices to reduce risk associated with cycling. Risk can be defined as the number of incidents occurring for a given amount of cycling. Some of this subject matter is hotly debated: for example, the discussions as to whether bicycle helmets or cyclepaths really improve safety. The merits of obeying the rules of the road including the use of bicycle lighting at night are less controversial.

Bicycle boulevard

A bicycle boulevard, sometimes referred to as a neighborhood greenway, neighborway, neighborhood bikeway or neighborhood byway is a type of bikeway composed of a low-speed street which has been "optimized" for bicycle traffic. Bicycle boulevards discourage cut-through motor-vehicle traffic but allow local motor-vehicle traffic. They are designed to give priority to bicyclists as through-going traffic. They are intended as a low-cost, politically popular way to create a connected network of streets with good bicyclist comfort and/or safety.

Cycling in the Netherlands

Cycling is a common mode of transport in the Netherlands, with 36% of Dutch people listing the bicycle as their most frequent way of getting around on a typical day, as opposed to the car (45%) and public transport (11%). Cycling has a modal share of 27% of all trips nationwide. In cities this is even higher, such as Amsterdam which has 38%, and Zwolle 46%. This high frequency of bicycle travel is enabled by excellent cycling infrastructure such as cycle paths, cycle tracks, protected intersections, ample bicycle parking and by making cycling routes shorter and more direct than car routes.

A cycle track, separated bike lane or protected bike lane, is an exclusive bikeway that has elements of a separated path and on-road bike lane. A cycle track is located within or next to the roadway, but is made distinct from both the sidewalk and general purpose roadway by vertical barriers or elevation differences.

Cycling in New York City

Cycling in New York City is associated with mixed cycling conditions that include dense urban proximities, relatively flat terrain, congested roadways with "stop-and-go" traffic, and streets with heavy pedestrian activity. The city's large cycling population includes utility cyclists, such as delivery and messenger services; cycling clubs for recreational cyclists; and increasingly commuters. Cycling is increasingly popular in New York City; in 2018 there were approximately 510,000 daily bike trips, compared with 170,000 daily bike trips in 2005.

Cycling in Toronto

Toronto, like many North American cities, has slowly been improving its cycling infrastructure. The number of cyclists has been increasing progressively, particularly in the city's downtown core. As cycling conditions improve, a cycling culture has grown and alternatives such as automobiles are seen as less attractive. The politics of providing resources for cyclists, particularly dedicated bike lanes, has been contentious, particularly since the 2010s.

Cycling in Illinois encompasses recreation, bikeways, laws and rules, and advocacy. The director of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Joel Brunsvold, explained Illinois cycling opportunities: “Bicycle riding is one of the most popular outdoor recreational activities in Illinois, enjoyed by young and old alike...Illinois has a variety of trails for the public to enjoy. The terrain includes flat prairie land to rolling hills, towering bluffs to the breathtaking river and lakefront views.” Many communities across the state are updating bicycle infrastructure in order to accommodate the increased number of cyclists on the roads.

Cycling in Canada

Cycling in Canada is experienced in various ways across a geographically huge, economically and socially diverse country. Among the reasons for cycling in Canada are for practical reasons such as commuting to work or school, for sports such as road racing, BMX, Mountain bike racing, freestyle BMX, as well as for pure recreation. The amount and quality of bicycle infrastructure varies widely across the country as do the laws pertaining to cyclists such as bicycle helmet laws which can differ by province.

The history of cycling infrastructure starts from shortly after the bike boom of the 1880s when the first short stretches of dedicated bicycle infrastructure were built, through to the rise of the automobile from the mid-20th century onwards and the concomitant decline of cycling as a means of transport, to cycling's comeback from the 1970s onwards.

Two-wheeler usage in Japan

Two-wheelers are a common sight and widely used in Japan. Of these, bicycles and scooters are the most common.

Protected intersection At-grade road junction in which cyclists and pedestrians are separated from cars

A protected intersection is an at-grade road junction in which cyclists and pedestrians are separated from cars. Vehicles turning right are separated from crossing cyclists and pedestrians by a buffer, providing increased reaction times and visibility. Drivers looking to turn right have better visibility of cyclists and pedestrians as they can look to the side for conflicts instead of over their shoulders. At unsignalized intersections, it is practice to have one car length of space between the cycleway and roadway, so that cars exiting the minor street have an area to pull forward and wait for a gap in traffic, without becoming distracted by potential simultaneous conflicts along the cyclepath.

Bikeway safety

Safety of dedicated or segregated cycle facilities is controversial. Proponents say that segregation of cyclists from fast or frequent motorized traffic is necessary to provide a safe cycling environment. For example, a 2010 Montreal study found that cycle tracks were associated with fewer injuries when compared to comparable parallel roads with no cycling facilities.

Bikeway controversies

Controversies have surrounded bikeways, particularly in North America and the United Kingdom and specifically between those who prefer to focus on education rather than separated cycling infrastructure and those who prefer to create dedicated facilities to make cyclists safer and make it more inviting to a wider public. Other dissenters say safety is better served by using the road space for parking.

The city of Madrid has been increasing in the last years its network of bicycle paths. In 2016, there were 195 km of cycling routes. The former city council had been planning to build 400 km more for the year 2024 despite a very vocal opposition to the construction of segregated infrastructure by a significant part of the local cycling community. However now with the new right wing mayor elected in 2019 the city is set to be the only capital in the world where bicycle lanes are being removed again.

Cycling in Halifax, Nova Scotia Cycling infrastructure in Halifax, Nova Scotia

Cycling infrastructure in the Canadian city of Halifax, Nova Scotia includes most regular streets and roads, bike lanes, protected cycle tracks, local street bikeways, and multi-use pathways.

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