Port

Last updated
The Port of New York and New Jersey grew from the original harbor at the convergence of the Hudson River and the East River at the Upper New York Bay. Downtown Manhattan From Aeroplane.jpg
The Port of New York and New Jersey grew from the original harbor at the convergence of the Hudson River and the East River at the Upper New York Bay.
The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port PorticcioloCedas.jpg
The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port
Port of Durban in Durban, South Africa is Africa's busiest port Durban harbor.jpg
Port of Durban in Durban, South Africa is Africa's busiest port
Seaport, a 17th-century depiction by Claude Lorrain, 1638 Lorrain.seaport.jpg
Seaport, a 17th-century depiction by Claude Lorrain, 1638
Shanghai Port is the world's busiest container port Yangshan-Port-Balanced.jpg
Shanghai Port is the world's busiest container port
Port of Kaohsiung is the largest port in Taiwan. Port of Kaohsiung Skyline 2016.jpg
Port of Kaohsiung is the largest port in Taiwan.
Port of Hamburg Landungsbrucken, Hamburg.JPG
Port of Hamburg
The port of Piraeus Port of Piraeus.jpg
The port of Piraeus
Port of Seattle Line0535.jpg
Port of Seattle
Port of Haifa, Israel Port of Haifa 2752-1.jpg
Port of Haifa, Israel
Port of Barcelona, one of Spain's largest ports Port Vell, Barcelona, Spain - Jan 2007.jpg
Port of Barcelona, one of Spain's largest ports
Port of Montreal, Quebec. Montreal Panorama II.jpg
Port of Montreal, Quebec.
The Port of Duluth-Superior, the largest freshwater port in the world Duluth canal.jpg
The Port of Duluth-Superior, the largest freshwater port in the world
Cargo port in Hilo, Hawaii Dockhawaii.jpg
Cargo port in Hilo, Hawaii

A port is a maritime facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg, Manchester and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access to the sea via river or canal. Because of their roles as a port of entry for immigrants many port cities such as London, New York, Shanghai, Los Angeles, Singapore and Vancouver have experienced dramatic multi-ethnic and multicultural changes. [1]

Contents

Ports are extremely important to the global economy, responsible for 70% of global merchandise trade by value. [2] For this reason, ports are often high-concentrations of the global population—providing the labor for processing and handling the goods and related services for the ports. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. As of 2020, the busiest passenger port in the world is the Port of Helsinki in Finland. [3] However, ports can also be very small and only serve local fishing or tourism.

Ports are responsible for a number of environmental impacts on local ecologies and water ways, for example direct effects on water quality, caused by dredging, spills and other pollution. Ports are heavily effected by the changing environmental factors caused by climate change. Importantly most port infrastructure is extremely vulnerable to sea level rise, due to its low-lying nature, making it vulnerable to extreme weather and coastal flooding. [2] Internationally, global ports are beginning to identify ways to improve coastal management practices and integrate climate change adaptation practices into their construction. [2]

Historical ports

Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. [4] Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have also been found.

Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE. In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. [5] Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice.

Post-classical Swahili kingdoms are known to have had trade port islands and trade routes [6] with the Islamic world and Asia. They were described by Greek historians as "metropolises". [7] Famous African trade ports such as Mombasa, Zanzibar, Mogadishu and Kilwa [8] were known to Chinese sailors such as Zheng He and medieval Islamic historians such as the Berber Islamic voyager Abu Abdullah ibn Battuta. [9]

Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer exist or function as modern ports. Even in more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion.

Modern ports

Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, river, canal, road, rail and air routes. Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, and will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are often on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres, warehouses and freight-forwarders, canneries and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks.

Ports usually have specialised functions: some tend to cater mainly for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some specialise in container traffic or general cargo; and some ports play an important military role for their nation's navy. Some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch (respectively).

In modern times, ports survive or decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, [10] a small semi-automated container port (with links to the Port of Felixstowe, the UK's largest container port) thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub.

In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned partly by the state and partly by the cities themselves. [11] By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal.

Even though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters,[ citation needed ] many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters. For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands.

Ports with international traffic have customs facilities.

Types

The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels.

Seaport

A seaport is a port located on the shore of a sea or ocean. It is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port".[ citation needed ] Additionally, "cruise ports" are also known as a "home port" or a "port of call". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port".

Cargo port

Cargo ports, on the other hand, are quite different from cruise ports, because each handles very different cargo, which has to be loaded and unloaded by very different mechanical means. The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports". Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known as container ports. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. Additionally, the individual cargo ports are divided into different operating terminals which handle the different cargoes, and are operated by different companies, also known as terminal operators or stevedores.

Cruise home port

A cruise home port is the port where cruise ship passengers board (or embark) to start their cruise and disembark the cruise ship at the end of their cruise. It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits, vegetables, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise. "Cruise home ports" are very busy places during the day the cruise ship is in port, because off-going passengers debark their baggage and on-coming passengers board the ship in addition to all the supplies being loaded. Cruise home ports tend to have large passenger terminals to handle the large number of passengers passing through the port. The busiest cruise home port in the world is the Port of Miami, Florida.

Smart port

A smart port uses technologies, including the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain to be more efficient at handling goods. [12] Smart ports usually deploy cloud-based software as part of the process of greater automation to help generate the operating flow that helps the port work smoothly. [13] At present, most of the world's ports have somewhat embedded technology, if not for full leadership. However, thanks to global government initiatives and exponential growth in maritime trade, the amount of intelligent ports has gradually increased. This latest report by business intelligence provider Visiongain assesses that Smart Ports Market spending will reach $1.5 bn in 2019. [14]

Port of call

A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship on its sailing itinerary. At these ports, cargo ships may take on supplies or fuel, as well as unloading and loading cargo while cruise liners have passengers get on or off ship.

Fishing port

A fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish. It may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical.

Inland port

An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river (fluvial port), or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo. An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, and Chicago. [15] The term "inland port" is also used for dry ports.

Warm-water port

A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime. Because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. Such settlements as Dalian in China, Vostochny Port, [16] Murmansk and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in Russia, Odessa in Ukraine, Kushiro in Japan and Valdez at the terminus of the Alaska Pipeline owe their very existence to being ice-free ports. The Baltic Sea and similar areas have ports available year-round beginning in the 20th century thanks to icebreakers, but earlier access problems prompted Russia to expand its territory to the Black Sea.

Dry port

A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. [17]

Environmental issues

Ports and their operation are often both the cause of environmental issues, such as sediment contamination and spills from ships and are susceptible to larger environmental issues, such as human caused climate change and its effects. [18]

Dredging

Every year 100 million cubic metrics of marine sediment are dredged to improve waterways around ports. Dredging, in its practice, disturbs local ecosystems, brings sediments into the water column, and can stir up pollutants captured in the sediments. [18]

Invasive species

Invasive species are often spread by the bilge water and species attached to the hulls of ships. [18] It is estimated that there are over 7000 invasive species transported in bilge water around the world on a daily basis [19] Invasive species can have direct or in-direct interactions with native sea life. Direct interaction such as predation, is when a native species with no natural predator is all of a sudden prey of an invasive specie. In-direct interaction can be diseases or other health conditions brought by invasive species. [20]

A ship pumping bilge water into a harbor Wawona - pumping bilge water.jpg
A ship pumping bilge water into a harbor
  1. Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City . Routledge. pp.  528. ISBN   9780415252256.
  2. 1 2 3 Asariotis, Regina; Benamara, Hassiba; Mohos-Naray, Viktoria (December 2017). Port Industry Survey on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (PDF) (Report). UN Conference on Trade and Development.
  3. "Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics" (PDF). Eurostat . Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  4. Rossella Lorenzi (12 April 2013). "Most Ancient Port, Hieroglyphic Papyri Found". Discovery News. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  5. Rao, S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archeological Survey of India.
  6. "Eastern and Southern Africa 500–1000 AD". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
  7. "Tanzanian dig unearths ancient secret by Tira Shubart". BBC News. 17 April 2002. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
  8. Newitt, M.D.D. (1995). A History of Mozambique. Indiana University Press. ISBN   9780253340061.
  9. "Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354". Fordham.edu. 21 February 2001. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
  10. "Welcome". London Thamesport . Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  11. "Organisation". Port of Rotterdam. 2015-06-15. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  12. "Smart Ports of the Future: A Digital Tomorrow". Port Technology International. 2019-09-17. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  13. "Ports in the Cloud: The Next Step in Automation?". Port Technology International. 2018-11-09. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  14. ""Smart Ports Market spending will reach $1.5bn in 2019", says Visiongain". Visiongain. 2019-09-05. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  15. "Seaway System". greatlakes-seaway.com.
  16. "Vostochny Port JSC, Geography, Location". Vostochny Port website. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. ...  Vostochny Port is located in the south of Primorsky Region, in the southeast of Nakhodka bay, in Vrangel bay. This is unique natural harbor is no ice restrictions even in severe winters. ...
  17. "Feasibility Study on the network operation of Hinterland Hubs (Dry Port Concept) to improve and modernise ports' connections to the hinterland and to improve networking" (PDF). InLoc. January 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-13. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  18. 1 2 3 OECD (2011-02-17). Braathen, Nils Axel (ed.). Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: The Role of Ports. OECD. doi:10.1787/9789264097339-en. ISBN   978-92-64-09682-0.
  19. "What are California Marine Invasive Species?". wildlife.ca.gov. Retrieved 2021-05-13.
  20. Fisheries, NOAA (2021-05-07). "Invasive and Exotic Marine Species | NOAA Fisheries". NOAA. Retrieved 2021-05-13.

Air pollution

Ports are also a source of increased air pollution both because of the ships and land transportation at the port. Transportation corridors around ports have higher exhaust and emissions and this can have related health effects on the local communities. [1]

Water quality

Water quality around ports is often lower because of both direct and indirect pollution from the shipping, and other challenges caused by the port's community, such as trash washing into the ocean. [1]

Spills, pollution and contamination

Sewage from ships, and leaks of oil and chemicals from shipping vessels can contaminate local water, and cause other effects like nutrient pollution in the water. [1]

Climate change and sea level rise

Ports and their infrastructure are very vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise, because many of them are in low-lying areas designed for status quo water levels. [2] Variable weather, coastal erosion, and sea level rise all put pressure on existing infrastructure, resulting in subsidence, coastal flooding and other direct pressures on the port. [2]

Reducing impact

There are several initiatives to decrease negative environmental impacts of ports. [3] [4] [5] The World Port Sustainability Program points to all of the Sustainable Development Goals as potential ways of addressing port sustainability. [6] These include SIMPYC, the World Ports Climate Initiative, the African Green Port Initiative, EcoPorts and Green Marine. [5] [7]

World's major ports

Africa

Asia

The port of Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, India VizagPort.jpg
The port of Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, India

The port of Shanghai is the largest port in the world in both cargo tonnage and activity. It regained its position as the world's busiest port by cargo tonnage and the world's busiest container port in 2009 and 2010, respectively. It is followed by the ports of Singapore, Hong Kong and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, all of which are in East and Southeast Asia.

Europe

Port of Hamina-Kotka, a port of the two neighboring cities: Hamina and Kotka. Port of Hamina.jpg
Port of Hamina-Kotka, a port of the two neighboring cities: Hamina and Kotka.

Europe's busiest container port and biggest port by cargo tonnage by far is the Port of Rotterdam, in the Netherlands. It is followed by the Belgian Port of Antwerp or the German Port of Hamburg, depending on which metric is used. [8] In turn, the Spanish Port of Valencia is the busiest port in the Mediterranean basin.

North America

The largest ports include the Port of New York and New Jersey, Los Angeles and South Louisiana in the U.S., Manzanillo in Mexico and Vancouver in Canada.[ citation needed ] Panama also has the Panama Canal that connects the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is a key conduit for international trade.

Oceania

The largest port in Australia is the Port of Melbourne.

South America

According to ECLAC's "Maritime and Logistics Profile of Latin America and the Caribbean", the largest ports in South America are the Port of Santos in Brazil, Cartagena in Colombia, Callao in Peru, Guayaquil in Ecuador, and the Port of Buenos Aires in Argentina. [9]

See also

Other logistics hubs

Lists

Related Research Articles

Maritime transport

Maritime transport and fluvial transport, or more generally waterborne transport, is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) via waterways. Freight transport by sea has been widely used throughout recorded history. The advent of aviation has diminished the importance of sea travel for passengers, though it is still popular for short trips and pleasure cruises. Transport by water is cheaper than transport by air, despite fluctuating exchange rates and a fee placed on top of freighting charges for carrier companies known as the currency adjustment factor. Maritime transport accounts for roughly 80% of international trade, according to UNCTAD in 2020.

Port of Los Angeles Harbor in Los Angeles, California

The Port of Los Angeles, also promoted as "America's Port", is a seaport managed by the Los Angeles Harbor Department, a unit of the City of Los Angeles. It occupies 7,500 acres (3,000 ha) of land and water along 43 mi (69 km) of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The port is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro and Wilmington neighborhoods of Los Angeles, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of downtown.

Merchant ship Civilian boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire

A merchant ship, merchant vessel, trading vessel, or merchantman is a watercraft that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire. This is in contrast to pleasure craft, which are used for personal recreation, and naval ships, which are used for military purposes.

Port Everglades Seaport in Broward County, Florida

Port Everglades is a seaport in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, located in Broward County. Port Everglades is one of South Florida's foremost economic engines, as it is the gateway for both international trade and cruise vacations. In 2019, Port Everglades was ranked the third busiest cruise homeport in the world, accommodating more than 3.89 million passengers. It was also one of the busiest container ports in Florida and ranked among the top 20 busiest in the United States, moving more than 1 million TEUs annually.

PortMiami

The Port of Miami, styled as "PortMiami" but formally the Dante B. Fascell Port of Miami, is a major seaport located in Biscayne Bay at the mouth of the Miami River in Miami, Florida. It is the largest passenger port in the world, and one of the largest cargo ports in the United States. It is connected to Downtown Miami by Port Boulevard—a causeway over the Intracoastal Waterway—and to the neighboring Watson Island via the PortMiami Tunnel. The port is located on Dodge Island, which is the combination of three historic islands that have since been combined into one. It is named in honor of 19-term Florida Congressman Dante Fascell.

Port of Singapore Port in Southeast Asia

The Port of Singapore refers to the collective facilities and terminals that conduct maritime trade, and which handle Singapore's harbours and shipping. It is ranked as the top maritime capital of the world since 2015. Currently the world's second-busiest port in terms of total shipping tonnage, it also transships a fifth of the world's shipping containers, half of the world's annual supply of crude oil, and is the world's busiest transshipment port. It was also the busiest port in terms of total cargo tonnage handled until 2005 when it was surpassed by the Port of Shanghai. Thousands of ships drop anchor in the harbour, connecting the port to over 600 other ports in 123 countries and spread over six continents.

Port of Hong Kong

The Port of Hong Kong, located by the South China Sea, is a deepwater seaport dominated by trade in containerised manufactured products, and to a lesser extent raw materials and passengers. A key factor in the economic development of Hong Kong, the natural shelter and deep waters of Victoria Harbour provide ideal conditions for berthing and the handling of all types of vessels. It is one of the busiest ports in the world, in the three categories of shipping movements, cargo handled and passengers carried.

The modern terms short-sea shipping, marine highway, and motorways of the sea, and the more historical terms coastal trade, coastal shipping, coasting trade, and coastwise trade, all encompass the movement of cargo and passengers mainly by sea along a coast, without crossing an ocean.

Passenger terminal (maritime)

A passenger terminal is a structure in a port which services passengers boarding and leaving water vessels such as ferries, cruise ships and ocean liners. Depending on the types of vessels serviced by the terminal, it may be named ferry terminal, cruise terminal, marine terminal or maritime passenger terminal. As well as passengers, a passenger terminal sometimes has facilities for automobiles and other land vehicles to be picked up and dropped off by the water vessel.

Port of Savannah

The Port of Savannah is a major U. S. seaport located at Savannah, Georgia. Its facilities for oceangoing vessels line both sides of the Savannah River approximately 18 miles (29 km) from the Atlantic Ocean. Operated by the Georgia Ports Authority (GPA), the Port of Savannah competes primarily with the Port of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina to the northeast, and the Port of Jacksonville in Jacksonville, Florida to the south. The GPA operates one other Atlantic seaport in Georgia, the Port of Brunswick, located at Brunswick, Georgia. There are three interior ports linked to the Gulf of Mexico, Port Bainbridge and Port Columbus, and one linked to the Port of Savannah by rail in Cordele, Georgia.

Port of New York and New Jersey

The Port of New York and New Jersey is the port district of the New York-Newark metropolitan area, encompassing the region within approximately a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. It includes the system of navigable waterways in the New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary, which runs along 650 miles (1,050 km) of shoreline in the vicinity of New York City and northeastern New Jersey, as well as the region's airports and supporting rail and roadway distribution networks. Considered one of the largest natural harbors in the world, the port has become the second busiest port by tonnage in the United States as of 2019, and the busiest on the East Coast.

The Port of Montreal is a cruise and transshipment point located on the St. Lawrence River in Montreal, Québec, Canada. The port operates as an international container port where it services Toronto and the rest of Central Canada, the U.S. Midwest, and the U.S. Northeast. Though found on the Saint Lawrence Seaway and found 1,600 kilometres inland from the Atlantic Ocean, it is the shortest direct route between Europe and the Mediterranean, with the North American midwest.

Port of Bridgetown Port in Barbados

The Port of Bridgetown, is a seaport in Bridgetown on the southwest coast of Barbados. Situated at the North-Western end of Carlisle Bay, the harbour handles all of the country's international bulk ship-based trade and commerce. In addition to international-shipping the Deep Water Harbour is the port of entry for southern-Caribbean cruise ships. The port is one of three designated ports of entry in Barbados, along with the privately owned Port Saint Charles marina and the Sir Grantley Adams International Airport. The port's time zone is GMT −4, and it handles roughly 700,000 cruise passengers and 900,000 tonnes of containerised cargo per year.

Port of Jacksonville

The Port of Jacksonville (JAXPORT) is an international trade seaport on the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. The 14th largest container port in the United States, it carries about 18 million short tons of cargo each year and has an annual economic impact of over $31 billion, including 138,500 jobs across the state of Florida related to cargo moving through the port. It handled 1,338,000 containers, and is the second largest handler of vehicles in the United States with 696,500 in 2019.

Shipping industry of China

In 1961 China established a state-run maritime shipping company and subsequently signed shipping agreements with many countries, laying the foundation for developing the country's ocean transport. That organization developed into the present-day China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (COSCO). The Chinese government also invested heavily in water transport infrastructure, constructing new ports and rebuilding and enlarging older facilities.

Lists of ports

Lists of ports cover ports of various types, maritime facilities with one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Most are on the sea coast or an estuary, but some are many miles inland, with access to the sea via river or canal. The lists are organized by shipping volume, by ocean or sea, by nation or sub-region, and by other characteristics.

Port of Piraeus

The Port of Piraeus is the chief sea port of Athens, Greece, located on the Saronic Gulf on the western coasts of the Aegean Sea, the largest port in Greece and one of the largest in Europe.

Environmental impact of shipping

The environmental impact of shipping includes air pollution, water pollution, acoustic, and oil pollution. Ships are responsible for more than 18 percent of some air pollutants.

Kollam Port

Kollam Port is one of the historic ports situated 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) away from Downtown Kollam ,14km north of Paravur and 24km north of Varkala Town It is the second largest port in Kerala by volume of cargo handled and facilities. Located on the south-west coast of India, under the name of Quilon Port it became one of the country's most important trade hubs from the ninth to the seventeenth centuries. Kollam was one of the five Indian ports visited by Ibn Battuta.

Ukrainian Sea Ports Authority

Ukrainian Sea Ports Authority (USPA) is a state company created in 2013 after the adoption of the law "On Sea Ports of Ukraine" and united all ports of Ukraine under one administration. Total throughput of 13 seaports in 2019 exceeded 160 million tons.

References

  1. 1 2 3
  2. 1 2
  3. Hossain, Tahazzud; Adams, Michelle; Walker, Tony R. (2020). "Role of sustainability in global seaports". Ocean & Coastal Management: 105435. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105435 .
  4. Hossain, Tahazzud; Adams, Michelle; Walker, Tony R. (2019). "Sustainability initiatives in Canadian ports". Marine Policy. 106: 103519. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103519.
  5. 1 2 Walker, Tony R. (2016). "Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 105 (1): 199–207. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.02.029. PMID   26899158.
  6. "Areas of Interest – World Port Sustainability Program". sustainableworldports.org. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  7. EOS magazine, 6, 2012
  8. "World Port Rankings 2011" (PDF). Agência Nacional de Transportes Aquaviários. Antaq, Brazil. 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  9. "Los 10 mayores puertos de América Latina y Caribe en tráfico de contenedores". Revista de Ingeniería Naval (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain: Asociación de Ingenieros Navales y Oceánicos de España. September 28, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2017.