Asia

Last updated

Asia
Asia (orthographic projection) without New Guinea.svg
Area44,579,000 km2 (17,212,000 sq mi) (1st) [1]
Population4,694,576,167 (2021; 1st) [2] [3]
Population density100/km2 (260/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)$72.7 trillion (2022 est; 1st) [4]
GDP (nominal)$39 trillion (2022 est; 1st) [5]
GDP per capita$8,890 (2022 est; 4th) [6]
Religions
Demonym Asian
Countries 49 UN members
1 UN observer
5 other states
Dependencies
Non-UN states
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00
Internet TLD .asia
Largest cities
UN M49 code142 – Asia
001 – World
Map of the most populous part of Asia showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018 Populous Asia (physical, political, population) with legend.jpg
Map of the most populous part of Asia showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018

Asia ( /ˈʒə/ AY-zhə, UK also /ˈʃə/ AY-shə) is the largest continent [note 1] [10] [11] in the world by both land area and population. [11] It covers an area of more than 44 million square kilometers, [note 2] about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8% of Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, [12] was the site of many of the first civilizations. Its 4.7 billion people [13] constitute roughly 60% of the world's population. [14]

Contents

Asia shares the landmass of Eurasia with Europe, and of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. In general terms, it is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. The border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural, linguistic, and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. A commonly accepted division places Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa; and to the east of the Turkish Straits, the Ural Mountains and Ural River, and to the south of the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian and Black seas, separating it from Europe. [15]

China and India traded places as the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power for much of recorded history, with the highest GDP per capita until 1500. [16] [17] [18] The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. [19] Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Jainism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.

Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties, and government systems. It also has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot deserts in West Asia, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia.

Definition and boundaries

Asia–Africa boundary

The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Suez Canal, the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, and the Bab-el-Mandeb. [20] This makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa.

Asia–Europe boundary

Definitions used for the boundary between Asia and Europe in different periods of history. The commonly accepted modern definition mostly fits with the lines "B" and "F" in this image. Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia.png
Definitions used for the boundary between Asia and Europe in different periods of history. The commonly accepted modern definition mostly fits with the lines "B" and "F" in this image.

The threefold division of the Old World into Africa, Asia, and Europe has been in use since the 6th century BCE, due to Greek geographers such as Anaximander and Hecataeus.[ citation needed ] Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River (the modern Rioni river) in Georgia of Caucasus (from its mouth by Poti on the Black Sea coast, through the Surami Pass and along the Kura River to the Caspian Sea), a convention still followed by Herodotus in the 5th century BCE. [21] During the Hellenistic period, [22] this convention was revised, and the boundary between Europe and Asia was now considered to be the Tanais (the modern Don River). This is the convention used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius, [23] Strabo [24] and Ptolemy. [25]

The border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. [26] The Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, and armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.[ citation needed ]

In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Ural Mountains as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg. The latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century. The border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. [27] The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is usually placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north. [26]

Asia–Oceania boundary

The border between Asia and the region of Oceania is usually placed somewhere in the Indonesia Archipelago. The Maluku Islands are often considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with Indonesian New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception. The chief factor in determining which islands of the Indonesian Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there (not all European). Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of 'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." [28]

Asia–North America boundary

The Bering Strait and Bering Sea separate the landmasses of Asia and North America, as well as forming the international boundary between Russia and the United States. This national and continental boundary separates the Diomede Islands in the Bering Strait, with Big Diomede in Russia and Little Diomede in the United States. The Aleutian Islands are an island chain extending westward from the Alaskan Peninsula toward Russia's Komandorski Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula. Most of them are always associated with North America, except for the westernmost Near Islands group, which is on Asia's continental shelf beyond the North Aleutians Basin and on rare occasions could be associated with Asia, which could then allow the U.S. state of Alaska as well as the United States itself to be considered a transcontinental state. The Aleutian Islands are sometimes associated with Oceania, owing to their status as remote Pacific islands, and their proximity to the Pacific Plate. [29] [30] [31] This is extremely rare however, due to their non-tropical biogeography, as well as their inhabitants, who have historically been related to Indigenous Americans. [32] [33]

St. Lawrence Island in the northern Bering Sea belongs to Alaska and may be associated with either continent but is almost always considered part of North America, as with the Rat Islands in the Aleutian chain. At their nearest points, Alaska and Russia are separated by only 4 kilometres (2.5 miles).

Ongoing definition

Afro-Eurasia shown in green Afro-Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg
Afro-Eurasia shown in green

Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not exactly correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. [34]

From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system (Europe, Africa, Asia) on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between them. [35] For example, Sir Barry Cunliffe, the emeritus professor of European archeology at Oxford, argues that Europe has been geographically and culturally merely "the western excrescence of the continent of Asia". [36]

Geographically, Asia is the major eastern constituent of the continent of Eurasia with Europe being a northwestern peninsula of the landmass. Asia, Europe and Africa make up a single continuous landmass—Afro-Eurasia (except for the Suez Canal)—and share a common continental shelf. Almost all of Europe and a major part of Asia sit atop the Eurasian Plate, adjoined on the south by the Arabian and Indian Plate and with the easternmost part of Siberia (east of the Chersky Range) on the North American Plate.

Etymology

Ptolemy's Asia Gulf5..JPG
Ptolemy's Asia

The term "Asia" is believed to originate in the Bronze Age placename Assuwa (Hittite : 𒀸𒋗𒉿, romanized: aš-šu-wa) which originally referred only to a portion of northwestern Anatolia. The term appears in Hittite records recounting how a confederation of Assuwan states including Troy unsuccessfully rebelled against the Hittite king Tudhaliya I around 1400 BCE. [37] [38] [39] Roughly contemporary Linear B documents contain the term aswia (Mycenaean Greek : 𐀀𐀯𐀹𐀊, romanized: a-si-wi-ja), seemingly in reference to captives from the same area. [40] [41]

The province of Asia highlighted (in red) within the Roman Empire Roman Empire - Asia (125 AD).svg
The province of Asia highlighted (in red) within the Roman Empire

Herodotus used the term Ἀσία in reference to Anatolia and the territory of the Persian Empire, in contrast to Greece and Egypt. He reports that Greeks assumed that Asia was named after the wife of Prometheus, but that Lydians say it was named after Asies, son of Cotys, who passed the name on to a tribe at Sardis. [42] In Greek mythology, "Asia" (Ἀσία) or "Asie" (Ἀσίη) was the name of a "Nymph or Titan goddess of Lydia". [43] The Iliad (attributed by the ancient Greeks to Homer) mentions two Phrygians in the Trojan War named Asios (an adjective meaning "Asian"); [44] and also a marsh or lowland containing a marsh in Lydia as ασιος. [45]

The term was later adopted by the Romans, who used it in reference to the province of Asia, located in western Anatolia. [46] One of the first writers to use Asia as a name of the whole continent was Pliny. [47]

History

The Silk Road connected civilizations across Asia. Silkroutes.jpg
The Silk Road connected civilizations across Asia.
The Mongol Empire at its greatest extent. The gray area is the later Timurid Empire. Mongol dominions1.jpg
The Mongol Empire at its greatest extent. The gray area is the later Timurid Empire.

The history of Asia can be seen as the distinct histories of several peripheral coastal regions: East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and West Asia. The coastal periphery was home to some of the world's earliest known civilizations, each of them developing around fertile river valleys. The civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and the Yellow River shared many similarities. These civilizations may well have exchanged technologies and ideas such as mathematics and the wheel. Other innovations, such as writing, seem to have been developed individually in each area. Cities, states and empires developed in these lowlands.

The central steppe region had long been inhabited by horse-mounted nomads who could reach all areas of Asia from the steppes. The earliest postulated expansion out of the steppe is that of the Indo-Europeans, who spread their languages into West Asia, South Asia, and the borders of China, where the Tocharians resided. The northernmost part of Asia, including much of Siberia, was largely inaccessible to the steppe nomads, owing to the dense forests, climate and tundra. These areas remained very sparsely populated.

The center and the peripheries were mostly kept separated by mountains and deserts. The Caucasus and Himalaya mountains and the Karakum and Gobi deserts formed barriers that the steppe horsemen could cross only with difficulty. While the urban city dwellers were more advanced technologically and socially, in many cases they could do little in a military aspect to defend against the mounted hordes of the steppe. However, the lowlands did not have enough open grasslands to support a large horsebound force; for this and other reasons, the nomads who conquered states in China, India, and the Middle East often found themselves adapting to the local, more affluent societies.

The Islamic Caliphate's defeats of the Byzantine and Persian empires led to West Asia and southern parts of Central Asia and western parts of South Asia under its control during its conquests of the 7th century. The Mongol Empire conquered a large part of Asia in the 13th century, an area extending from China to Europe. Before the Mongol invasion, Song dynasty reportedly had approximately 120 million citizens; the 1300 census which followed the invasion reported roughly 60 million people. [49]

The Black Death, one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, is thought to have originated in the arid plains of central Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road. [50]

The Russian Empire began to expand into Asia from the 17th century, and would eventually take control of all of Siberia and most of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. The Ottoman Empire controlled Anatolia, most of the Middle East, North Africa and the Balkans from the mid 16th century onwards. In the 17th century, the Manchu conquered China and established the Qing dynasty. The Islamic Mughal Empire and the Hindu Maratha Empire controlled much of India in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively. [51]

Western European colonisation of Asia coincided with the Industrial Revolution in the West and the dethroning of India and China as the world's foremost economies. [52] The British Empire became dominant in South Asia, with large parts of the region first being conquered by British traders before falling under direct British rule; extreme poverty doubled to over 50% during this era. [53] The Middle East was contested and partitioned by the British and French, [54] while Southeast Asia was carved up between the British, Dutch and French. [55] Various Western powers dominated China in what later became known as the "century of humiliation", with the British-supported opium trade and later Opium Wars resulting in China being forced into an unprecedented situation of importing more than it exported. [56] [57] Foreign domination of China was furthered by the Empire of Japan, which controlled most of East Asia and much of Southeast Asia, New Guinea and the Pacific islands during this era; Japan's domination was enabled by its rapid rise that had taken place during the Meiji era of the late 19th century, in which it applied industrial knowledge learned from the West and thus overtook the rest of Asia. [58] [59]

With the end of World War II in 1945 and the wartime ruination of Europe and imperial Japan, many countries in Asia were able to rapidly free themselves of colonial rule. [60] The independence of India came along with the carving out of a separate nation for the majority of Indian Muslims, which today has become the countries Pakistan and Bangladesh. [61]

Some Arab countries took economic advantage of massive oil deposits that were discovered in their territory, becoming globally influential. [62] East Asian nations (along with Singapore in Southeast Asia) became economically prosperous with high-growth "tiger economies", [63] with China regaining its place among the top two economies of the world by the 21st century. [64] India has grown significantly because of economic liberalisation that started in the 1990s, [65] with extreme poverty now below 20%. [66]

Geography

The Himalayan range is home to some of the planet's highest peaks. Himalayas.jpg
The Himalayan range is home to some of the planet's highest peaks.

Asia is the largest continent on Earth. It covers 9% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area), and has the longest coastline, at 62,800 kilometres (39,022 mi). Asia is generally defined as comprising the eastern four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of the Suez Canal and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma–Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas. [15] [68] It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. Asia is subdivided into 49 countries, five of them (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkey) are transcontinental countries lying partly in Europe. Geographically, Russia is partly in Asia, but is considered a European nation, both culturally and politically.

The Gobi Desert is in Mongolia and the Arabian Desert stretches across much of the Middle East. The Yangtze River in China is the longest river in the continent. The Himalayas between Nepal and China is the tallest mountain range in the world. Tropical rainforests stretch across much of southern Asia and coniferous and deciduous forests lie farther north.

Main regions

Detailed map of Asian regions Detailed map of Asian regions.png
Detailed map of Asian regions

There are various approaches to the regional division of Asia. The following subdivision into regions is used, among others, by the UN statistics agency UNSD. This division of Asia into regions by the United Nations is done solely for statistical reasons and does not imply any assumption about political or other affiliations of countries and territories. [69]

Climate

Koppen-Geiger climate classification map for Asia Koppen-Geiger Map Asia present.svg
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Asia

Asia has extremely diverse climate features. Climates range from arctic and subarctic in Siberia to tropical in southern India and Southeast Asia. It is moist across southeast sections, and dry across much of the interior. Some of the largest daily temperature ranges on Earth occur in western sections of Asia. The monsoon circulation dominates across southern and eastern sections, due to the presence of the Himalayas forcing the formation of a thermal low which draws in moisture during the summer. Southwestern sections of the continent are hot. Siberia is one of the coldest places in the Northern Hemisphere, and can act as a source of arctic air masses for North America. The most active place on Earth for tropical cyclone activity lies northeast of the Philippines and south of Japan.

Climate change

Climate change is having major impacts on many countries in the continent. A survey carried out in 2010 by global risk analysis farm Maplecroft identified 16 countries that are extremely vulnerable to climate change. Each nation's vulnerability was calculated using 42 socio, economic and environmental indicators, which identified the likely climate change impacts during the next 30 years. The Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, China and Sri Lanka were among the 16 countries facing extreme risk from climate change. [71] [72] [73] Some shifts are already occurring. For example, in tropical parts of India with a semi-arid climate, the temperature increased by 0.4 °C between 1901 and 2003. A 2013 study by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) aimed to find science-based, pro-poor approaches and techniques that would enable Asia's agricultural systems to cope with climate change, while benefiting poor and vulnerable farmers. The study's recommendations ranged from improving the use of climate information in local planning and strengthening weather-based agro-advisory services, to stimulating diversification of rural household incomes and providing incentives to farmers to adopt natural resource conservation measures to enhance forest cover, replenish groundwater and use renewable energy. [74]

The ten countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam – are among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change in the world, however, ASEAN's climate mitigation efforts are not commensurate with the climate threats and risks it faces. [75]

Economy

Singapore has one of the busiest container ports in the world and is the world's fourth largest foreign exchange trading center. 1 Singapore city skyline 2010 day panorama.jpg
Singapore has one of the busiest container ports in the world and is the world's fourth largest foreign exchange trading center.

Asia has the largest continental economy in the world by both GDP nominal and PPP values, and is the fastest growing economic region. [76] As of 2023, China is by far the largest economy on the continent, making up nearly half of the continent's economy by GDP nominal. It is followed by Japan, India, South Korea, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, which are all ranked amongst the top 20 largest economies both by nominal and PPP values. [77] Based on Global Office Locations 2011, Asia dominated the office locations with 4 of the top 5 being in Asia: Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo and Seoul. Around 68 percent of international firms have an office in Hong Kong. [78]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the economy of China [79] had an average annual growth rate of more than 8%. According to economic historian Angus Maddison, India had the world's largest economy during 1000 BCE and 1 CE. India was the largest economy in the world for most of the two millennia from the 1st until 19th century, contributing 25% of the world's industrial output. [80] [81] [82] [83] China was the largest and most advanced economy on earth for much of recorded history and shared the mantle with India. [84] [17] [85] For several decades in the late twentieth century Japan was the largest economy in Asia and second-largest of any single nation in the world, after surpassing the Soviet Union (measured in net material product) in 1990 and Germany in 1968. (NB: A number of supernational economies are larger, such as the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or APEC). This ended in 2010 when China overtook Japan to become the world's second largest economy. It is forecasted that India will overtake Japan in terms of nominal GDP by 2027. [76]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Japan's GDP by currency exchange rates was almost as large as that of the rest of Asia combined. [76] In 1995, Japan's economy nearly equaled that of the US as the largest economy in the world for a day, after the Japanese currency reached a record high of 79 yen/US$. Economic growth in Asia since World War II to the 1990s had been concentrated in Japan as well as the four regions of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore located in the Pacific Rim, known as the Asian tigers, which are now all considered developed economies, having amongst the highest GDP per capita in Asia. [86] [76]

Mumbai is one of the most populous cities on the continent. The city is an infrastructure and tourism hub, and plays a crucial role in the economy of India. Mumbai skyline BWSL.jpg
Mumbai is one of the most populous cities on the continent. The city is an infrastructure and tourism hub, and plays a crucial role in the economy of India.

Asia is the largest continent in the world by a considerable margin, and it is rich in natural resources, such as petroleum, forests, fish, water, rice, copper and silver. Manufacturing in Asia has traditionally been strongest in East and Southeast Asia, particularly in China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, India, the Philippines, and Singapore. Japan and South Korea continue to dominate in the area of multinational corporations, but increasingly the PRC and India are making significant inroads. Many companies from Europe, North America, South Korea and Japan have operations in Asia's developing countries to take advantage of its abundant supply of cheap labour and relatively developed infrastructure.[ citation needed ]

According to Citigroup in 2011, 9 of 11 Global Growth Generators countries came from Asia driven by population and income growth. They are Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. [87] Asia has three main financial centers: Hong Kong, Tokyo and Singapore. Call centers and business process outsourcing (BPOs) are becoming major employers in India and the Philippines due to the availability of a large pool of highly skilled, English-speaking workers. The increased use of outsourcing has assisted the rise of India and the China as financial centers. Due to its large and extremely competitive information technology industry, India has become a major hub for outsourcing.[ citation needed ]

Trade between Asian countries and countries on other continents is largely carried out on the sea routes that are important for Asia. Individual main routes have emerged from this. The main route leads from the Chinese coast south via Hanoi to Jakarta, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur through the Strait of Malacca via the Sri Lankan Colombo to the southern tip of India via Malé to East Africa Mombasa, from there to Djibouti, then through the Red Sea over the Suez Canal into Mediterranean, there via Haifa, Istanbul and Athens to the upper Adriatic to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe or further to Barcelona and around Spain and France to the European northern ports. A far smaller part of the goods traffic runs via South Africa to Europe. A particularly significant part of the Asian goods traffic is carried out across the Pacific towards Los Angeles and Long Beach. In contrast to the sea routes, the Silk Road via the land route to Europe is on the one hand still under construction and on the other hand is much smaller in terms of scope. Intra-Asian trade, including sea trade, is growing rapidly. [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95]

In 2010, Asia had 3.3 million millionaires (people with net worth over US$1 million excluding their homes), slightly below North America with 3.4 million millionaires. In 2011, Asia topped Europe in number of millionaires. [96] Citigroup in The Wealth Report 2012 stated that Asian centa-millionaire overtook North America's wealth for the first time as the world's "economic center of gravity" continued moving east. At the end of 2011, there were 18,000 Asian people mainly in Southeast Asia, China and Japan who have at least $100 million in disposable assets, while North America with 17,000 people and Western Europe with 14,000 people. [97]

RankCountry GDP (nominal, Peak Year)
millions of USD
Peak Year
1Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 17,700,8992023
2Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4,230,8622023
3Flag of India.svg  India 3,732,2242023
4Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1,862,4702023
5Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1,709,2322021
6Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1,417,3872023
7Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1,154,6002023
8Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 1,069,4372023
9Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 751,9302023
10Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 521,6882023
RankCountry GDP (PPP, Peak Year)
millions of USD
Peak Year
1Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 32,897,9292023
2Flag of India.svg  India 13,119,6222023
3Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 6,495,2142023
4Flag of Russia.svg  Russia [98] 5,326,8552022
5Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 4,393,3702023
6Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 3,613,5402023
7Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 2,924,1892023
8Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 2,246,5352023
9Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 1,809,4252023
10Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 1,725,8742023

Tourism

Wat Phra Kaew in the Grand Palace is among Bangkok's major tourist attractions. wadphrasriiratnsaasdaaraam-5.jpg
Wat Phra Kaew in the Grand Palace is among Bangkok's major tourist attractions.

With growing Regional Tourism with domination of Chinese visitors, MasterCard has released Global Destination Cities Index 2013 with 10 of 20 are dominated by Asia and Pacific Region Cities and also for the first time a city of a country from Asia (Bangkok) set in the top-ranked with 15.98 million international visitors. [99]

Demographics

Historical populations
YearPop.±% p.a.
1500 243,000,000    
1700 436,000,000+0.29%
1900 947,000,000+0.39%
1950 1,402,000,000+0.79%
1999 3,634,000,000+1.96%
20164,462,676,731+1.22%
Source: "UN report 2004 data" (PDF).
The figure for 2021 is provided by.the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects [2] [3]
Graph showing population by continent as a percentage of world population (1750-2005) WorldPopulation.png
Graph showing population by continent as a percentage of world population (1750–2005)

East Asia had by far the strongest overall Human Development Index (HDI) improvement of any region in the world, nearly doubling average HDI attainment over the past 40 years, according to the report's analysis of health, education and income data. China, the second highest achiever in the world in terms of HDI improvement since 1970, is the only country on the "Top 10 Movers" list due to income rather than health or education achievements. Its per capita income increased a stunning 21-fold over the last four decades, also lifting hundreds of millions out of income poverty. Yet it was not among the region's top performers in improving school enrollment and life expectancy. [100]
Nepal, a South Asian country, emerges as one of the world's fastest movers since 1970 mainly due to health and education achievements. Its present life expectancy is 25 years longer than in the 1970s. More than four of every five children of school age in Nepal now attend primary school, compared to just one in five 40 years ago. [100]
Hong Kong ranked highest among the countries grouped on the HDI (number 7 in the world, which is in the "very high human development" category), followed by Singapore (9), Japan (19) and South Korea (22). Afghanistan (155) ranked lowest amongst Asian countries out of the 169 countries assessed. [100]

Languages

Asia is home to several language families and many language isolates. Most Asian countries have more than one language that is natively spoken. For instance, according to Ethnologue, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia, more than 400 languages spoken in India, and more than 100 are spoken in the Philippines. China has many languages and dialects in different provinces.

Religions

Many of the world's major religions have their origins in Asia, including the five most practiced in the world (excluding irreligion), which are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion (classified as Confucianism and Taoism), and Buddhism. Asian mythology is complex and diverse. The story of the Great Flood for example, as presented to Jews in the Hebrew Bible in the narrative of Noah—and later to Christians in the Old Testament, and to Muslims in the Quran—is earliest found in Mesopotamian mythology, in the Enûma Eliš and Epic of Gilgamesh . Hindu mythology similarly tells about an avatar of Vishnu in the form of a fish who warned Manu of a terrible flood. Ancient Chinese mythology also tells of a Great Flood spanning generations, one that required the combined efforts of emperors and divinities to control.

Abrahamic

The Western Wall and the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Westernwall2.jpg
The Western Wall and the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem Church of the Nativity (7703592746).jpg
The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem
Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca Kaaba mirror edit jj.jpg
Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca

The Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Druze faith, [101] and Baháʼí Faith originated in West Asia. [102] [103]

Judaism, the oldest of the Abrahamic faiths, is practiced primarily in Israel, the indigenous homeland and historical birthplace of the Hebrew nation: which today consists both of those Jews who remained in the Middle East and those who returned from diaspora in Europe, North America, and other regions; [104] though various diaspora communities persist worldwide. Jews are the predominant ethnic group in Israel (75.6%) numbering at about 6.1 million, [105] although the levels of adherence to Jewish religion vary. Outside of Israel there are small ancient Jewish communities in Turkey (17,400), [106] Azerbaijan (9,100), [107] Iran (8,756), [108] India (5,000) and Uzbekistan (4,000), [109] among many other places. In total, there are 14.4–17.5 million (2016, est.) [110] Jews alive in the world today, making them one of the smallest Asian minorities, at roughly 0.3 to 0.4 percent of the total population of the continent.

Christianity is a widespread religion in Asia with more than 286 million adherents according to Pew Research Center in 2010, [111] and nearly 364 million according to Britannica Book of the Year 2014. [112] Christians constitute around 12.6% of the total population of Asia. In the Philippines and East Timor, Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion; [113] it was introduced by the Spaniards and the Portuguese, respectively. In Armenia and Georgia, Eastern Orthodoxy is the predominant religion. [113] In the Middle East, such as in the Levant, Anatolia and Fars, Syriac Christianity (Church of the East) and Oriental Orthodoxy are prevalent minority denominations, [114] which are both Eastern Christian sects mainly adhered to Assyrian people or Syriac Christians. Vibrant indigenous minorities in West Asia are adhering to the Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodoxy. [113] Saint Thomas Christians in India trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. [115] Significant Christian communities also found in Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia. [113]

Islam, which originated in the Hejaz located in modern-day Saudi Arabia, is the second largest and most widely-spread religion in Asia with at least 1 billion Muslims constituting around 23.8% of the total population of Asia. [116] With 12.7% of the world Muslim population, the country currently with the largest Muslim population in the world is Indonesia, followed by Pakistan (11.5%), India (10%), Bangladesh, Iran and Turkey. Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are the three holiest cities for Islam in all the world. The Hajj and Umrah attract large numbers of Muslim devotees from all over the world to Mecca and Medina. Iran is the largest Shi'a country.

The Druze Faith or Druzism originated in West Asia, is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of figures like Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. The number of Druze people worldwide is around one million. About 45% to 50% live in Syria, 35% to 40% live in Lebanon, and less than 10% live in Israel. Recently there has been a growing Druze diaspora. [117]

The Baháʼí Faith originated in Asia, in Iran (Persia), and spread from there to the Ottoman Empire, Central Asia, India, and Burma during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh. Since the middle of the 20th century, growth has particularly occurred in other Asian countries, because Baháʼí activities in many Muslim countries has been severely suppressed by authorities. Lotus Temple is a big Baháʼí temple in India.

Indian and East Asian religions

The Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple in Delhi, according to the Guinness World Records, is the World's Largest Comprehensive Hindu Temple. Akshardham Lotus.jpg
The Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple in Delhi, according to the Guinness World Records, is the World's Largest Comprehensive Hindu Temple.

Almost all Asian religions have philosophical character and Asian philosophical traditions cover a large spectrum of philosophical thoughts and writings. Indian philosophy includes Hindu philosophy and Buddhist philosophy. They include elements of nonmaterial pursuits, whereas another school of thought from India, Cārvāka, preached the enjoyment of the material world. The religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated in India, South Asia. In East Asia, particularly in China and Japan, Confucianism, Taoism and Zen Buddhism took shape.

As of 2012, Hinduism has around 1.1 billion adherents. The faith represents around 25% of Asia's population and is the largest religion in Asia. However, it is mostly concentrated in South Asia. Over 80% of the populations of both India and Nepal adhere to Hinduism, alongside significant communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Bali, Indonesia. Many overseas Indians in countries such as Burma, Singapore and Malaysia also adhere to Hinduism.

The Hindu-Buddhist temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the largest religious monument in the world Angkor Wat reflejado en un estanque 02.jpg
The Hindu-Buddhist temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the largest religious monument in the world

Buddhism has a great following in mainland Southeast Asia and East Asia. Buddhism is the religion of the majority of the populations of Cambodia (96%), [119] Thailand (95%), [120] Burma (80–89%), [121] Japan (36–96%), [122] Bhutan (75–84%), [123] Sri Lanka (70%), [124] Laos (60–67%) [125] and Mongolia (53–93%). [126] Taiwan (35–93%), [127] [128] [129] [130] South Korea (23–50%), [131] Malaysia (19–21%), [132] Nepal (9–11%), [133] Vietnam (10–75%), [134] China (20–50%), [135] North Korea (2–14%), [136] [137] [138] and small communities in India and Bangladesh. The Communist-governed countries of China, Vietnam and North Korea are officially atheist, thus the number of Buddhists and other religious adherents may be under-reported.

Jainism is found mainly in India and in overseas Indian communities such as the United States and Malaysia. Sikhism is found in Northern India and amongst overseas Indian communities in other parts of Asia, especially Southeast Asia. Confucianism is found predominantly in mainland China, South Korea, Taiwan and in overseas Chinese populations. Taoism is found mainly in mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. In many Chinese communities, Taoism is easily syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism, thus exact religious statistics are difficult to obtain and may be understated or overstated.

Modern conflicts and events

A refugee special train in Ambala, Punjab during the partition of India in 1947 A refugee special train at Ambala Station during partition of India.jpg
A refugee special train in Ambala, Punjab during the partition of India in 1947
US forces drop Napalm on suspected Viet Cong positions in 1965. Napalm.jpg
US forces drop Napalm on suspected Viet Cong positions in 1965.
Demonstrations in Hong Kong against the Extradition bill began in March 2019 and turned into continuing mass movements, drawing around 2 million protesters by June June9protestTreefong01.jpg
Demonstrations in Hong Kong against the Extradition bill began in March 2019 and turned into continuing mass movements, drawing around 2 million protesters by June

Some of the events pivotal in Asia related to the relationship with the outside world in the post-Second World War were:

Led to the creation of India and Pakistan, shaping the political landscape in South Asia.

Fought over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, setting the stage for future conflicts.

Culminated in the establishment of the People's Republic of China under the Communist Party.

Involved international forces and led to the division of the Korean Peninsula.

Ended with the defeat of French colonial forces and the partition of Vietnam.

A protracted conflict with significant global implications, especially during the Cold War.

Conflict between China and Vietnam following Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia.

Involved Indonesia's annexation and subsequent independence through a UN-backed referendum.

Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, contributing to the rise of the mujahideen.

Long-lasting conflict with regional and international implications.

Resulted from Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, with international intervention.

Marked the end of the Cold War and the emergence of independent states.

U.S.-led intervention post-9/11 with long-lasting consequences.

Led to the overthrow of Saddam Hussein and subsequent instability.

Series of uprisings and protests across the Arab world, influencing regional dynamics.

Ongoing conflict with widespread humanitarian implications.

Culture

The culture of Asia is a diverse blend of customs and traditions that have been practiced by the various ethnic groups of the continent for centuries. The continent is divided into six geographic sub-regions: Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and West Asia. [139] These regions are defined by their cultural similarities, including common religions, languages, and ethnicities. West Asia, also known as Southwest Asia or the Middle East, has cultural roots in the ancient civilizations of the Fertile Crescent and Mesopotamia, which gave rise to the Persian, Arab, Ottoman empires, as well as the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. [140] These civilizations, which are located in the Hilly flanks, are among the oldest in the world, with evidence of farming dating back to around 9000 BCE. [141] Despite the challenges posed by the vast size of the continent and the presence of natural barriers such as deserts and mountain ranges, trade and commerce have helped to create a Pan-Asian culture that is shared across the region. [142]

Nobel prizes

Indian polymath Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and became Asia's first Nobel laureate. Tagore3.jpg
Indian polymath Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and became Asia's first Nobel laureate.

The polymath Rabindranath Tagore, a Bengali poet, dramatist, and writer from Santiniketan, now in West Bengal, India, became in 1913 the first Asian Nobel laureate. He won his Nobel Prize in Literature for notable impact his prose works and poetic thought had on English, French, and other national literatures of Europe and the Americas. He is also the writer of the national anthems of Bangladesh and India.

Other Asian writers who won Nobel Prize for literature include Yasunari Kawabata (Japan, 1968), Kenzaburō Ōe (Japan, 1994), Gao Xingjian (China, 2000), Orhan Pamuk (Turkey, 2006), and Mo Yan (China, 2012). Some may consider the American writer, Pearl S. Buck, an honorary Asian Nobel laureate, having spent considerable time in China as the daughter of missionaries, and based many of her novels, namely The Good Earth (1931) and The Mother (1933), as well as the biographies of her parents for their time in China, The Exile and Fighting Angel , all of which earned her the Literature prize in 1938.

Also, Mother Teresa of India and Shirin Ebadi of Iran were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their significant and pioneering efforts for democracy and human rights, especially for the rights of women and children. Ebadi is the first Iranian and the first Muslim woman to receive the prize. Another Nobel Peace Prize winner is Aung San Suu Kyi from Burma for her peaceful and non-violent struggle under a military dictatorship in Burma. She is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma (Myanmar) and a noted prisoner of conscience. She is a Buddhist and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China" on 8 October 2010. He is the first Chinese citizen to be awarded a Nobel Prize of any kind while residing in China. In 2014, Kailash Satyarthi from India and Malala Yousafzai from Pakistan were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".

Sir C.V. Raman is the first Asian to get a Nobel prize in Sciences. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him".

Japan has won the most Nobel Prizes of any Asian nation with 24 followed by India which has won 13.

Amartya Sen (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of society's poorest members.

Other Asian Nobel Prize winners include Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Abdus Salam, Robert Aumann, Menachem Begin, Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Daniel Kahneman, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Ada Yonath, Yasser Arafat, José Ramos-Horta and Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of Timor Leste, Kim Dae-jung, and 13 Japanese scientists. Most of the said awardees are from Japan and Israel except for Chandrasekhar and Raman (India), Abdus Salam (Pakistan), Arafat (Palestinian Territories), Kim (South Korea), and Horta and Belo (Timor Leste).

In 2006, Muhammad Yunus of Bangladesh was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the establishment of Grameen Bank, a community development bank that lends money to poor people, especially women. He is known for the concept of micro credit which, allows poor and destitute people to borrow money. The borrowers pay back money within the specified period and defaulting is very low. The Dalai Lama received the Nobel Peace Prize, in Oslo, Norway in 1989. [143]

States of Asia

Symbol Flag Name Population [2] [3]
(2021)
Area
(km2)
Capital
Arms of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.svg Flag of the Taliban.svg Afghanistan 40,099,462652,864 Kabul
Arms of Armenia.svg Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia 2,790,97429,743 Yerevan
Emblem of Azerbaijan.svg Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan [note 4] 10,312,99286,600 Baku
Arms of Bahrain.png Flag of Bahrain.svg Bahrain 1,463,265760 Manama
National emblem of Bangladesh.svg Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh 169,356,251147,570 Dhaka
Emblem of Bhutan.svg Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan 777,48638,394 Thimphu
Emblem of Brunei.svg Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei 445,3735,765 Bandar Seri Begawan
Royal arms of Cambodia.svg Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia 16,589,023181,035 Phnom Penh
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China (PRC)1,425,893,4659,596,961 Beijing
Arms of Cyprus.svg Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus 1,244,1889,251 Nicosia
Shield Coat of arms of East Timor.png Flag of East Timor.svg East Timor 1,320,94214,874 Dili
Insigne Aegyptium.svg Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt [note 4] 109,262,1781,001,449 Cairo
Arms of Georgia.svg Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia [note 4] 3,757,98069,700 Tbilisi
Emblem of India.svg Flag of India.svg India 1,407,563,8423,287,263 New Delhi
National emblem of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila.svg Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia [note 4] 273,753,1911,904,569 Jakarta
Emblem of Iran.svg Flag of Iran.svg Iran 87,923,4321,648,195 Tehran
Arms of Iraq.svg Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq 43,533,592438,317 Baghdad
Emblem of Israel.svg Flag of Israel.svg Israel 8,900,05920,770 Jerusalem (disputed)
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg Flag of Japan.svg Japan 124,612,530377,915 Tokyo
Arms of Jordan.svg Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan 11,148,27889,342 Amman
Emblem of Kazakhstan.svg Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan [note 4] 19,196,4652,724,900 Astana
Insigne Cuvaiti.svg Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait 4,250,11417,818 Kuwait City
Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg Kyrgyzstan 6,527,743199,951 Bishkek
Emblem of Laos.svg Flag of Laos.svg Laos 7,425,057236,800 Vientiane
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 5,592,63110,400 Beirut
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia 33,573,874329,847 Kuala Lumpur
Emblem of Maldives.svg Flag of Maldives.svg Maldives 521,457298 Malé
State emblem of Mongolia.svg Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia 3,347,7821,564,116 Ulaanbaatar
State seal of Myanmar.svg Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar 53,798,084676,578 Naypyidaw
Emblem of Nepal (alternative).svg Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal 30,034,989147,181 Kathmandu
Emblem of North Korea.svg Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea 25,971,909120,538 Pyongyang
National emblem of Oman.svg Flag of Oman.svg Oman 4,520,471309,500 Muscat
Arms of Pakistan.svg Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 211,103,000881,913 Islamabad
Coat of arms of Palestine.svg Flag of Palestine.svg Palestine 5,133,3926,220
Arms of the Philippines.svg Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines 113,880,328343,448 Manila
Emblem of Qatar.svg Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar 2,688,23511,586 Doha
Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg Flag of Russia.svg Russia [note 5] 145,102,75517,098,242 Moscow [note 6]
Emblem of Saudi Arabia.svg Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 35,950,3962,149,690 Riyadh
Coat of arms of Singapore.svg Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore 5,941,060697 Singapore
Emblem of South Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea 51,830,139100,210 Seoul
Emblem of Sri Lanka.svg Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka 21,773,44165,610 Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
Insigne Syriae.svg Flag of Syria.svg Syria 21,324,367185,180 Damascus
Emblem of Tajikistan.svg Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan 9,750,064143,100 Dushanbe
Emblem of Thailand.svg Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand 71,601,103513,120 Bangkok
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey [note 7] 84,775,404783,562 Ankara
Emblem of Turkmenistan.svg Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan 6,341,855488,100 Ashgabat
Emblem of the United Arab Emirates.svg Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates 9,365,14583,600 Abu Dhabi
Emblem of Uzbekistan.svg Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan 34,081,449447,400 Tashkent
Emblem of Vietnam.svg Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam 97,468,029331,212 Hanoi
Emblem of Yemen.svg Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 32,981,641527,968
  • Sana'a (const.; SPC Tooltip Supreme Political Council control)
  • Aden (prv. capital of PLC Tooltip Presidential Leadership Council)

Within the above-mentioned states are several partially recognized countries with limited to no international recognition. None of them are members of the UN:

Symbol Flag Name Population
Area
(km2)
Capital
Coat of arms of Abkhazia.svg Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg Abkhazia 242,8628,660 Sukhumi
Coat of arms of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Northern Cyprus 326,0003,355 North Nicosia
Coat of arms of South Ossetia.svg Flag of South Ossetia.svg South Ossetia 51,5473,900 Tskhinvali
National Emblem of the Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan (ROC)23,859,91236,193 Taipei
Map of 2023 V-Dem Electoral Democracy Index for Asia
.mw-parser-output .col-begin{border-collapse:collapse;padding:0;color:inherit;width:100%;border:0;margin:0}.mw-parser-output .col-begin-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .col-break{vertical-align:top;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .col-break-2{width:50%}.mw-parser-output .col-break-3{width:33.3%}.mw-parser-output .col-break-4{width:25%}.mw-parser-output .col-break-5{width:20%}@media(max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .col-begin,.mw-parser-output .col-begin>tbody,.mw-parser-output .col-begin>tbody>tr,.mw-parser-output .col-begin>tbody>tr>td{display:block!important;width:100%!important}.mw-parser-output .col-break{padding-left:0!important}}
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
0.900-1.000
0.800-0.899
0.700-0.799
0.600-0.699
0.500-0.599
0.400-0.499
0.300-0.399
0.200-0.299
0.100-0.199
0.000-0.099
No data V-Dem Democracy Indices 2023 Asia.svg
Map of 2023 V-Dem Electoral Democracy Index for Asia

The most democratic countries in Asia are Japan, Taiwan and Israel according to the V-Dem Democracy indices in 2024. [144]

See also

Special topics:

Lists:

Projects

Notes

    1. Asia is normally considered its own continent in the English speaking world, which uses the seven continent model. [8] [9] Other models consider Asia as part of a Eurasian or Afro-Eurasian continent (see Continent#Number for more information).
    2. 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 square miles)
    3. Siberia lies in Asia geographically, but is considered a part of Europe culturally and politically.
    4. 1 2 3 4 5 Transcontinental country
    5. Russia is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and North Asia, but is considered European historically, culturally, ethnically, and politically, and the vast majority of its population (78%) lives within its European part.
    6. Moscow is located in Europe.
    7. Turkey is a transcontinental country located mainly in West Asia with a smaller portion in Southeastern Europe.

    Related Research Articles

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Cuisine</span> Characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions

    A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Regional food preparation techniques, customs, and ingredients combine to enable dishes unique to a region.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Far East</span> Geographical term for eastern Asia

    The Far East is the geographical region that encompasses the easternmost portion of the Asian continent, including East, North and Southeast Asia. South Asia is sometimes also included in the definition of the term.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Southeast Asia</span> Subregion of the Asian continent

    Southeast Asia is the geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north-west of mainland Australia which is part of Oceania. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. Apart from the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in South Asia, Maritime Southeast Asia is the only other subregion of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere. Mainland Southeast Asia is entirely in the Northern Hemisphere. East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the parts of Southeast Asia that lie south of the Equator.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Mainland Southeast Asia</span> The continental portion of Southeast Asia

    Mainland Southeast Asia is the continental portion of Southeast Asia. It lies east of the Indian subcontinent and south of Mainland China and is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. It includes the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Peninsular Malaysia.

    The world's principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, though this is not a uniform practice. This theory began in the 18th century with the goal of recognizing the relative levels of civility in different societies, but this practice has since fallen into disrepute in many contemporary cultures.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Subregion</span> Part of a larger geographic region or continent

    A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent. Cardinal directions are commonly used to define subregions. There are many criteria for creating systems of subregions; this article is focusing on the UN statistical geoscheme, which is a changing, constantly updated, UN tool based on specific political geography considerations relevant in UN statistics.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Asia</span>

    The economy of Asia comprises about 4.7 billion people living in 50 different nations. Asia is the fastest growing economic region, as well as the largest continental economy by both GDP Nominal and PPP in the world. Moreover, Asia is the site of some of the world's longest modern economic booms.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Asia</span>

    Geography of Asia reviews geographical concepts of classifying Asia, the central and eastern part of Eurasia, comprising 58 countries and territories.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Buddhism by country</span> Buddhism in the world

    This list of Buddhism by country shows the distribution of the Buddhist religion, practiced by about 535 million people as of the 2010s, representing 7% to 8% of the world's total population. It also includes other entities such as some territories.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Culture of Asia</span>

    The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, food, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory. Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient River valley civilizations is complicated. However, the continent is commonly divided into six geographic sub-regions, that are characterized by perceivable commonalities, like culture, religion, language and relative ethnic homogeneity. These regions are Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and West Asia.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Asian Century</span> Projected dominance of Asian politics and culture during the 21st century

    The Asian Century is the projected 21st-century dominance of Asian politics and culture, assuming certain demographic and economic trends persist. The concept of Asian Century parallels the characterisation of the 19th century as Britain's Imperial Century, and the 20th century as the American Century.

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent and the birthplace of many religions including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Shinto, Sikhism, Taoism, and Zoroastrianism. All major religious traditions are practiced in the region and new forms are constantly emerging. Asia is noted for its diversity of culture. Hinduism is the largest religion in Asia with approximately 1.3 billion adherents.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Islam in Asia</span> Overview of the role of the Islam in Asia

    Islam in Asia began in the 7th century during the lifetime of Muhammad. In 2020, the total number of Muslims in Asia was about 1.3 billion, it is the largest religion in Asia. Asia constitutes in absolute terms the world's largest Muslim population. and about 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh having the largest Muslim populations in the world. Asia is home to the largest Muslim population, with West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia being particularly important regions. A number of adherents of Islam have lived in Asia especially in West Asia and South Asia since the beginning of Islamic history.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of Asia</span>

    The continent of Asia covers 29.4% of the Earth's land area and has a population of around 4.75 billion, accounting for about 60% of the world population. The combined population of both China and India is estimated to be over 2.8 billion people as of 2022. Asia's population is projected to grow to 5.25 billion by 2055, or about 54% of projected world population at that time. Population growth in Asia was close to 0.55% p.a. as of 2022, with highly disparate rates. Many Western Asian and South Asian countries have growth rates above world average, notably Pakistan at 2% p.a., while China had a small decrease of –0.06% and India had a 0.6% increase in 2022.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">East Asia</span> Subregion of the Asian continent

    East Asia is a region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The modern states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. Hong Kong and Macau, two coastal cities located in the south of China, are autonomous regions under Chinese sovereignty. The economies of Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau are some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies. East Asia borders Siberia and the Russian Far East to the north, Southeast Asia to the south, South Asia to the southwest, and Central Asia to the west. To the east is the Pacific Ocean and to the southeast is Micronesia.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Ethnic groups in Asia</span>

    The ancestral population of modern Asian people has its origins in the two primary prehistoric settlement centres – greater Southwest Asia and from the Mongolian plateau towards Northern China.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">South Asia</span> Subregion in Asia

    South Asia is the southern subregion of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethnic-cultural terms. As commonly conceptualized, the modern states of South Asia include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. South Asia borders East Asia to the northeast, Central Asia to the northwest, West Asia to the west and Southeast Asia to the east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian subcontinent and is bounded by the Indian Ocean in the south, and the Himalayas, Karakoram, and Pamir Mountains in the north.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of the world</span> Global human population statistics

    Earth has a human population of over 8 billion as of 2024, with an overall population density of 50 people per km2. Nearly 60% of the world's population lives in Asia, with almost 2.8 billion in the countries of China and India combined. The percentage shares of China, India and rest of South Asia of the world population have remained at similar levels for the last few thousand years of recorded history. The world's literacy rate has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, from 66.7% in 1979 to 86.3% today. Lower literacy levels are mostly attributable to poverty. Lower literacy rates are found mostly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Islam by country</span>

    Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group. A projection by the PEW suggests that Muslims numbered approximately 1.9 billion followers in 2020. Studies in the 21st century suggest that, in terms of percentage and worldwide spread, Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world, mostly because Muslims have more children than other major religious groups. Most Muslims are either of two denominations: Sunni or Shia. Islam is the majority religion in several subregions: Central Asia, Western Asia, North Africa, West Africa, the Sahel, and the Middle East. The diverse Asia-Pacific region contains the highest number of Muslims in the world, surpassing the combined Middle East and North Africa.

    References

    1. National Geographic Family Reference Atlas of the World. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society (U.S.). 2006. p. 264.
    2. 1 2 3 "World Population Prospects 2022". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
    3. 1 2 3 "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX) ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
    4. "GDP PPP, current prices". International Monetary Fund. 2022. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
    5. "GDP Nominal, current prices". International Monetary Fund. 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
    6. "Nominal GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. 2022. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
    7. Johnson, Todd M.; Crossing, Peter F. (14 October 2022). "Religions by Continent". Journal of Religion and Demography. 9 (1–2): 91–110. doi:10.1163/2589742x-bja10013. ISSN   2589-7411. Archived from the original on 1 August 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
    8. "Asia noun". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
    9. "Asia Definition & Meaning". Merriam Webster. Archived from the original on 16 February 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
    10. "Asia: The largest continent on Earth". BBC Bitesize. Archived from the original on 7 October 2022.
    11. 1 2 Boudreau, Diane; McDaniel, Melissa; Sprout, Erin; Turgeon, Andrew. Evers, Jeannie; West, Kara (eds.). "Asia: Physical Geography". National Geographic Society. Crooks, Mary; Gunther, Tim; Wynne, Nancy. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 4 February 2023.
    12. "The World at Six Billion". UN Population Division. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016, "Table 2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2016.
    13. "Asia Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)". World Population Review. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
    14. "Population of Asia. 2019 demographics: density, ratios, growth rate, clock, rate of men to women". populationof.net. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
    15. 1 2 National Geographic Atlas of the World (7th ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. 1999. ISBN   978-0-7922-7528-2. "Europe" (pp. 68–69); "Asia" (pp. 90–91): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
    16. Nalapat, M. D. "Ensuring China's 'Peaceful Rise'". Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
    17. 1 2 Dahlman, Carl J; Aubert, Jean-Eric. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st century. WBI Development Studies. World Bank Publications. Accessed 30 January 2008. Eric.ed.gov. 2000. ISBN   978-0-8213-5005-8. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
    18. "The Real Great Leap Forward". The Economist. 30 September 2004. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016.
    19. "Like herrings in a barrel". The Economist. No. Millennium issue: Population. 23 December 1999. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010.
    20. "Suez Canal: 1250 to 1920: Middle East". Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, & Africa: An Encyclopedia. Sage Publications, Inc. 2012. doi:10.4135/9781452218458.n112. ISBN   978-1-4129-8176-7. S2CID   126449508.
    21. Histories 4.38. C.f. James Rennell, The Geographical System of Herodotus Examined and Explained, Volume 1, Rivington 1830, p. 244
    22. according to Strabo ( Geographica 11.7.4) even at the time of Alexander, "it was agreed by all that the Tanais river separated Asia from Europe" (ὡμολόγητο ἐκ πάντων ὅτι διείργει τὴν Ἀσίαν ἀπὸ τῆς Εὐρώπης ὁ Τάναϊς ποταμός; c.f. Duane W. Roller, Eratosthenes' Geography, Princeton University Press, 2010, ISBN   978-0-691-14267-8, Eratosthenes (24 January 2010). p. 57. Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-0-691-14267-8. Archived from the original on 26 March 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2020.)
    23. W. Theiler, Posidonios. Die Fragmente, vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1982, fragm. 47a.
    24. I. G. Kidd (ed.), Posidonius: The commentary, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN   978-0-521-60443-7, Posidonius (1989). p. 738. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-60443-7. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
    25. Geographia 7.5.6 (ed. Nobbe 1845, Ptolomeo, Claudio (1845). "vol. 2". Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020., p. 178) Καὶ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ δὲ συνάπτει διὰ τοῦ μεταξὺ αὐχένος τῆς τε Μαιώτιδος λίμνης καὶ τοῦ Σαρματικοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς διαβάσεως τοῦ Τανάϊδος ποταμοῦ. "And [Asia] is connected to Europe by the land-strait between Lake Maiotis and the Sarmatian Ocean where the river Tanais crosses through."
    26. 1 2 Lineback, Neal (9 July 2013). "Geography in the News: Eurasia's Boundaries". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
    27. Lewis & Wigen 1997 , pp. 27–28
    28. Lewis & Wigen 1997 , pp. 170–173
    29. Danver, Steven L. (2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Taylor & Francis. p. 185. ISBN   978-1317464006. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
    30. Wallace, Alfred Russel (1879). Australasia. The University of Michigan. p. 2. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022. Oceania is the word often used by continental geographers to describe the great world of islands we are now entering upon [...] This boundless watery domain, which extends northwards of Behring Straits and southward to the Antarctic barrier of ice, is studded with many island groups, which are, however, very irregularly distributed over its surface. The more northerly section, lying between Japan and California and between the Aleutian and Hawaiian Archipelagos is relived by nothing but a few solitary reefs and rocks at enormously distant intervals.
    31. Kohlhoff, Dean (2002). Amchitka and the Bomb: Nuclear Testing in Alaska. University of Washington Press. p. 6. ISBN   978-0295800509. Archived from the original on 17 May 2023. Retrieved 12 March 2022. The regional name of the Pacific Islands is appropriate: Oceania, a sea of islands, including those of Alaska and Hawaii. The Pacific Basin is not insignificant or remote. It covers one third of the globe's surface. Its northern boundary is the Aleutian Islands chain. Oceania virtually touches all of the Western Hemisphere.
    32. Flick, Alexander Clarence (1926). Modern World History, 1776-1926: A Survey of the Origins and Development of Contemporary Civilization. A.A. Knopf. p. 492. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
    33. Henderson, John William (1971). Area Handbook for Oceania. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 5. Archived from the original on 6 April 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
    34. Lewis & Wigen 1997 , pp. 7–9
    35. "Asia". AccessScience. McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
    36. Schwartz, Benjamin (December 2008). "Geography Is Destiny". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009.
    37. McMahon, Gregory (2011). "The Land and Peoples of Anatolia through Ancient Eyes". In Steadman, Sharon; McMahon, Gregory (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. Oxford University Press. p. 21. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195376142.013.0002.
    38. Bossert, Helmut T., Asia, Istanbul, 1946.
    39. Rose, Charles Brian (2013). The Archaeology of Greek and Roman Troy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN   978-0-521-76207-6.
    40. Ventris & Chadwick 1973 , pp. 410, 536
    41. Collins, Billie Jean; Bachvarova, Mary R.; Rutherford, Ian (28 March 2010). Anatolian Interfaces: Hittites, Greeks and their Neighbours. Oxbow Books. p. 120. ISBN   978-1-78297-475-8. Archived from the original on 4 December 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2023. assuwa pylos "aswia" = Linear B A-si-wi-ja
    42. Book IV, Article 45.
    43. "Asie". Encyclopedia: Greek Gods, Spirits, Monsters. Theoi Greek Mythology, Exploring Mythology in Classical Literature and Art. 2000–2011. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010.
    44. Μ95, Π717.
    45. Β461.
    46. Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott; Henry Stuart Jones; Roderick McKenzie (2007) [1940]. "Ἀσία". A Greek-English Lexicon. Medford: Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011.
    47. "Asia – Origin and meaning of Asia by Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
    48. Silkroad Foundation, Adela C.Y. Lee. "Ancient Silk Road Travellers". Silk-road.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
    49. Ping-ti Ho. "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970). pp. 33–53.
    50. "History – Black Death". BBC. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012.
    51. Sen, Sailendra Nath (2010). An Advanced History of Modern India. Macmillan India. p. 11. ISBN   978-0-230-32885-3. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020.
    52. "How India's Economy Will Overtake the U.S.'s". Time. 28 July 2023. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    53. Sullivan, Dylan; Hickel, Jason. "How British colonialism killed 100 million Indians in 40 years". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
    54. Yakoubi, Myriam (4 January 2022). "The French, the British and their Middle Eastern Mandates (1918-1939): Two Political Strategies". Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique. French Journal of British Studies. XXVII (1). doi: 10.4000/rfcb.8787 . ISSN   0248-9015. S2CID   246524226. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    55. "Southeast Asia, 1800–1900 A.D. | Chronology | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    56. "Milestones: 1830–1860 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    57. "Opinion | For China, the history that matters is its 'century of humiliation'". South China Morning Post. 28 September 2021. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    58. "Introduction: Race and Empire in Meiji Japan". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    59. Huffman, James L. (2019). The Rise and Evolution of Meiji Japan. Amsterdam University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctvzgb64z. ISBN   978-1-898823-94-0. JSTOR   j.ctvzgb64z. S2CID   216630259. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    60. "Global war's colonial consequences". academic.oup.com. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    61. Dalrymple, William (22 June 2015). "The Mutual Genocide of Indian Partition". The New Yorker. ISSN   0028-792X. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    62. "Oil Discovered in Saudi Arabia". education.nationalgeographic.org. Archived from the original on 3 December 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    63. "Economic Issues 1 -- Growth in East Asia". imf.org. Archived from the original on 20 March 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    64. Saul, Derek. "China And India Will Overtake U.S. Economically By 2075, Goldman Sachs Economists Say". Forbes. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
    65. "25 years of liberalisation: A glimpse of India's growth in 14 charts-Business News". Firstpost. 7 July 2016. Archived from the original on 4 September 2023. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
    66. Kumar, Manoj (17 July 2023). "One-tenth of India's population escaped poverty in 5 years - government report". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 September 2023. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
    67. "A Map of the Countries between Constantinople and Calcutta: Including Turkey in Asia, Persia, Afghanistan and Turkestan". Wdl.org. 1885. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
    68. "Asia". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2006. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008.
    69. "Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use (M49 Standard)". UN Statistica Division. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2020. "Geographic Regions" anklicken Zitat: "The assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories by the United Nations."
    70. Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. PMC   6207062 . PMID   30375988.
    71. "Asia tops climate change's 'most vulnerable' list". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
    72. "Which countries are most threatened by and vulnerable to climate change?". Iberdrola. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
    73. "Global Climate Risk Index 2020 – World". ReliefWeb. 5 December 2019. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
    74. Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies and layers of Resilience Archived 26 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine , ICRISAT, Policy Brief No. 23, February 2013
    75. Overland, Indra; Sagbakken, Haakon Fossum; Chan, Hoy-Yen; Merdekawati, Monika; Suryadi, Beni; Utama, Nuki Agya; Vakulchuk, Roman (December 2021). "The ASEAN climate and energy paradox". Energy and Climate Change. 2: 100019. doi:10.1016/j.egycc.2020.100019. hdl: 11250/2734506 .
    76. 1 2 3 4 International Monetary Fund. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2023". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
    77. "Largest_Economies_in_Asia". Aneki.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
    78. "Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo World's Top Office Destinations". CFO innovation ASIA. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
    79. Farah, Paolo Davide (4 August 2006). Five Years of China WTO Membership: EU and US Perspectives About China's Compliance With Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism. SSRN   916768.
    80. Maddison, Angus (20 September 2007). Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History. OUP Oxford. ISBN   978-0-19-164758-1. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
    81. Angus, Maddison (2003). Development Centre Studies the World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics. OECD. ISBN   978-9264104143. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
    82. Bairoch, Paul (1995). Economics and world history : Myths and paradoxes. University of Chicago Press. ISBN   978-0-226-03463-8.
    83. "Table B–18. World GDP, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D." (PDF). theworldeconomy.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
    84. Professor M.D. Nalapat (11 September 2001). "Ensuring China's "Peaceful Rise"". Bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
    85. "The Real Great Leap Forward". The Economist. 30 September 2004. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
    86. "Rise of Japan and 4 Asian Tigers from". emergingdragon.com. Archived from the original on 22 April 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
    87. "Philippine potential cited". sme.com.ph. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
    88. "Estimated containerized cargo flows on major container trade routes in 2020, by trade route". Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
    89. "Global Marine Trends 2030 Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
    90. "Maritime Trade". Archived from the original on 19 March 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
    91. Harry G. Broadman "Afrika's Silk Road" (2007), pp 59.
    92. Harry de Wilt: Is One Belt, One Road a China crisis for North Sea main ports? in World Cargo News, 17. December 2019.
    93. Bernhard Simon: Can The New Silk Road Compete With The Maritime Silk Road? in The Maritime Executive, 1 January 2020.
    94. Jean-Marc F. Blanchard "China's Maritime Silk Road Initiative and South Asia" (2018).
    95. "INTRA-ASIA". Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
    96. "Asia has more millionaires than Europe". Toronto. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011.
    97. Vallikappen, Sanat (28 March 2012). "Citigroup Study Shows Asian Rich Topping North American". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015.
    98. "World Bank's GDP (PPP) Data for Russia" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2023. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
    99. "Milan and Rome named among the most widely visited cities in the world in the Mastercard Global Destination Cities Index report". Italianavenue.com. 28 May 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
    100. 1 2 3 "2010 Human Development Report: Asian countries lead development progress over 40 years" (PDF). UNDP. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
    101. Obeid, Anis (2006). The Druze & Their Faith in Tawhid. Syracuse University Press. p. 1. ISBN   978-0-8156-5257-1.
    102. MacQueen, Benjamin (2013). An Introduction to Middle East Politics: Continuity, Change, Conflict and Co-operation. SAGE. p. 5. ISBN   978-1-4462-8976-1. The Middle East is the cradle of the three monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
    103. Takacs, Sarolta (2015). The Modern World: Civilizations of Africa, Civilizations of Europe, Civilizations of the Americas, Civilizations of the Middle East and Southwest Asia, Civilizations of Asia and the Pacific. Routledge. p. 552. ISBN   978-1-317-45572-1.
    104. "The Jewish Population of the World". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
    105. Ettinger, Yoram (5 April 2013). "Defying demographic projections". Israel Hayom . Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
    106. "Turkey Virtual Jewish History Tour | Jewish Virtual Library". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
    107. "Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan 2009". Pop-stat.mashke.org. 7 April 1971. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
    108. "Jewish woman brutally murdered in Iran over property dispute". The Times of Israel. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014. A government census published earlier this year indicated there were a mere 8,756 Jews left in Iran See Persian Jews#Iran
    109. "World Jewish Population 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2015., American Jewish Yearbook, vol. 107 (2007), p. 592.
    110. "World Jewish Population 2016 (DellaPergola, AJYB) | Berman Jewish DataBank". jewishdatabank.org. Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
    111. "Christians". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
    112. Britannica Book of the Year 2014. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2014. ISBN   978-1-62513-171-3. Archived from the original on 29 April 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
    113. 1 2 3 4 "Global Christianity – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population" (PDF). Pew Research Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
    114. Hindson, Edward E.; Mitchell, Daniel R. (1 August 2013). The Popular Encyclopedia of Church History. Harvest House Publishers. p. 225. ISBN   978-0-7369-4807-4.
    115. The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 2008, p. 285. ISBN   978-0-8028-2417-2.
    116. "Region: Asia-Pacific". Pewforum.org. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
    117. C. Held, Colbert (2008). Middle East Patterns: Places, People, and Politics. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN   978-0-429-96200-4. Worldwide, they number 1 million or so, with about 45 to 50 percent in Syria, 35 to 40 percent in Lebanon, and less than 10 percent in Israel. Recently there has been a growing Druze diaspora.
    118. Jha, Preeti (26 December 2007). "Guinness comes to east Delhi: Akshardham world's largest Hindu temple". The Indian Express . Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
    119. "Cambodia". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    120. "Thailand". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    121. "burma". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    122. "Japan". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    123. "Bhutan". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    124. "The Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka-2011". Department of Census and Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
    125. "Laos". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    126. "Mongolia". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    127. "Taiwan". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    128. "China (includes Taiwan only): International Religious Freedom Report 2005". US Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 8 November 2005. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
    129. "China (includes Taiwan only): International Religious Freedom Report 2006". US Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 15 September 2006. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
    130. "China (includes Taiwan only): International Religious Freedom Report 2007". US Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 15 September 2006. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
    131. "South Korea". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    132. "Malaysia". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    133. "Nepal". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    134. "vietnam". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Archived 2010 edition.)
    135. "Chinese Han Nationality: Language, Religion, Customs". Travelchinaguide.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
    136. "Culture of North Korea – Alternative name, History and ethnic relations". Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg Inc. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    137. "North Korea". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 9 November 2017.  (Archived 2017 edition.)
    138. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (2009). "Background Note: North Korea". U.S. State Department. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    139. "Geographic Regions". United Nations. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
    140. Collon, Dominique. "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Mesopotamia". Archived from the original on 2 January 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
    141. Morris, Ian (2011). Why the West rules - for now : the patterns of history, and what they reveal about the future. Profile. ISBN   978-1846682087. OCLC   751789199.
    142. Lockard, Craig A. (19 June 2014). Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume I: To 1500: A Global History. Cengage Learning. ISBN   978-1285783086. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
    143. His Holiness's Teachings at TCV. "A Brief Biography – The Office of His Holiness The Dalai Lama". Dalailama.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
    144. "Democracy Report 2024, Varieties of Democracy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2024. Retrieved 16 March 2024.

    Bibliography

    Further reading