Last updated

Rainforests are forests characterized by high and continuous rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 2.5 and 4.5 metres (98 and 177 in) [1] and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests. The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth's tropical rainforests: which are distinct from monsoonal areas of seasonal tropical forest.


Estimates vary from 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. [2] There may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth" and the "world's largest pharmacy", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there. [3] Rainforests are also responsible for 28% of the world's oxygen turnover, sometimes misnamed oxygen production, [4] processing it through photosynthesis from carbon dioxide and consuming it through respiration.

Rainforests as well as endemic rainforest species are rapidly disappearing due to deforestation, the resulting habitat loss and pollution of the atmosphere. [5]


Worldwide tropical rainforest climate zones. Koppen-Geiger Map Af present.svg
Worldwide tropical rainforest climate zones.
Tropical rainforest.

An aerial view of the Cardamom Mountains rain forests, from the Cambodian parts. Stung Proat Cardamom Mountains.jpg
Tropical rainforest.

An aerial view of the Cardamom Mountains rain forests, from the Cambodian parts.

Tropical rainforests are characterized by a warm and wet climate with no substantial dry season: typically found within 10 degrees north and south of the equator. Mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C (64 °F) during all months of the year. [6] Average annual rainfall is no less than 168 cm (66 in) and can exceed 1,000 cm (390 in) although it typically lies between 175 cm (69 in) and 200 cm (79 in). [7]

Many of the world's tropical forests are associated with the location of the monsoon trough, also known as the intertropical convergence zone. [8] The broader category of tropical moist forests are located in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Tropical rainforests exist in Southeast Asia (from Myanmar (Burma)) to the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Sri Lanka; also in Sub-Saharan Africa from the Cameroon to the Congo (Congo Rainforest), South America (e.g. the Amazon rainforest), Central America (e.g. Bosawás, the southern Yucatán Peninsula-El Peten-Belize-Calakmul), Australia, and on Pacific Islands (such as Hawaiʻi). Tropical forests have been called the "Earth's lungs", although it is now known that rainforests contribute little net oxygen addition to the atmosphere through photosynthesis. [9] [10]


Temperate rainforest.

Rainforests in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve in Canada Rain Forest Walk - Pacific Rim National Park - Vancouver Island BC - Canada - 01.jpg
Temperate rainforest.

Rainforests in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve in Canada
General distribution of temperate rainforests Temperate rainforest map.svg
General distribution of temperate rainforests

Tropical forests cover a large part of the globe, but temperate rainforests only occur in few regions around the world. Temperate rainforests are rainforests in temperate regions. They occur in North America (in the Pacific Northwest in Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California), in Europe (parts of the British Isles such as the coastal areas of Ireland and Scotland, southern Norway, parts of the western Balkans along the Adriatic coast, as well as in Galicia and coastal areas of the eastern Black Sea, including Georgia and coastal Turkey), in East Asia (in southern China, Highlands of Taiwan, much of Japan and Korea, and on Sakhalin Island and the adjacent Russian Far East coast), in South America (southern Chile) and also in Australia and New Zealand. [11]


A tropical rainforest typically has a number of layers, each with different plants and animals adapted for life in that particular area. Examples include the emergent, canopy, understory and forest floor layers. [12]

Emergent layer

The emergent layer contains a small number of very large trees called emergents, which grow above the general canopy, reaching heights of 45–55 m, although on occasion a few species will grow to 70–80 m tall. [13] [14] They need to be able to withstand the hot temperatures and strong winds that occur above the canopy in some areas. Eagles, butterflies, bats and certain monkeys inhabit this layer.

Canopy layer

The canopy at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia showing crown shyness FRIM canopy.JPG
The canopy at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia showing crown shyness

The canopy layer contains the majority of the largest trees, typically 30 metres (98 ft) to 45 metres (148 ft) tall. The densest areas of biodiversity are found in the forest canopy, a more or less continuous cover of foliage formed by adjacent treetops. The canopy, by some estimates, is home to 50 percent of all plant species. Epiphytic plants attach to trunks and branches, and obtain water and minerals from rain and debris that collects on the supporting plants. The fauna is similar to that found in the emergent layer but more diverse. A quarter of all insect species are believed to exist in the rainforest canopy. Scientists have long suspected the richness of the canopy as a habitat, but have only recently developed practical methods of exploring it. As long ago as 1917, naturalist William Beebe declared that "another continent of life remains to be discovered, not upon the Earth, but one to two hundred feet above it, extending over thousands of square miles." A true exploration of this habitat only began in the 1980s, when scientists developed methods to reach the canopy, such as firing ropes into the trees using crossbows. Exploration of the canopy is still in its infancy, but other methods include the use of balloons and airships to float above the highest branches and the building of cranes and walkways planted on the forest floor. The science of accessing tropical forest canopy using airships or similar aerial platforms is called dendronautics. [15]

Understory layer

The understory or understorey layer lies between the canopy and the forest floor. It is home to a number of birds, snakes and lizards, as well as predators such as jaguars, boa constrictors and leopards. The leaves are much larger at this level and insect life is abundant. Many seedlings that will grow to the canopy level are present in the understory. Only about 5% of the sunlight shining on the rainforest canopy reaches the understory. This layer can be called a shrub layer , although the shrub layer may also be considered a separate layer.

Forest floor

Rainforest in the Blue Mountains, Australia Forest in the bluemountains.jpg
Rainforest in the Blue Mountains, Australia

The forest floor, the bottom-most layer, receives only 2% of the sunlight. Only plants adapted to low light can grow in this region. Away from riverbanks, swamps and clearings, where dense undergrowth is found, the forest floor is relatively clear of vegetation because of the low sunlight penetration. It also contains decaying plant and animal matter, which disappears quickly, because the warm, humid conditions promote rapid decay. Many forms of fungi growing here help decay the animal and plant waste.

Flora and fauna

A Kermode bear from the Great Bear Rainforest Ursus americanus kermodei, Great Bear Rainforest 1.jpg
A Kermode bear from the Great Bear Rainforest

More than half of the world's species of plants and animals are found in the rainforest. [16] Rainforests support a very broad array of fauna, including mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and invertebrates. Mammals may include primates, felids and other families. Reptiles include snakes, turtles, chameleons and other families; while birds include such families as vangidae and Cuculidae. Dozens of families of invertebrates are found in rainforests. Fungi are also very common in rainforest areas as they can feed on the decomposing remains of plants and animals.

The great diversity in rainforest species is in large part the result of diverse and numerous physical refuges, [17] i.e. places in which plants are inaccessible to many herbivores, or in which animals can hide from predators. Having numerous refuges available also results in much higher total biomass than would otherwise be possible. [18] [19]


Despite the growth of vegetation in a tropical rainforest, soil quality is often quite poor. Rapid bacterial decay prevents the accumulation of humus. The concentration of iron and aluminium oxides by the laterization process gives the oxisols a bright red colour and sometimes produces mineral deposits such as bauxite. Most trees have roots near the surface because there are insufficient nutrients below the surface; most of the trees' minerals come from the top layer of decomposing leaves and animals. On younger substrates, especially of volcanic origin, tropical soils may be quite fertile. If rainforest trees are cleared, rain can accumulate on the exposed soil surfaces, creating run-off, and beginning a process of soil erosion. Eventually, streams and rivers form and flooding becomes possible. There are several reasons for the poor soil quality. First is that the soil is highly acidic. The roots of plants rely on an acidity difference between the roots and the soil in order to absorb nutrients. When the soil is acidic, there is little difference, and therefore little absorption of nutrients from the soil. Second, the type of clay particles present in tropical rainforest soil has a poor ability to trap nutrients and stop them from washing away. Even if humans artificially add nutrients to the soil, the nutrients mostly wash away and are not absorbed by the plants. Finally, these soils are poor due to the high volume of rain in tropical rainforests washes nutrients out of the soil more quickly than in other climates. [20]

Effect on global climate

A natural rainforest emits and absorbs vast quantities of carbon dioxide. On a global scale, long-term fluxes are approximately in balance, so that an undisturbed rainforest would have a small net impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, [21] though they may have other climatic effects (on cloud formation, for example, by recycling water vapour). No rainforest today can be considered to be undisturbed. [22] Human-induced deforestation plays a significant role in causing rainforests to release carbon dioxide, [23] [24] [25] as do other factors, whether human-induced or natural, which result in tree death, such as burning and drought. [26] Some climate models operating with interactive vegetation predict a large loss of Amazonian rainforest around 2050 due to drought, forest dieback and the subsequent release of more carbon dioxide. [27]

Human uses

Aerial view of the Amazon rainforest, taken from a plane. Campo12Foto 2.JPG
Aerial view of the Amazon rainforest, taken from a plane.

Tropical rainforests provide timber as well as animal products such as meat and hides. Rainforests also have value as tourism destinations and for the ecosystem services provided. Many foods originally came from tropical forests, and are still mostly grown on plantations in regions that were formerly primary forest. [28] Also, plant-derived medicines are commonly used for fever, fungal infections, burns, gastrointestinal problems, pain, respiratory problems, and wound treatment. [29] At the same time, rainforests are usually not used sustainably by non-native peoples but are being exploited or removed for agricultural purposes.

Native people

On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported also that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes. [30] The province of Irian Jaya or West Papua in the island of New Guinea is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups. [31] The tribes are in danger because of the deforestation, especially in Brazil.

Central African rainforest is home of the Mbuti pygmies, one of the hunter-gatherer peoples living in equatorial rainforests characterised by their short height (below one and a half metres, or 59 inches, on average). They were the subject of a study by Colin Turnbull, The Forest People, in 1962. [32] Pygmies who live in Southeast Asia are, amongst others, referred to as “Negrito”. There are many tribes in the rainforests of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. Sarawak is part of Borneo, the third largest island in the world. Some of the other tribes in Sarawak are: the Kayan, Kenyah, Kejaman, Kelabit, Punan Bah, Tanjong, Sekapan, and the Lahanan. Collectively, they are referred to as Dayaks or Orangulu which means "people of the interior". [33]

About half of Sarawak's 1.5 million people are Dayaks. Most Dayaks, it is believed by anthropologists, came originally from the South-East Asian mainland. Their mythologies support this


Satellite photograph of the haze above Borneo and Sumatra on 24 September 2015. Satellite image of 2015 Southeast Asian haze - 20150924.jpg
Satellite photograph of the haze above Borneo and Sumatra on 24 September 2015.

Tropical and temperate rainforests have been subjected to heavy legal and illegal logging for their valuable hardwoods and agricultural clearance (slash-and-burn, clearcutting) throughout the 20th century and the area covered by rainforests around the world is shrinking. [34] Biologists have estimated that large numbers of species are being driven to extinction (possibly more than 50,000 a year; at that rate, says E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, a quarter or more of all species on Earth could be exterminated within 50 years) [35] due to the removal of habitat with destruction of the rainforests.

Another factor causing the loss of rainforest is expanding urban areas. Littoral rainforest growing along coastal areas of eastern Australia is now rare due to ribbon development to accommodate the demand for seachange lifestyles. [36]

Forests are being destroyed at a rapid pace. [37] [38] [39] Almost 90% of West Africa's rainforest has been destroyed. [40] Since the arrival of humans, Madagascar has lost two thirds of its original rainforest. [41] At present rates, tropical rainforests in Indonesia would be logged out in 10 years and Papua New Guinea in 13 to 16 years. [42] According to Rainforest Rescue, an important reason for the increasing deforestation rate, especially in Indonesia, is the expansion of oil palm plantations to meet growing demand for cheap vegetable fats and biofuels. In Indonesia, palm oil is already cultivated on nine million hectares and, together with Malaysia, the island nation produces about 85 percent of the world's palm oil. [43] [ unreliable source? ]

Several countries, [44] notably Brazil, have declared their deforestation a national emergency. [45] Amazon deforestation jumped by 69% in 2008 compared to 2007's twelve months, according to official government data. [46]

However, a January 30, 2009 New York Times article stated, "By one estimate, for every acre of rainforest cut down each year, more than 50 acres of new forest are growing in the tropics." The new forest includes secondary forest on former farmland and so-called degraded forest. [47]

See also

Related Research Articles

Deforestation Conversion of forest to non-forest for human use

Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests. Between 15 million to 18 million hectares of forest, an area the size of Belgium, are destroyed every year, on average 2,400 trees are cut down each minute.

Forest Dense collection of trees covering a relatively large area

A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. The Food and Agriculture Organization defines a forest as land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. Using this definition FRA 2020 found that forests covered 4.06 billion hectares or approximately 31 percent of the global land area in 2020 but are not equally distributed around the globe.

Amazon rainforest Rainforest in South America

The Amazon rainforest, alternatively, the Amazon jungle or Amazonia, is a moist broadleaf tropical rainforest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 km2 (2,700,000 sq mi), of which 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations and 3,344 formally acknowledged indigenous territories.

Understory Layer of plant life growing above the shrub layer and below the canopy

In forestry and ecology, understory, or understorey, also known as underbrush or undergrowth, comprises plant life growing beneath the forest canopy without penetrating it to any great extent, but above the forest floor. Only a small percentage of light penetrates the canopy so understory vegetation is generally shade-tolerant. The understory typically consists of trees stunted through lack of light, other small trees with low light requirements, saplings, shrubs, vines and undergrowth. Small trees such as holly and dogwood are understory specialists.

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature

Tropical and subtropical moist forest (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forest, is a tropical and subtropical forest habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. The habitat type is sometimes known as jungle.

Tropical rainforest Specific ecosystem

Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator ; they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28-degree latitudes. Within the World Wildlife Fund's biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest that also includes the more extensive seasonal tropical forests.

Old-growth forest Forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance

An old-growth forest – also termed primary forest, virgin forest, late seral forest or primeval forest – is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations defines primary forests as naturally regenerated forests of native tree species where there are no clearly visible indications of human activity and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed. More than one-third of the world’s forests are primary forests. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. Virgin forests are old-growth forests that have never been logged. The concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters, and diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris.

Forest dynamics describes the underlying physical and biological forces that shape and change a forest ecosystem. The continuous state of change in forests can be summarized with two basic elements: disturbance and succession.

Canopy (biology) Aboveground portion of a plant community or crop

In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant croping or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns.

Treefall gap Ecological feature

A treefall gap is a distinguishable hole in a forest with vertical sides extending through all levels down to an average height of 2 m (6.6 ft) above ground. These holes occur as result of a fallen tree or large limb. The ecologist who developed this definition used two meters because believed that "a regrowth height of 2 m was sufficient" for a gap to be considered closed, but not all scientists agreed. For example, Runkle believed that regrowth should be 10–20 m (33–66 ft) above the ground. Alternatively, a treefall gap as "the smallest gap [that must] be readily distinguishable amid the complexity of forest structure."


In hydrology, stemflow is the flow of intercepted water down the trunk or stem of a plant. Stemflow, along with throughfall, is responsible for the transferral of precipitation and nutrients from the canopy to the soil. In tropical rainforests, where this kind of flow can be substantial, erosion gullies can form at the base of the trunk. However, in more temperate climates stemflow levels are low and have little erosional power.

Deforestation in Brazil

Brazil once had the highest deforestation rate in the world and in 2005 still had the largest area of forest removed annually. Since 1970, over 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) of the Amazon rainforest have been destroyed. In 2012, the Amazon was approximately 5,400,000 square kilometres (2,100,000 sq mi), which is only 87% of the Amazon's original size.


Igapó is a word used in Brazil for blackwater-flooded forests in the Amazon biome. These forests and similar swamp forests are seasonally inundated with freshwater. They typically occur along the lower reaches of rivers and around freshwater lakes. Freshwater swamp forests are found in a range of climate zones, from boreal through temperate and subtropical to tropical. In the Amazon Basin of Brazil, a seasonally whitewater-flooded forest is known as a várzea, which is similar to igapó in many regards; the key difference between the two habitats is in the type of water that floods the forest.

An immense number of bird species live in the Amazon rainforest and river basin. Over 1,300 of these species are types of birds, which accounts for one-third of all bird species in the world. The diets of rainforest birds greatly differ between species, although, nuts, fruits and leaves are a common food for many birds in the Amazon. Birds migrate to the Amazon rainforest from the North or South. Amazon birds are threatened by deforestation since they primarily reside in the treetops. At its current rate of destruction, the rainforest will be gone in forty years. Human encroachment also negatively affects the habitat of many Amazonian birds. Agriculture and road clearings limits the habitable areas. Birds in the Amazon are distinguished by which layer of the rainforest they reside in. Each layer or community has unique plants, animals and ecosystems. Birds interact with other animals in their community through the food chain, competition, mating, altruism and symbiosis.

Monodominance is an ecological condition in which more than 60% of the tree canopy comprises a single species of tree. Although monodominance is studied across different regions, most research focuses on the many prominent species in tropical forests. Connel and Lowman, originally called it single-dominance. Conventional explanations of biodiversity in tropical forests in the decades prior to Connel and Lowman's work either ignored monodominance entirely or predicted that it would not exist.

Tropical vegetation Vegetation in tropical latitudes

Tropical vegetation is any vegetation in tropical latitudes. Plant life that occurs in climates that are warm year-round is in general more biologically diverse that in other latitudes. Some tropical areas may receive abundant rain the whole year round, but others have long dry seasons which last several months and may vary in length and intensity with geographic location. These seasonal droughts have great impact on the vegetation, such as in the Madagascar spiny forests. Rainforest vegetation is categorized by five layers. The top layer being the upper tree layer. Here you will find the largest and widest trees in all the forest. These trees tend to have very large canopy's so they can be fully exposed to sunlight. A layer below that is the middle tree layer. Here you will find more compact trees and vegetation. These trees tend to be more skinny as they are trying to gain any sunlight they can. The third layer is the lower tree area. These trees tend to be around five to ten meters high and tightly compacted. The trees found in the third layer are young trees trying to grow into the larger canopy trees. The fourth layer is the shrub layer beneath the tree canopy. This layer is mainly populated by sapling trees, shrubs, and seedlings. The fifth and final layer is the herb layer which is the forest floor. The forest floor is mainly bare except for various plants, mosses, and ferns. The forest floor is much more dense than above because of little sunlight and air movement.

Afforestation in Japan

The Japanese temperate rainforest is well sustained and maintains a high biodiversity. One method that has been utilized in maintaining the health of forests in Japan has been afforestation. The Japanese government and private businesses have set up multiple projects to plant native tree species in open areas scattered throughout the country. This practice has resulted in shifts in forest structure and a healthy temperate rainforest that maintains a high biodiversity.

Deforestation and climate change Relationship between deforestation and global warming

Deforestation is a primary contributor to climate change. Land use changes, especially in the form of deforestation, are the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions, after fossil fuel combustion. Greenhouse gases are emitted during combustion of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions. As of 2019, deforestation is responsible for about 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Peatland degradation also emits GHG. Growing forests are a carbon sink with additional potential to mitigate the effects of climate change. Some of the effects of climate change, such as more wildfires, may increase deforestation. Deforestation comes in many forms: wildfire, agricultural clearcutting, livestock ranching, and logging for timber, among others. The vast majority of agricultural activity resulting in deforestation is subsidized by government tax revenue. Forests cover 31% of the land area on Earth and annually 75,700 square kilometers of the forest is lost. Mass deforestation continues to threaten tropical forests, their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. The main area of concern of deforestation is in tropical rain forests since they are home to the majority of the planet's biodiversity.

Stratification (vegetation)

Stratification in the field of ecology refers to the vertical layering of a habitat; the arrangement of vegetation in layers. It classifies the layers of vegetation largely according to the different heights to which their plants grow. The individual layers are inhabited by different animal and plant communities (stratozones).

Light gap

In ecology, a light gap is a break in forest canopy or similar barrier that allows young plants to grow where they would be otherwise inhibited by the lack of light reaching the seedbed. Light gaps form predominantly when a tree falls, and thus produces an opening in the forest canopy. Light gaps are important for maintaining diversity in species-rich ecosystems.


  1. The Tropical Rain Forest. Marietta College. Marietta, Ohio. Retrieved 14 August 2013,
  2. "Rainforests.net – Variables and Math". Archived from the original on 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-01-04.
  3. "Rainforests at Animal Center". Animalcorner.co.uk. 2004-01-01. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  4. Killer Inhabitants of the Rainforests. "Killer Inhabitants of the Rainforests". Trendsupdates.com. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  5. "Impact of Deforestation – Extinction". Rainforests.mongabay.com. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  6. Susan Woodward. Tropical broadleaf Evergreen Forest: The rainforest. Archived 2008-02-25 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
  7. Newman, Arnold. The Tropical Rainforest : A World Survey of Our Most Valuable Endangered Habitat : With a Blueprint for Its Survival. New York: Checkmark, 2002. Print.
  8. Hobgood (2008). Global Pattern of Surface Pressure and Wind. Archived 2009-03-18 at the Wayback Machine Ohio State University. Retrieved on 2009-03-08.
  9. Broeker, Wallace S. (2006). "Breathing easy: Et tu, O2." Columbia University Columbia.edu
  10. Moran, Emilio F. (1993). "Deforestation and land use in the Brazilian Amazon". Human Ecology. 21: 1–21. doi:10.1007/BF00890069. S2CID   153481315.
  11. "The Temperate Rainforest".
  12. Denslow, J S (November 1987). "Tropical Rainforest Gaps and Tree Species Diversity". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 18 (1): 431–451. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.002243. ISSN   0066-4162.
  13. Bourgeron, Patrick S. (1983). "Spatial Aspects of Vegetation Structure". In Frank B. Golley (ed.). Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems. Structure and Function. Ecosystems of the World (14A ed.). Elsevier Scientific. pp. 29–47. ISBN   0-444-41986-1.
  14. "Sabah". Eastern Native Tree Society . Retrieved 2007-11-14.
  15. Dendronautics – Introduction Archived June 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  16. "Rainforest Facts". Rain-tree.com. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  17. Ritchie, Euan G.; Johnson, Christopher N. (2009). "Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation". Ecology Letters. 12 (9): 982–998. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01347.x . ISSN   1461-023X. PMID   19614756. S2CID   11744558.,
  18. Sih, Andrew (1987). "Prey refuges and predator-prey stability". Theoretical Population Biology. 31: 1–12. doi:10.1016/0040-5809(87)90019-0.
  19. McNair, James N. (1986). "The effects of refuges on predator-prey interactions: A reconsideration". Theoretical Population Biology. 29 (1): 38–63. doi:10.1016/0040-5809(86)90004-3. PMID   3961711.
  20. Baird, Dr. Chris S. "What makes the soil in tropical rainforests so rich?". Science Questions with Surprising Answers. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  21. "Grida.no" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  22. Lewis, S.L.; Phillips, O.L.; Baker, T.R.; Lloyd, J.; et al. (2004). "Concerted changes in tropical forest structure and dynamics: evidence from 50 South American long-term plots". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 359 (1443): 421–436. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1431. PMC   1693337 . PMID   15212094.
  23. Malhi, Yadvinder; Grace, John (2000). "Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 15 (8): 332–337. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(00)01906-6. ISSN   0169-5347. PMID   10884705.
  24. Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver, eds. (2005). Tropical Forests and Global Atmospheric Change. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567066.001.0001. ISBN   9780198567066. OCLC   77178196.
  25. Baccini, A.; Walker, W.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Houghton, R. A. (2017-10-13). "Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss". Science. 358 (6360): 230–234. Bibcode:2017Sci...358..230B. doi: 10.1126/science.aam5962 . ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   28971966.
  26. "Drought may turn forests into carbon producers". The Age. Melbourne. 2004-03-06.
  27. Cox, P. M.; Betts, R. A.; Collins, M.; Harris, P. P.; Huntingford, C.; Jones, C. D. (2004). "Amazonian forest dieback under climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21st century" (PDF). Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 78 (1–3): 137. Bibcode:2004ThApC..78..137C. doi:10.1007/s00704-004-0049-4. S2CID   5122043. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2007.
  28. Myers, N. (1985). The primary source. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, pp. 189–193.
  29. "Final Paper: The Medicinal Value of the Rainforest May 15, 2003. Amanda Haidet May 2003". Jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  30. "Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes". Reuters.com. 2007-01-17. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  31. "BBC: First contact with isolated tribes?". SurvivalInternational.org. 2007-01-25. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  32. The Tribal Peoples Archived 2012-10-20 at the Wayback Machine , ThinkQuest
  33. "Indigenous People of the Rainforest". Rainforest Information Centre Educational Supplement. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  34. Entire rainforests set to disappear in next decade, The Independent 5 July 2003
  35. Talks Seek to Prevent Huge Loss of Species, New York Times 3 March 1992
  36. "Littoral Rainforest-Why is it threatened?". Pittwater.nsw.gov.au. 2012-08-09. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  37. Thomas Marent: Out of the woods, The Independent 28 September 2006
  38. Brazil: Amazon Forest Destruction Rate Has Tripled, FoxNews.com, September 29, 2008
  39. "Papua New Guinea's rainforests disappearing faster than thought". News.mongabay.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-08. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  40. "Rainforests & Agriculture". Csupomona.edu. Archived from the original on 2012-09-30. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  41. "Science: Satellite monitors Madagascar's shrinking rainforest, 19 May 1990, New Scientist". Newscientist.com. 1990-05-19. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  42. China is black hole of Asia's deforestation, AsiaNews.it, 24 March 2008
  43. Rainforest Rescue: Facts about palm oil
  44. Amazon deforestation rises sharply in 2007, Usatoday.com, January 24, 2008
  45. Vidal, John (20 May 2005). "Rainforest loss shocks Brazil". guardian.co.uk . London. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  46. Brazil: Amazon deforestation worsens, NBC News, August 30, 2008
  47. New Jungles Prompt a Debate on Rain Forests, The New York Times, January 30, 2009

Further reading

View of the temperate rain forest in Mount Revelstoke National Park, British Columbia, Canada Revelstoke from Mount Revelstoke.jpg
View of the temperate rain forest in Mount Revelstoke National Park, British Columbia, Canada