Snake

Last updated

Snakes
Temporal range:
Late CretaceousPresent, [1] 94–0  Ma
Є
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Horned rattlesnakeSouthern hognose snakeBlue kraitEmerald tree boaSri Lanka cat snakeRingneck snakeStriped House SnakeBlunthead tree snakeCorn snakeIndian cobraGrass snakePacific gopher snakeGreen vine snakeCoral snakeGreen tree pythonSpiny bush viperFalse coral snakePuffing snakeSnake
Snake
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Clade: Ophidia
Suborder:Serpentes
Linnaeus, 1758
Infraorders
World distribution of snakes.svg
Approximate world distribution of snakes, all species

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes. [2] Like all other squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca. Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty-five times independently via convergent evolution, leading to many lineages of legless lizards. [3] Legless lizards resemble snakes, but several common groups of legless lizards have eyelids and external ears, which snakes lack, although this rule is not universal (see Amphisbaenia, Dibamidae, and Pygopodidae).

Carnivore organism that eats mostly or exclusively animal tissue

A carnivore, meaning "meat eater", is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are called obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are called facultative carnivores. Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and, apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore. A carnivore at the top of the food chain, not preyed upon by other animals, is termed an apex predator.

Reptile class of animals

Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology.

Squamata Order of reptiles

Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians, which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles. With over 10,000 species, it is also the second-largest order of extant (living) vertebrates, after the perciform fish, and roughly equal in number to the Saurischia. Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shields. They also possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the neurocranium. This is particularly visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths very wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. Squamata is the most variably sized order of reptiles, ranging from the 16 mm (0.63 in) dwarf gecko to the 5.21 m (17.1 ft) green anaconda and the now-extinct mosasaurs, which reached lengths of over 14 m (46 ft).

Contents

Living snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica, and on most smaller land masses; exceptions include some large islands, such as Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, the Hawaiian archipelago, and the islands of New Zealand, and many small islands of the Atlantic and central Pacific oceans. [4] Additionally, sea snakes are widespread throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. More than 20 families are currently recognized, comprising about 520 genera and about 3,600 species. [5] [6] They range in size from the tiny, 10.4 cm (4.1 in)-long Barbados thread snake [7] to the reticulated python of 6.95 meters (22.8 ft) in length. [8] The fossil species Titanoboa cerrejonensis was 12.8 meters (42 ft) long. [9] Snakes are thought to have evolved from either burrowing or aquatic lizards, perhaps during the Jurassic period, with the earliest known fossils dating to between 143 and 167 Ma ago. [10] The diversity of modern snakes appeared during the Paleocene epoch (c 66 to 56 Ma ago, after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event). The oldest preserved descriptions of snakes can be found in the Brooklyn Papyrus.

Hawaiian Islands An archipelago in the North Pacific Ocean, currently administered by the US state of Hawaii

The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island.

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Most species are nonvenomous and those that have venom use it primarily to kill and subdue prey rather than for self-defense. Some possess venom potent enough to cause painful injury or death to humans. Nonvenomous snakes either swallow prey alive or kill by constriction.

Venom form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another; poisonous substance injected by animals into a victim

Venom is a secretion containing one or more toxins produced by an animal to cause harm to another. Venom has evolved in a wide variety of animals, both predators and prey, and both vertebrates and invertebrates.

Constriction method used by various snake species to kill their prey

Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill or subdue their prey. Although some species of venomous and mildly venomous snakes do use constriction to subdue their prey, most snakes which use constriction lack venom. The snake initially strikes at its prey and holds on, pulling the prey into its coils or, in the case of very large prey, pulling itself onto the prey. The snake will then wrap one or two loops around the prey, forming a constriction coil. The snake will monitor the prey's heartbeat to ascertain when it is dead.

Etymology

The English word snake comes from Old English snaca, itself from Proto-Germanic *snak-an- (cf. Germanic Schnake "ring snake", Swedish snok "grass snake"), from Proto-Indo-European root *(s)nēg-o- "to crawl", "to creep", which also gave sneak as well as Sanskrit nāgá "snake". [11] The word ousted adder , as adder went on to narrow in meaning, though in Old English næddre was the general word for snake. [12] The other term, serpent, is from French, ultimately from Indo-European *serp- (to creep), [13] which also gave Ancient Greek hérpō (ἕρπω) "I crawl".

Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.

Germanic languages Sub-branch Indo-European language

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

Proto-Indo-European language proto-language (last common ancestor) of the Indo-European language family

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the ancient common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

Evolution

A phylogenetic overview of the extant groups
Modern snakes
Scolecophidia

Leptotyphlopidae

 

Anomalepididae

Typhlopidae

Alethinophidia
Amerophidia

Anilius

Tropidophiidae

Afrophidia
Uropeltoidea

Uropeltidae

 

Anomochilus

Cylindrophis

Macrostomata
Pythonoidea

Pythonidae

Xenopeltis

Loxocemus

Caenophidia

Acrochordidae

Xenodermidae

Pareidae

Viperidae

Homalopsidae

Lamprophiidae

Elapidae

Colubridae

Booidea

Boidae

Erycinae

Calabaria

Ungaliophiinae

Sanzinia

Candoia

Note: the tree only indicates relationships, not evolutionary branching times. [14]

The fossil record of snakes is relatively poor because snake skeletons are typically small and fragile making fossilization uncommon. Fossils readily identifiable as snakes (though often retaining hind limbs) first appear in the fossil record during the Cretaceous period. [15] The earliest known true snake fossils (members of the crown group Serpentes) come from the marine simoliophiids, the oldest of which is the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian age) Haasiophis terrasanctus , [1] dated to between 112 and 94 million years old. [16]

Skeleton body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism

The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. It can also be seen as the bony frame work of the body which provides support, shape and protection to the soft tissues and delicate organs in animals. There are several different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body, the hydroskeleton, a flexible skeleton supported by fluid pressure, and the cytoskeleton present in the cytoplasm of all cells, including bacteria, and archaea. The term comes from Greek σκελετός (skeletós), meaning 'dried up'.

Fossil Preserved remains or traces of organisms from a past geological age

A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record.

The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide.

Based on comparative anatomy, there is consensus that snakes descended from lizards. [17] :11 [18] Pythons and boas—primitive groups among modern snakes—have vestigial hind limbs: tiny, clawed digits known as anal spurs, which are used to grasp during mating. [17] :11 [19] The families Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae also possess remnants of the pelvic girdle, appearing as horny projections when visible.

Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. It is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny.

Lizard suborder of reptiles

Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia; some lizards are more closely related to these two excluded groups than they are to other lizards. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon.

Pythonidae family of nonvenomous snakes

The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Eight genera and 31 species are currently recognized.

Front limbs are nonexistent in all known snakes. This is caused by the evolution of their Hox genes, controlling limb morphogenesis. The axial skeleton of the snakes’ common ancestor, like most other tetrapods, had regional specializations consisting of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic), and caudal (tail) vertebrae. Early in snake evolution, the Hox gene expression in the axial skeleton responsible for the development of the thorax became dominant. As a result, the vertebrae anterior to the hindlimb buds (when present) all have the same thoracic-like identity (except from the atlas, axis, and 1–3 neck vertebrae). In other words, most of a snake's skeleton is an extremely extended thorax. Ribs are found exclusively on the thoracic vertebrae. Neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are very reduced in number (only 2–10 lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are present), while only a short tail remains of the caudal vertebrae. However, the tail is still long enough to be of important use in many species, and is modified in some aquatic and tree-dwelling species.

Many modern snake groups originated during the Paleocene, alongside the adaptive radiation of mammals following the extinction of (non-avian) dinosaurs. The expansion of grasslands in North America also led to an explosive radiation among snakes. [20] Previously, snakes were a minor component of the North American fauna, but during the Miocene, the number of species and their prevalence increased dramatically with the first appearances of vipers and elapids in North America and the significant diversification of Colubridae (including the origin of many modern genera such as Nerodia, Lampropeltis, Pituophis, and Pantherophis). [20]

Origins

There is fossil evidence to suggest that snakes may have evolved from burrowing lizards, such as the varanids (or a similar group) during the Cretaceous Period. [21] An early fossil snake relative, Najash rionegrina , was a two-legged burrowing animal with a sacrum, and was fully terrestrial. [22] One extant analog of these putative ancestors is the earless monitor Lanthanotus of Borneo (though it also is semiaquatic). [23] Subterranean species evolved bodies streamlined for burrowing, and eventually lost their limbs. [23] According to this hypothesis, features such as the transparent, fused eyelids (brille) and loss of external ears evolved to cope with fossorial difficulties, such as scratched corneas and dirt in the ears. [21] [23] Some primitive snakes are known to have possessed hindlimbs, but their pelvic bones lacked a direct connection to the vertebrae. These include fossil species like Haasiophis , Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis , which are slightly older than Najash . [19]

Fossil of Archaeophis proavus. Naturkundemuseum Berlin - Archaeophis proavus Massalongo - Monte Bolca.jpg
Fossil of Archaeophis proavus.

This hypothesis was strengthened in 2015 by the discovery of a 113m year-old fossil of a four-legged snake in Brazil that has been named Tetrapodophis amplectus . It has many snake-like features, is adapted for burrowing and its stomach indicates that it was preying on other animals. [24] It is currently uncertain if Tetrapodophis is a snake or another species, in the squamate order, as a snake-like body has independently evolved at least 26 times. Tetrapodophis does not have distinctive snake features in its spine and skull. [25] [26]

An alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests the ancestors of snakes were related to mosasaurs—extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous—which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards. [18] According to this hypothesis, the fused, transparent eyelids of snakes are thought to have evolved to combat marine conditions (corneal water loss through osmosis), and the external ears were lost through disuse in an aquatic environment. This ultimately led to an animal similar to today's sea snakes. In the Late Cretaceous, snakes recolonized land, and continued to diversify into today's snakes. Fossilized snake remains are known from early Late Cretaceous marine sediments, which is consistent with this hypothesis; particularly so, as they are older than the terrestrial Najash rionegrina. Similar skull structure, reduced or absent limbs, and other anatomical features found in both mosasaurs and snakes lead to a positive cladistical correlation, although some of these features are shared with varanids.[ citation needed ]

Genetic studies in recent years have indicated snakes are not as closely related to monitor lizards as was once believed—and therefore not to mosasaurs, the proposed ancestor in the aquatic scenario of their evolution. However, more evidence links mosasaurs to snakes than to varanids. Fragmented remains found from the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous indicate deeper fossil records for these groups, which may potentially refute either hypothesis.[ citation needed ]

In 2016 two studies reported that limb loss in snakes is associated with DNA mutations in the Zone of Polarizing Activity Regulatory Sequence (ZRS), a regulatory region of the sonic hedgehog gene which is critically required for limb development. More advanced snakes have no remnants of limbs, but basal snakes such as pythons and boas do have traces of highly reduced, vestigial hind limbs. Python embryos even have fully developed hind limb buds, but their later development is stopped by the DNA mutations in the ZRS. [27] [28] [29] [30]

Distribution

Approximate world distribution of snakes. World distribution of snakes.svg
Approximate world distribution of snakes.

There are over 2,900 species of snakes ranging as far northward as the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and southward through Australia. [18] Snakes can be found on every continent except Antarctica, in the sea, and as high as 16,000 feet (4,900 m) in the Himalayan Mountains of Asia. [18] [31] :143 There are numerous islands from which snakes are absent, such as Ireland, Iceland, and New Zealand [4] [31] (although New Zealand's waters are infrequently visited by the yellow-bellied sea snake and the banded sea krait). [32]

Taxonomy

All modern snakes are grouped within the suborder Serpentes in Linnean taxonomy, part of the order Squamata, though their precise placement within squamates remains controversial. [5]

The two infraorders of Serpentes are: Alethinophidia and Scolecophidia. [5] This separation is based on morphological characteristics and mitochondrial DNA sequence similarity. Alethinophidia is sometimes split into Henophidia and Caenophidia, with the latter consisting of "colubroid" snakes (colubrids, vipers, elapids, hydrophiids, and atractaspids) and acrochordids, while the other alethinophidian families comprise Henophidia. [33] While not extant today, the Madtsoiidae, a family of giant, primitive, python-like snakes, was around until 50,000 years ago in Australia, represented by genera such as Wonambi .

There are numerous debates in the systematics within the group. For instance, many sources classify Boidae and Pythonidae as one family, while some keep the Elapidae and Hydrophiidae (sea snakes) separate for practical reasons despite their extremely close relation.

Recent molecular studies support the monophyly of the clades of modern snakes, scolecophidians, typhlopids + anomalepidids, alethinophidians, core alethinophidians, uropeltids (Cylindrophis, Anomochilus, uropeltines), macrostomatans, booids, boids, pythonids and caenophidians. [14]

Families

Infraorder Alethinophidia 19 families
Family [6] Taxon author [6] Genera [6] Species [6] Common nameGeographic range [34]
Acrochordidae Bonaparte, 183113Wart snakesWestern India and Sri Lanka through tropical Southeast Asia to the Philippines, south through the Indonesian/Malaysian island group to Timor, east through New Guinea to the northern coast of Australia to Mussau Island, the Bismarck Archipelago and Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands.
Aniliidae Stejneger, 190711False coral snakeTropical South America.
Anomochilidae Cundall, Wallach, 199313Dwarf pipe snakesWest Malaysia and on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Boidae Gray, 18251461BoasNorthern, Central and South America, the Caribbean, southeastern Europe and Asia Minor, Northern, Central and East Africa, Madagascar and Reunion Island, the Arabian Peninsula, Central and southwestern Asia, India and Sri Lanka, the Moluccas and New Guinea through to Melanesia and Samoa.
Bolyeriidae Hoffstetter, 194622Splitjaw snakes Mauritius.
Colubridae Oppel, 1811258 [6] 1866 [6] Typical snakesWidespread on all continents, except Antarctica. [35]
Cylindrophiidae Fitzinger, 1843114Asian pipe snakesSri Lanka east through Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and the Malay Archipelago to as far east as Aru Islands off the southwestern coast of New Guinea. Also found in southern China (Fujian, Hong Kong and on Hainan Island) and in Laos.
Elapidae Boie, 182755359ElapidsOn land, worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, except in Europe. Sea snakes occur in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. [36]
Homalopsidae Bonaparte, 18452853HomalopsidsSoutheastern Asia and northern Australia.
Lamprophiidae Fitzinger, 184360314Lamprophiids (includes former Atractaspididae as well as 6 other subfamilies formerly considered colubrids)Africa, southern Europe, and western-central Asia; two species into southeastern Asia.
Loxocemidae Cope, 186111Mexican burrowing snakeAlong the Pacific versant from Mexico south to Costa Rica.
Pareidae Romer, 1956320Snail-eating snakesSoutheast Asia and islands on the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and their surrounding smaller islands).
Pythonidae Fitzinger, 1826840PythonsSubsaharan Africa, India, Myanmar, southern China, Southeast Asia and from the Philippines southeast through Indonesia to New Guinea and Australia.
Tropidophiidae Brongersma, 1951234Dwarf boasWest Indies; also Panama and northwestern South America, as well as in northwestern and southeastern Brazil.
Uropeltidae Müller, 1832855Shield-tailed snakesSouthern India and Sri Lanka.
Viperidae Oppel, 181135341VipersThe Americas, Africa, and Eurasia east to Wallace's Line.
Xenodermidae Cope, 1900618Dragon & odd-scaled snakesSouthern and southeastern Asia, and islands on the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and their surrounding smaller islands).
Xenopeltidae Bonaparte, 184512Sunbeam snakesSoutheast Asia from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, east through Myanmar to southern China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula and the East Indies to Sulawesi, as well as the Philippines.
Xenophidiidae Wallach & Günther, 199812Spine-jawed snakesBorneo & peninsular Malaysia.


Infraorder Scolecophidia 5 families
Family [6] Taxon author [6] Genera [6] Species [6] Common nameGeographic range [34]
Anomalepidae Taylor, 1939418Primitive blind snakesFrom southern Central America to northwestern South America. Disjunct populations in northeastern and southeastern South America.
Gerrhopilidae Vidal, Wynn, Donnellan and Hedges 2010218Indo-Malayan blindsnakesSouthern & southeastern Asia, including Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and New Guinea.
Leptotyphlopidae Stejneger, 189213139Slender blind snakesAfrica, western Asia from Turkey to northwestern India, on Socotra Island, from the southwestern United States south through Mexico and Central to South America, though not in the high Andes. In Pacific South America they occur as far south as southern coastal Peru, and on the Atlantic side as far as Uruguay and Argentina. In the Caribbean they are found on the Bahamas, Hispaniola and the Lesser Antilles.
Typhlopidae Merrem, 182018266Typical blind snakesMost tropical and many subtropical regions around the world, particularly in Africa, Madagascar, Asia, islands in the Pacific, tropical America and in southeastern Europe.
Xenotyphlopidae Vidal, Vences, Branch and Hedges 201011Round-nosed blindsnakeNorthern Madagascar.

Legless lizards

While snakes are limbless reptiles, which evolved from (and are grouped with) lizards, there are many other species of lizards which have lost their limbs independently and superficially look similar to snakes. These include the slowworm and glass snake.

Biology

An adult Barbados threadsnake, Leptotyphlops carlae, on an American quarter dollar. Leptotyphlops carlae.jpg
An adult Barbados threadsnake, Leptotyphlops carlae , on an American quarter dollar.

Size

The now extinct Titanoboa cerrejonensis snakes found were 12.8 m (42 ft) in length. [9] By comparison, the largest extant snakes are the reticulated python, which measures about 6.95 m (22.8 ft) long, [8] and the green anaconda, which measures about 5.21 m (17.1 ft) long and is considered the heaviest snake on Earth at 97.5 kg (215 lb). [37]

At the other end of the scale, the smallest extant snake is Leptotyphlops carlae , with a length of about 10.4 cm (4.1 in). [7] Most snakes are fairly small animals, approximately 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. [38]

Perception

Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse. Wiki snake eats mouse.jpg
Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse.

Pit vipers, pythons, and some boas have infrared-sensitive receptors in deep grooves on the snout, which allow them to "see" the radiated heat of warm-blooded prey. In pit vipers, the grooves are located between the nostril and the eye in a large "pit" on each side of the head. Other infrared-sensitive snakes have multiple, smaller labial pits lining the upper lip, just below the nostrils. [39]

Snakes use smell to track their prey. They smell by using their forked tongues to collect airborne particles, then passing them to the vomeronasal organ or Jacobson's organ in the mouth for examination. [39] The fork in the tongue gives snakes a sort of directional sense of smell and taste simultaneously. [39] They keep their tongues constantly in motion, sampling particles from the air, ground, and water, analyzing the chemicals found, and determining the presence of prey or predators in the local environment. In water-dwelling snakes, such as the anaconda, the tongue functions efficiently underwater. [39]

A line diagram from G.A. Boulenger's Fauna of British India (1890) illustrating the terminology of shields on the head of a snake. Ptyas gab fbi.png
A line diagram from G.A. Boulenger's Fauna of British India (1890) illustrating the terminology of shields on the head of a snake.

The underside is very sensitive to vibration. This allows snakes to be able to sense approaching animals by detecting faint vibrations in the ground. [39]

Snake vision varies greatly, from only being able to distinguish light from dark to keen eyesight, but the main trend is that their vision is adequate although not sharp, and allows them to track movements. [40] Generally, vision is best in arboreal snakes and weakest in burrowing snakes. Some snakes, such as the Asian vine snake (genus Ahaetulla ), have binocular vision, with both eyes capable of focusing on the same point. Most snakes focus by moving the lens back and forth in relation to the retina, while in the other amniote groups, the lens is stretched. Many nocturnal snakes have slit pupils while diurnal snakes have round pupils.

Skin

The skin of a snake is covered in scales. Contrary to the popular notion of snakes being slimy because of possible confusion of snakes with worms, snakeskin has a smooth, dry texture. Most snakes use specialized belly scales to travel, gripping surfaces. The body scales may be smooth, keeled, or granular. The eyelids of a snake are transparent "spectacle" scales, which remain permanently closed, also known as brille.

The shedding of scales is called ecdysis (or in normal usage, molting or sloughing). In the case of snakes, the complete outer layer of skin is shed in one layer. [41] Snake scales are not discrete, but extensions of the epidermis—hence they are not shed separately but as a complete outer layer during each molt, akin to a sock being turned inside out. [42]

Snakes have a wide diversity of skin coloration patterns. These patterns are often related to behavior, such as a tendency to have to flee from predators. Snakes that are plain or have longitudinal stripes often have to escape from predators, with the pattern (or lack thereof) not providing reference points to predators, thus allowing the snake to escape without being notice. Plain snakes usually adopt active hunting strategies, as their pattern allows them to send little information to prey about motion. Blotched snakes, on the other hand, usually use ambush-based strategies, likely because it helps them blend into an environment with irregularly shaped objects, like sticks or rocks. Spotted patterning can similarly help snakes to blend into their environment. [43]

The shape and number of scales on the head, back, and belly are often characteristic and used for taxonomic purposes. Scales are named mainly according to their positions on the body. In "advanced" (Caenophidian) snakes, the broad belly scales and rows of dorsal scales correspond to the vertebrae, allowing scientists to count the vertebrae without dissection.

Molting

A snake shedding its skin. Nerodia sipedon shedding.JPG
A snake shedding its skin.

Molting, or ecdysis, serves a number of functions. Firstly, the old and worn skin is replaced; secondly, it helps get rid of parasites such as mites and ticks. Renewal of the skin by molting is supposed to allow growth in some animals such as insects; however, this has been disputed in the case of snakes. [42] [44]

Molting occurs periodically throughout the snake's life. Before a molt, the snake stops eating and often hides or moves to a safe place. Just before shedding, the skin becomes dull and dry looking and the eyes become cloudy or blue-colored. The inner surface of the old skin liquefies. This causes the old skin to separate from the new skin beneath it. After a few days, the eyes clear and the snake "crawls" out of its old skin. The old skin breaks near the mouth and the snake wriggles out, aided by rubbing against rough surfaces. In many cases, the cast skin peels backward over the body from head to tail in one piece, like pulling a sock off inside-out. A new, larger, brighter layer of skin has formed underneath. [42] [45]

An older snake may shed its skin only once or twice a year. But a younger snake, still growing, may shed up to four times a year. [45] The discarded skin gives a perfect imprint of the scale pattern, and it is usually possible to identify the snake if the discarded skin is reasonably intact. [42] This periodic renewal has led to the snake being a symbol of healing and medicine, as pictured in the Rod of Asclepius. [46]

Scale counts can sometimes be used to tell the sex of a snake when the species is not distinctly sexually dimorphic. A probe is inserted into the cloaca until it can go no further. The probe is marked at the point where it stops, removed, and compared to the subcaudal depth by laying it alongside the scales. [47] The scalation count determines whether the snake is a male or female as hemipenes of a male will probe to a different depth (usually longer) than the cloaca of a female. [47] [ clarification needed ]

Skeleton

When compared, the skeletons of snakes are radically different from those of most other reptiles (such as the turtle, right), being made up almost entirely of an extended ribcage. Snake Skeletons.jpg
When compared, the skeletons of snakes are radically different from those of most other reptiles (such as the turtle, right), being made up almost entirely of an extended ribcage.

The skeleton of most snakes consists solely of the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, and ribs, though henophidian snakes retain vestiges of the pelvis and rear limbs.

The skull of the snake consists of a solid and complete neurocranium, to which many of the other bones are only loosely attached, particularly the highly mobile jaw bones, which facilitate manipulation and ingestion of large prey items. The left and right sides of the lower jaw are joined only by a flexible ligament at the anterior tips, allowing them to separate widely, while the posterior end of the lower jaw bones articulate with a quadrate bone, allowing further mobility. The bones of the mandible and quadrate bones can also pick up ground borne vibrations. [48] Because the sides of the jaw can move independently of one another, snakes resting their jaws on a surface have sensitive stereo hearing which can detect the position of prey. The jaw-quadrate-stapes pathway is capable of detecting vibrations on the angstrom scale, despite the absence of an outer ear and the ossicle mechanism of impedance matching used in other vertebrates to receive vibrations from the air. [49] [50]

The hyoid is a small bone located posterior and ventral to the skull, in the 'neck' region, which serves as an attachment for muscles of the snake's tongue, as it does in all other tetrapods.

The vertebral column consists of anywhere between 200 and 400 (or more) vertebrae. Tail vertebrae are comparatively few in number (often less than 20% of the total) and lack ribs, while body vertebrae each have two ribs articulating with them. The vertebrae have projections that allow for strong muscle attachment enabling locomotion without limbs.

Autotomy of the tail, a feature found in some lizards is absent in most snakes. [51] Caudal autotomy in snakes is rare and is intervertebral, unlike that in lizards, which is intravertebral—that is, the break happens along a predefined fracture plane present on a vertebra. [52] [53]

In some snakes, most notably boas and pythons, there are vestiges of the hindlimbs in the form of a pair of pelvic spurs. These small, claw-like protrusions on each side of the cloaca are the external portion of the vestigial hindlimb skeleton, which includes the remains of an ilium and femur.

Snakes are polyphyodonts with teeth that are continuously replaced. [54]


Internal organs

1: esophagus2: trachea3:tracheal lungs4: rudimentary left lung4: right lung6: heart7: liver8 stomach9: air sac10: gallbladder11: pancreas12: spleen13: intestine14: testicles15: kidneysSnake
Anatomy of a snake. file info
  1. esophagus
  2. trachea
  3. tracheal lungs
  4. rudimentary left lung
  5. right lung
  6. heart
  7. liver
  8. stomach
  9. air sac
  10. gallbladder
  11. pancreas
  12. spleen
  13. intestine
  14. testicles
  15. kidneys

Snake's and other reptiles have a three-chambered heart that controls the circulatory system via the left and right atrium, and one ventricle. [55] Internally, the ventricle is divided into three interconnected cavities which include the cavum arteriosum, the cavum pulmonale, and the cavum venosum. [56] The cavum venosum receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium while the cavum arteriosum receives oxygenated blood directly from the left atrium. Located beneath the cavum venosum is the cavum pulmonale, which pumps blood to the pulmonary trunk. [57]

The snake's heart is encased in a sac, called the pericardium , located at the bifurcation of the bronchi. The heart is able to move around, however, owing to the lack of a diaphragm. This adjustment protects the heart from potential damage when large ingested prey is passed through the esophagus. The spleen is attached to the gall bladder and pancreas and filters the blood. The thymus is located in fatty tissue above the heart and is responsible for the generation of immune cells in the blood. The cardiovascular system of snakes is also unique for the presence of a renal portal system in which the blood from the snake's tail passes through the kidneys before returning to the heart. [58]

The vestigial left lung is often small or sometimes even absent, as snakes' tubular bodies require all of their organs to be long and thin. [58] In the majority of species, only one lung is functional. This lung contains a vascularized anterior portion and a posterior portion that does not function in gas exchange. [58] This 'saccular lung' is used for hydrostatic purposes to adjust buoyancy in some aquatic snakes and its function remains unknown in terrestrial species. [58] Many organs that are paired, such as kidneys or reproductive organs, are staggered within the body, with one located ahead of the other. [58]

Snakes have no lymph nodes. [58]

Venom

Innocuous milk snakes are often mistaken for coral snakes whose venom is deadly to humans. Red milk snake.JPG
Innocuous milk snakes are often mistaken for coral snakes whose venom is deadly to humans.

Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize, injure or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs. [17] :243 The fangs of 'advanced' venomous snakes like viperids and elapids are hollow to inject venom more effectively, while the fangs of rear-fanged snakes such as the boomslang merely have a groove on the posterior edge to channel venom into the wound. Snake venoms are often prey specific—their role in self-defense is secondary. [17] :243

Venom, like all salivary secretions, is a predigestant that initiates the breakdown of food into soluble compounds, facilitating proper digestion. Even nonvenomous snake bites (like any animal bite) will cause tissue damage. [17] :209

Certain birds, mammals, and other snakes (such as kingsnakes) that prey on venomous snakes have developed resistance and even immunity to certain venoms. [17] :243 Venomous snakes include three families of snakes, and do not constitute a formal classification group used in taxonomy.

The colloquial term "poisonous snake" is generally an incorrect label for snakes. A poison is inhaled or ingested, whereas venom produced by snakes is injected into its victim via fangs. [59] There are, however, two exceptions: Rhabdophis sequesters toxins from the toads it eats, then secretes them from nuchal glands to ward off predators, and a small unusual population of garter snakes in the U.S. state of Oregon retains enough toxins in their livers from the newts they eat to be effectively poisonous to small local predators (such as crows and foxes). [60]

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, and are stored in venom glands at the back of the head. [60] In all venomous snakes, these glands open through ducts into grooved or hollow teeth in the upper jaw. [17] :243 [59] These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the circulatory system), cytotoxins, bungarotoxins and many other toxins that affect the body in different ways. [59] Almost all snake venom contains hyaluronidase , an enzyme that ensures rapid diffusion of the venom. [17] :243

Venomous snakes that use hemotoxins usually have fangs in the front of their mouths, making it easier for them to inject the venom into their victims. [59] Some snakes that use neurotoxins (such as the mangrove snake) have fangs in the back of their mouths, with the fangs curled backwards. [61] This makes it difficult both for the snake to use its venom and for scientists to milk them. [59] Elapids , however, such as cobras and kraits are proteroglyphous —they possess hollow fangs that cannot be erected toward the front of their mouths, and cannot "stab" like a viper. They must actually bite the victim. [17] :242

It has recently been suggested that all snakes may be venomous to a certain degree, with harmless snakes having weak venom and no fangs. [62] Most snakes currently labelled "nonvenomous" would still be considered harmless according to this theory, as they either lack a venom delivery method or are incapable of delivering enough to endanger a human. This theory postulates that snakes may have evolved from a common lizard ancestor that was venomous—and that venomous lizards like the gila monster, beaded lizard, monitor lizards, and the now-extinct mosasaurs may also have derived from it. They share this venom clade with various other saurian species.

Venomous snakes are classified in two taxonomic families:

There is a third family containing the opistoglyphous (rear-fanged) snakes (as well as the majority of other snake species):

Reproduction

Although a wide range of reproductive modes are used by snakes, all snakes employ internal fertilization. This is accomplished by means of paired, forked hemipenes, which are stored, inverted, in the male's tail. [63] The hemipenes are often grooved, hooked, or spined in order to grip the walls of the female's cloaca. [64] [63]

Most species of snakes lay eggs which they abandon shortly after laying. However, a few species (such as the king cobra) actually construct nests and stay in the vicinity of the hatchlings after incubation. [63] Most pythons coil around their egg-clutches and remain with them until they hatch. [65] A female python will not leave the eggs, except to occasionally bask in the sun or drink water. She will even "shiver" to generate heat to incubate the eggs. [65]

Some species of snake are ovoviviparous and retain the eggs within their bodies until they are almost ready to hatch. [66] [67] Recently, it has been confirmed that several species of snake are fully viviparous, such as the boa constrictor and green anaconda, nourishing their young through a placenta as well as a yolk sac, which is highly unusual among reptiles, or anything else outside of requiem sharks or placental mammals. [66] [67] Retention of eggs and live birth are most often associated with colder environments. [63] [67]

The Garter snake has been studied for sexual selection Coast Garter Snake.jpg
The Garter snake has been studied for sexual selection

Sexual selection in snakes is demonstrated by the three thousand species that each use different tactics in acquiring mates. [68] Ritual combat between males for the females they want to mate with includes topping, a behavior exhibited by most viperids in which one male will twist around the vertically elevated fore body of its opponent and forcing it downward. It is common for neck biting to occur while the snakes are entwined. [69]

Facultative parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis is a natural form of reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead) and Agkistrodon piscivorus (cotton mouth) can reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis. That is, they are capable of switching from a sexual mode of reproduction to an asexual mode. [70] The type of parthenogenesis that likely occurs is automixis with terminal fusion, a process in which two terminal products from the same meiosis fuse to form a diploid zygote. This process leads to genome wide homozygosity, expression of deleterious recessive alleles and often to developmental abnormalities. Both captive-born and wild-born A. contortrix and A. piscivorus appear to be capable of this form of parthenogenesis. [70]

Reproduction in squamate reptiles is almost exclusively sexual. Males ordinarily have a ZZ pair of sex determining chromosomes, and females a ZW pair. However, the Colombian Rainbow boa, Epicrates maurus can also reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis resulting in production of WW female progeny. [71] The WW females are likely produced by terminal automixis.

Behavior

Winter dormancy

In regions where winters are colder than snakes can tolerate while remaining active, local species will brumate. Unlike hibernation, in which mammals are actually asleep, brumating reptiles are awake but inactive. Individual snakes may brumate in burrows, under rock piles, or inside fallen trees, or snakes may aggregate in large numbers at hibernacula.

Feeding and diet

Carpet python constricting and consuming a chicken. Carpet snake.jpg
Carpet python constricting and consuming a chicken.
African egg-eating snake eating an egg Eierschlange frisst Zwergwachtelei.jpg
African egg-eating snake eating an egg

All snakes are strictly carnivorous, eating small animals including lizards, frogs, other snakes, small mammals, birds, eggs, fish, snails or insects. [17] [18] [72] Because snakes cannot bite or tear their food to pieces, they must swallow prey whole. The body size of a snake has a major influence on its eating habits. Smaller snakes eat smaller prey. Juvenile pythons might start out feeding on lizards or mice and graduate to small deer or antelope as an adult, for example.

The snake's jaw is a complex structure. Contrary to the popular belief that snakes can dislocate their jaws, snakes have a very flexible lower jaw, the two halves of which are not rigidly attached, and numerous other joints in their skull (see snake skull), allowing them to open their mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole, even if it is larger in diameter than the snake itself. [72] For example, the African egg-eating snake has flexible jaws adapted for eating eggs much larger than the diameter of its head. [17] :81 This snake has no teeth, but does have bony protrusions on the inside edge of its spine, which it uses to break shells when it eats eggs. [17] :81

While the majority of snakes eat a variety of prey animals, there is some specialization by some species. King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Snakes of the family Pareidae have more teeth on the right side of their mouths than on the left, as the shells of their prey usually spiral clockwise. [17] :184 [73] [74]

Some snakes have a venomous bite, which they use to kill their prey before eating it. [72] [75] Other snakes kill their prey by constriction. [72] Still others swallow their prey whole and alive. [17] :81 [72]

Dolichophis jugularis preying on a Sheltopusik. PikiWiki Israel 37648 Nature and Colors.jpg
Dolichophis jugularis preying on a Sheltopusik.

After eating, snakes become dormant while the process of digestion takes place. [47] Digestion is an intense activity, especially after consumption of large prey. In species that feed only sporadically, the entire intestine enters a reduced state between meals to conserve energy. The digestive system is then 'up-regulated' to full capacity within 48 hours of prey consumption. Being ectothermic ("cold-blooded"), the surrounding temperature plays a large role in snake digestion. The ideal temperature for snakes to digest is 30 °C (86 °F). So much metabolic energy is involved in a snake's digestion that in the Mexican rattlesnake ( Crotalus durissus ), surface body temperature increases by as much as 1.2 °C (2.2 °F) during the digestive process. [76] Because of this, a snake disturbed after having eaten recently will often regurgitate its prey to be able to escape the perceived threat. When undisturbed, the digestive process is highly efficient, with the snake's digestive enzymes dissolving and absorbing everything but the prey's hair (or feathers) and claws, which are excreted along with waste.

Locomotion

The lack of limbs does not impede the movement of snakes. They have developed several different modes of locomotion to deal with particular environments. Unlike the gaits of limbed animals, which form a continuum, each mode of snake locomotion is discrete and distinct from the others; transitions between modes are abrupt. [77] [78]

Lateral undulation

Crawling prints of a snake Foot prints of Snake.jpg
Crawling prints of a snake

Lateral undulation is the sole mode of aquatic locomotion, and the most common mode of terrestrial locomotion. [78] In this mode, the body of the snake alternately flexes to the left and right, resulting in a series of rearward-moving "waves". [77] While this movement appears rapid, snakes have rarely been documented moving faster than two body-lengths per second, often much less. [79] This mode of movement has the same net cost of transport (calories burned per meter moved) as running in lizards of the same mass. [80]

Terrestrial lateral undulation is the most common mode of terrestrial locomotion for most snake species. [77] In this mode, the posteriorly moving waves push against contact points in the environment, such as rocks, twigs, irregularities in the soil, etc. [77] Each of these environmental objects, in turn, generates a reaction force directed forward and towards the midline of the snake, resulting in forward thrust while the lateral components cancel out. [81] The speed of this movement depends upon the density of push-points in the environment, with a medium density of about 8[ clarification needed ] along the snake's length being ideal. [79] The wave speed is precisely the same as the snake speed, and as a result, every point on the snake's body follows the path of the point ahead of it, allowing snakes to move through very dense vegetation and small openings. [81]

When swimming, the waves become larger as they move down the snake's body, and the wave travels backwards faster than the snake moves forwards. [82] Thrust is generated by pushing their body against the water, resulting in the observed slip. In spite of overall similarities, studies show that the pattern of muscle activation is different in aquatic versus terrestrial lateral undulation, which justifies calling them separate modes. [83] All snakes can laterally undulate forward (with backward-moving waves), but only sea snakes have been observed reversing the motion (moving backwards with forward-moving waves). [77]

Sidewinding

A neonate sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes) sidewinding. Neonate sidewinder sidewinding with tracks unlabeled.jpg
A neonate sidewinder rattlesnake ( Crotalus cerastes ) sidewinding.

Most often employed by colubroid snakes (colubrids, elapids, and vipers) when the snake must move in an environment that lacks irregularities to push against (rendering lateral undulation impossible), such as a slick mud flat, or a sand dune, sidewinding is a modified form of lateral undulation in which all of the body segments oriented in one direction remain in contact with the ground, while the other segments are lifted up, resulting in a peculiar "rolling" motion. [84] [85] This mode of locomotion overcomes the slippery nature of sand or mud by pushing off with only static portions on the body, thereby minimizing slipping. [84] The static nature of the contact points can be shown from the tracks of a sidewinding snake, which show each belly scale imprint, without any smearing. This mode of locomotion has very low caloric cost, less than ⅓ of the cost for a lizard to move the same distance. [80] Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that sidewinding is associated with the sand being hot. [84]

Concertina

When push-points are absent, but there is not enough space to use sidewinding because of lateral constraints, such as in tunnels, snakes rely on concertina locomotion. [77] [85] In this mode, the snake braces the posterior portion of its body against the tunnel wall while the front of the snake extends and straightens. [84] The front portion then flexes and forms an anchor point, and the posterior is straightened and pulled forwards. This mode of locomotion is slow and very demanding, up to seven times the cost of laterally undulating over the same distance. [80] This high cost is due to the repeated stops and starts of portions of the body as well as the necessity of using active muscular effort to brace against the tunnel walls.

Arboreal

Golden tree snake climbing a flower Golden tree snake.jpg
Golden tree snake climbing a flower

The movement of snakes in arboreal habitats has only recently been studied. [86] While on tree branches, snakes use several modes of locomotion depending on species and bark texture. [86] In general, snakes will use a modified form of concertina locomotion on smooth branches, but will laterally undulate if contact points are available. [86] Snakes move faster on small branches and when contact points are present, in contrast to limbed animals, which do better on large branches with little 'clutter'. [86]

Gliding snakes ( Chrysopelea ) of Southeast Asia launch themselves from branch tips, spreading their ribs and laterally undulating as they glide between trees. [84] [87] [88] These snakes can perform a controlled glide for hundreds of feet depending upon launch altitude and can even turn in midair. [84] [87]

Rectilinear

The slowest mode of snake locomotion is rectilinear locomotion, which is also the only one where the snake does not need to bend its body laterally, though it may do so when turning. [89] In this mode, the belly scales are lifted and pulled forward before being placed down and the body pulled over them. Waves of movement and stasis pass posteriorly, resulting in a series of ripples in the skin. [89] The ribs of the snake do not move in this mode of locomotion and this method is most often used by large pythons, boas, and vipers when stalking prey across open ground as the snake's movements are subtle and harder to detect by their prey in this manner. [84]

Interactions with humans

Most common symptoms of any kind of snake bite envenomation. Furthermore, there is vast variation in symptoms between bites from different types of snakes. Snake bite symptoms.png
Most common symptoms of any kind of snake bite envenomation. Furthermore, there is vast variation in symptoms between bites from different types of snakes.

Bite

Vipera berus, one fang in glove with a small venom stain, the other still in place. ViperaBerusFang.JPG
Vipera berus , one fang in glove with a small venom stain, the other still in place.

Snakes do not ordinarily prey on humans. Unless startled or injured, most snakes prefer to avoid contact and will not attack humans. With the exception of large constrictors, nonvenomous snakes are not a threat to humans. The bite of a nonvenomous snake is usually harmless; their teeth are not adapted for tearing or inflicting a deep puncture wound, but rather grabbing and holding. Although the possibility of infection and tissue damage is present in the bite of a nonvenomous snake, venomous snakes present far greater hazard to humans. [17] :209 The World Health Organisation (WHO) lists snakebite under the "other neglected conditions" category. [92]

Documented deaths resulting from snake bites are uncommon. Nonfatal bites from venomous snakes may result in the need for amputation of a limb or part thereof. Of the roughly 725 species of venomous snakes worldwide, only 250 are able to kill a human with one bite. Australia averages only one fatal snake bite per year. In India, 250,000 snakebites are recorded in a single year, with as many as 50,000 recorded initial deaths. [93] The WHO estimates that on the order of 100 000 people die each year as a result of snake bites, and around three times as many amputations and other permanent disabilities are caused by snakebites annually. [94]

The treatment for a snakebite is as variable as the bite itself. The most common and effective method is through antivenom (or antivenin), a serum made from the venom of the snake. Some antivenom is species-specific (monovalent) while some is made for use with multiple species in mind (polyvalent). In the United States for example, all species of venomous snakes are pit vipers, with the exception of the coral snake. To produce antivenom, a mixture of the venoms of the different species of rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths is injected into the body of a horse in ever-increasing dosages until the horse is immunized. Blood is then extracted from the immunized horse. The serum is separated and further purified and freeze-dried. It is reconstituted with sterile water and becomes antivenom. For this reason, people who are allergic to horses are more likely to suffer an allergic reaction to antivenom. [95] Antivenom for the more dangerous species (such as mambas, taipans, and cobras) is made in a similar manner in India, South Africa, and Australia, although these antivenoms are species-specific.

Snake charmers

An Indian cobra in a basket with a snake charmer. These snakes are perhaps the most common subjects of snake charmings. Snake in basket.jpg
An Indian cobra in a basket with a snake charmer. These snakes are perhaps the most common subjects of snake charmings.

In some parts of the world, especially in India, snake charming is a roadside show performed by a charmer. In such a show, the snake charmer carries a basket that contains a snake that he seemingly charms by playing tunes from his flutelike musical instrument, to which the snake responds. [96] Snakes lack external ears, though they do have internal ears, and respond to the movement of the flute, not the actual noise. [96] [97]

The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 in India technically proscribes snake charming on grounds of reducing animal cruelty. Other snake charmers also have a snake and mongoose show, where both the animals have a mock fight; however, this is not very common, as the snakes, as well as the mongooses, may be seriously injured or killed. Snake charming as a profession is dying out in India because of competition from modern forms of entertainment and environment laws proscribing the practice. [96]

Trapping

The Irulas tribe of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India have been hunter-gatherers in the hot, dry plains forests, and have practiced the art of snake catching for generations. They have a vast knowledge of snakes in the field. They generally catch the snakes with the help of a simple stick. Earlier, the Irulas caught thousands of snakes for the snake-skin industry. After the complete ban of the snake-skin industry in India and protection of all snakes under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, they formed the Irula Snake Catcher's Cooperative and switched to catching snakes for removal of venom, releasing them in the wild after four extractions. The venom so collected is used for producing life-saving antivenom, biomedical research and for other medicinal products. [98] The Irulas are also known to eat some of the snakes they catch and are very useful in rat extermination in the villages.

Despite the existence of snake charmers, there have also been professional snake catchers or wranglers. Modern-day snake trapping involves a herpetologist using a long stick with a V- shaped end. Some television show hosts, like Bill Haast, Austin Stevens, Steve Irwin, and Jeff Corwin, prefer to catch them using bare hands.

Consumption

A "Hai Bao She " ("sea-leopard snake", supposedly Enhydris bocourti) occupies a place of honor among the live delicacies waiting to meet their consumers outside of a Guangzhou restaurant. Guangzhou-snakes-at-restaurant-0457.jpg
A "海豹蛇" ("sea-leopard snake", supposedly Enhydris bocourti) occupies a place of honor among the live delicacies waiting to meet their consumers outside of a Guangzhou restaurant.
Snake meat, in a Taipei restaurant Snake meat.jpg
Snake meat, in a Taipei restaurant

While not commonly thought of as food in most cultures, in some cultures, the consumption of snakes is acceptable, or even considered a delicacy, prized for its alleged pharmaceutical effect of warming the heart. Snake soup of Cantonese cuisine is consumed by local people in autumn, to warm up their body. Western cultures document the consumption of snakes under extreme circumstances of hunger. [99] Cooked rattlesnake meat is an exception, which is commonly consumed in parts of the Midwestern United States. In Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia, drinking the blood of snakes—particularly the cobra—is believed to increase sexual virility. [100] The blood is drained while the cobra is still alive when possible, and is usually mixed with some form of liquor to improve the taste. [100]

In some Asian countries, the use of snakes in alcohol is also accepted. In such cases, the body of a snake or several snakes is left to steep in a jar or container of liquor. It is claimed that this makes the liquor stronger (as well as more expensive). One example of this is the Habu snake sometimes placed in the Okinawan liquor Awamori also known as "Habu Sake". [101]

Snake wine (蛇酒) is an alcoholic beverage produced by infusing whole snakes in rice wine or grain alcohol. The drink was first recorded to have been consumed in China during the Western Zhou dynasty and considered an important curative and believed to reinvigorate a person according to Traditional Chinese medicine. [102]

Pets

In the Western world, some snakes (especially docile species such as the ball python and corn snake) are kept as pets. To meet this demand a captive breeding industry has developed. Snakes bred in captivity tend to make better pets and are considered preferable to wild caught specimens. [103] Snakes can be very low maintenance pets, especially compared to more traditional species. They require minimal space, as most common species do not exceed 5 feet (1.5 m) in length. Pet snakes can be fed relatively infrequently, usually once every 5 to 14 days. Certain snakes have a lifespan of more than 40 years if given proper care.

Symbolism

The reverse side of the throne of Pharaoh Tutankhamun with four golden uraeus cobra figures. Gold with lapis lazuli; Valley of the Kings, Thebes (1347-37 BCE). Golden Uraes Cobra Tutankhamun's Throne.jpg
The reverse side of the throne of Pharaoh Tutankhamun with four golden uraeus cobra figures. Gold with lapis lazuli; Valley of the Kings, Thebes (1347–37 BCE).
Snakes composing a bronze kerykeion from the mythical Longanus river in Sicily Longane, Sicily.JPG
Snakes composing a bronze kerykeion from the mythical Longanus river in Sicily

In ancient Mesopotamia, Nirah, the messenger god of Ištaran, was represented as a serpent on kudurrus , or boundary stones. [104] Representations of two intertwined serpents are common in Sumerian art and Neo-Sumerian artwork [104] and still appear sporadically on cylinder seals and amulets until as late as the thirteenth century BC. [104] The horned viper ( Cerastes cerastes ) appears in Kassite and Neo-Assyrian kudurrus [104] and is invoked in Assyrian texts as a magical protective entity. [104] A dragon-like creature with horns, the body and neck of a snake, the forelegs of a lion, and the hind-legs of a bird appears in Mesopotamian art from the Akkadian Period until the Hellenistic Period (323 BC–31 BC). [104] This creature, known in Akkadian as the mušḫuššu , meaning "furious serpent", was used as a symbol for particular deities and also as a general protective emblem. [104] It seems to have originally been the attendant of the Underworld god Ninazu, [104] but later became the attendant to the Hurrian storm-god Tishpak, as well as, later, Ninazu's son Ningishzida, the Babylonian national god Marduk, the scribal god Nabu, and the Assyrian national god Ashur. [104]

In Egyptian history, the snake occupies a primary role with the Nile cobra adorning the crown of the pharaoh in ancient times. It was worshipped as one of the gods and was also used for sinister purposes: murder of an adversary and ritual suicide (Cleopatra).[ citation needed ] The ouroboros was a well-known ancient Egyptian symbol of a serpent swallowing its own tail. [105] The precursor to the ouroboros was the "Many-Faced", [105] a serpent with five heads, who, according to the Amduat, the oldest surviving Book of the Afterlife, was said to coil around the corpse of the sun god Ra protectively. [105] The earliest surviving depiction of a "true" ouroboros comes from the gilded shrines in the tomb of Tutankhamun. [105] In the early centuries AD, the ouroboros was adopted as a symbol by Gnostic Christians [105] and chapter 136 of the Pistis Sophia , an early Gnostic text, describes "a great dragon whose tail is in its mouth". [105] In medieval alchemy, the ouroboros became a typical western dragon with wings, legs, and a tail. [105]

In the Bible, King Nahash of Ammon, whose name means "Snake", is depicted very negatively, as a particularly cruel and despicable enemy of the ancient Hebrews.

Medusa (1597) by the Italian artist Caravaggio Medusa by Carvaggio.jpg
Medusa (1597) by the Italian artist Caravaggio
Imperial Japan depicted as an evil snake in a WWII propaganda poster. Salvage Scrap propaganda poster crop2.jpg
Imperial Japan depicted as an evil snake in a WWII propaganda poster.

The ancient Greeks used the Gorgoneion, a depiction of a hideous face with serpents for hair, as an apotropaic symbol to ward off evil. [106] In a Greek myth described by Pseudo-Apollodorus in his Bibliotheca , Medusa was a Gorgon with serpents for hair whose gaze turned all those who looked at her to stone and was slain by the hero Perseus. [107] [108] [109] In the Roman poet Ovid's Metamorphoses , Medusa is said to have once been a beautiful priestess of Athena, whom Athena turned into a serpent-haired monster after she was raped by the god Poseidon in Athena's temple. [110] In another myth referenced by the Boeotian poet Hesiod and described in detail by Pseudo-Apollodorus, the hero Heracles is said to have slain the Lernaean Hydra, [111] [112] a multiple-headed serpent which dwelt in the swamps of Lerna. [111] [112]

The legendary account of the foundation of Thebes mentioned a monster snake guarding the spring from which the new settlement was to draw its water. In fighting and killing the snake, the companions of the founder Cadmus all perished – leading to the term "Cadmean victory" (i.e. a victory involving one's own ruin).[ citation needed ]

Rod of Asclepius, in which the snake, through ecdysis, symbolizes healing. Rod of asclepius.jpg
Rod of Asclepius, in which the snake, through ecdysis, symbolizes healing.

Three medical symbols involving snakes that are still used today are Bowl of Hygieia, symbolizing pharmacy, and the Caduceus and Rod of Asclepius, which are symbols denoting medicine in general. [46]

One of the etymologies proposed for the common female first name Linda is that it might derive from Old German Lindi or Linda, meaning a serpent.

India is often called the land of snakes and is steeped in tradition regarding snakes. [113] Snakes are worshipped as gods even today with many women pouring milk on snake pits (despite snakes' aversion for milk). [113] The cobra is seen on the neck of Shiva and Vishnu is depicted often as sleeping on a seven-headed snake or within the coils of a serpent. [114] There are also several temples in India solely for cobras sometimes called Nagraj (King of Snakes) and it is believed that snakes are symbols of fertility. There is a Hindu festival called Nag Panchami each year on which day snakes are venerated and prayed to. See also Nāga .[ citation needed ]

In India there is another mythology about snakes. Commonly known in Hindi as "Ichchhadhari" snakes. Such snakes can take the form of any living creature, but prefer human form. These mythical snakes possess a valuable gem called "Mani", which is more brilliant than diamond. There are many stories in India about greedy people trying to possess this gem and ending up getting killed.[ citation needed ]

The snake is one of the 12 celestial animals of Chinese zodiac, in the Chinese calendar. [115]

Many ancient Peruvian cultures worshipped nature. [116] They emphasized animals and often depicted snakes in their art. [117]

Religion

Snakes are a part of Hindu worship. A festival, Nag Panchami, in which participants worship either images of or live Nāgas (cobras) is celebrated every year. Most images of Lord Shiva depict snake around his neck. Puranas have various stories associated with snakes. In the Puranas, Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the Universe on his hoods and to constantly sing the glories of Vishnu from all his mouths. He is sometimes referred to as "Ananta-Shesha", which means "Endless Shesha". Other notable snakes in Hinduism are Ananta, Vasuki, Taxak, Karkotaka and Pingala. The term Nāga is used to refer to entities that take the form of large snakes in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Snakes have also been widely revered, such as in ancient Greece, where the serpent was seen as a healer. Asclepius carried a serpent wound around his wand, a symbol seen today on many ambulances.

In religious terms, the snake and jaguar are arguably the most important animals in ancient Mesoamerica. "In states of ecstasy, lords dance a serpent dance; great descending snakes adorn and support buildings from Chichen Itza to Tenochtitlan, and the Nahuatl word coatl meaning serpent or twin, forms part of primary deities such as Mixcoatl, Quetzalcoatl, and Coatlicue." [118] In both Maya and Aztec calendars, the fifth day of the week was known as Snake Day.

In Judaism, the snake of brass is also a symbol of healing, of one's life being saved from imminent death. [119]

In some parts of Christianity, Christ's redemptive work is compared to saving one's life through beholding the Nehushtan (serpent of brass). [120] Snake handlers use snakes as an integral part of church worship in order to exhibit their faith in divine protection. However, more commonly in Christianity, the serpent has been seen as a representative of evil and sly plotting, which can be seen in the description in Genesis chapter 3 of a snake in the Garden of Eden tempting Eve. [121] Saint Patrick is reputed to have expelled all snakes from Ireland while converting the country to Christianity in the 5th century, thus explaining the absence of snakes there.

In Christianity and Judaism, the snake makes its infamous appearance in the first book of the Bible when a serpent appears before the first couple Adam and Eve and tempts them with the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. [121] The snake returns in Exodus when Moses, as a sign of God's power, turns his staff into a snake and when Moses made the Nehushtan, a bronze snake on a pole that when looked at cured the people of bites from the snakes that plagued them in the desert. The serpent makes its final appearance symbolizing Satan in the Book of Revelation: "And he laid hold on the dragon the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years." [122]

In Neo-Paganism and Wicca, the snake is seen as a symbol of wisdom and knowledge.

Ballcourt marker from the Postclassic site of Mixco Viejo in Guatemala. This sculpture depicts Kukulkan, jaws agape, with the head of a human warrior emerging from his maw. Mixco Viejo ballcourt marker.jpg
Ballcourt marker from the Postclassic site of Mixco Viejo in Guatemala. This sculpture depicts Kukulkan, jaws agape, with the head of a human warrior emerging from his maw.

Medicine

Several compounds from snake venoms are being researched as potential treatments or preventatives for pain, cancers, arthritis, stroke, heart disease, hemophilia, and hypertension, and to control bleeding (e.g. during surgery). [124] [125] [126]

See also

Related Research Articles

King cobra species of reptile

The king cobra, also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia. It is threatened by habitat destruction and has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2010. It is the world's longest venomous snake. Adult king cobras are 3.18 to 4 m long. The longest known individual measured 5.85 m (19.2 ft). Despite the word "cobra" in its common name, this species does not belong to the genus Naja, the true cobras, but is the sole member of its own genus Ophiophagus. It preys chiefly on other snakes and occasionally on some other vertebrates, such as lizards and rodents. It is a dangerous snake when agitated or provoked that has a fearsome reputation in its range, although it is typically shy and avoids confrontation with humans when possible. The king cobra is a prominent symbol in the mythology and folk traditions of India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. It is the national reptile of India.

Lepidosauria Superorder of reptiles

The Lepidosauria are reptiles with overlapping scales. This subclass includes Squamata and Rhynchocephalia. It is a monophyletic group and therefore contains all descendants of a common ancestor. Squamata includes snakes, lizards, and amphisbaenia. Rhynchocephalia was a widespread and diverse group 220-100 million years ago; however, it is now represented only by the genus Sphenodon, which contains a single species of tuatara, native to New Zealand. Lepidosauria is the sister taxon to Archosauria, which includes Aves and Crocodilia. Lizards and snakes are the most speciose group of lepidosaurs and, combined, contain over 9,000 species. There are many noticeable distinguishing morphological differences between lizards, tuataras, and snakes.

Elapidae family of reptiles

Elapidae are a family of venomous snakes endemic to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, with terrestrial forms in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas alongside marine forms in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Members of this family have a wide range of sizes, from the smallest 18 cm (7.1 in) white-lipped snake to the longest 5.85 m (19.2 ft) king cobra, all of which, however, have fixed hollow fangs for venom injection to subdue prey and defend themselves against any threats. Most species have neurotoxins in their venom, while some may contain other toxic components with various proportions. This family includes 56 genera with some 360 species and some 170 subspecies.

Mamba genus of reptiles

Mambas are fast-moving venomous snakes of the genus Dendroaspis in the family Elapidae. Four extant species are recognised currently; three of those four species are essentially arboreal and green in colour, whereas the so-called black mamba, Dendroaspis polylepis, is largely terrestrial and generally brown or grey in colour. All are native to various regions in sub-Saharan Africa and all are feared throughout their ranges, especially the black mamba. In Africa there are many legends and stories about mambas.

Ophidia Group of squamate reptiles

Ophidia is a group of squamate reptiles including modern snakes and all reptiles more closely related to snakes than to other living groups of lizards.

Snakebite Injury caused by a bite from a snake

A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake. A common sign of a bite from a venomous snake is the presence of two puncture wounds from the animal's fangs. Sometimes venom injection from the bite may occur. This may result in redness, swelling, and severe pain at the area, which may take up to an hour to appear. Vomiting, blurred vision, tingling of the limbs, and sweating may result. Most bites are on the hands, arms, or legs. Fear following a bite is common with symptoms of a racing heart and feeling faint. The venom may cause bleeding, kidney failure, a severe allergic reaction, tissue death around the bite, or breathing problems. Bites may result in the loss of a limb or other chronic problems. The outcome depends on the type of snake, the area of the body bitten, the amount of venom injected, and the general health of the person bitten. Problems are often more severe in children than adults, due to their smaller size.

Snake venom venom

Snake venom is a highly modified saliva containing zootoxins that facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats. It is injected by unique fangs after a bite, and some species are also able to spit their venom.

Toxicofera Proposed clade of scaled reptiles

Toxicofera is a proposed clade of scaled reptiles (squamates) that includes the Serpentes (snakes), Anguimorpha and Iguania. Toxicofera contains about 4,600 species, of extant squamata. It encompasses all venomous reptile species, as well as numerous related non-venomous species. There is little morphological evidence to support this grouping, however it has been recovered by all molecular analyses as of 2012.

Caspian cobra species of reptile

The Caspian cobra, also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The species is endemic to Central Asia.

Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which they use for killing prey, for defense, and to assist with digestion of their prey. The venom is typically delivered by injection using hollow or grooved fangs, although some venomous snakes lack well-developed fangs. Common venomous snakes include the families Elapidae, Viperidae, Atractaspididae, and some of the Colubridae. The toxicity of venom is mainly indicated by murine LD50, while multiple factors are considered to judge the potential danger to humans. Other important factors for risk assessment include the likelihood that a snake will bite, the quantity of venom delivered with the bite, the efficiency of the delivery mechanism, and the location of a bite on the body of the victim. Snake venom may have both neurotoxic and hemotoxic properties.

Western green mamba species of reptile

The western green mamba, also known as the West African green mamba or Hallowell's green mamba, is a long, thin, and highly venomous snake of the mamba genus, Dendroaspis. This species was first described in 1844 by the American herpetologist Edward Hallowell. The western green mamba is a fairly large and predominantly arboreal species, capable of navigating through trees swiftly and gracefully. It will also descend to ground level to pursue prey such as rodents and other small mammals.

<i>Naja</i> genus of reptiles

Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras, but members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as "true" cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

<i>Pseudohaje goldii</i> species of reptile

Pseudohaje goldii, commonly known as Goldie's tree cobra or Gold's tree cobra, is a species of venomous tree cobra endemic to Central and Western Africa. This species is one of the two tree cobras in Africa, the other being the black tree cobra. Goldie's tree cobra is one of the most venomous snakes and creatures in Africa.

Forest cobra species of reptile

The forest cobra, also commonly called the black cobra and the black and white-lipped cobra, is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The species is native to Africa, mostly the central and western parts of the continent. It is the largest true cobra species with a total length of up to 3.1 meters. Although it prefers lowland forest and moist savanna habitats, this cobra is highly adaptable and can be found in drier climates within its geographical range. It is a very capable swimmer and is often considered to be semi-aquatic. The forest cobra is a generalist in its feeding habits, having a highly varied diet: anything from large insects to small mammals and other reptiles. This species is alert, nervous and is considered to be a very dangerous snake. When cornered or molested, it will assume the typical cobra warning posture by raising its fore body off the ground, spreading a narrow hood, and hissing loudly. Bites to humans are less common than from other African cobras due to various factors, though a bite from this species is a life-threatening emergency.

Epidemiology of snakebites

Most snakebites are caused by non-venomous snakes. Of the roughly 3,700 known species of snake found worldwide, only 15% are considered dangerous to humans. Snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica. There are two major families of venomous snakes, Elapidae and Viperidae. Three hundred twenty five species in 61 genera are recognized in the family Elapidae and 224 species in 22 genera are recognized in the family Viperidae, In addition, the most diverse and widely distributed snake family, the colubrids, has approximately 700 venomous species, but only five genera—boomslangs, twig snakes, keelback snakes, green snakes, and slender snakes—have caused human fatalities.

References

  1. 1 2 Hsiang, A. Y.; Field, D. J.; Webster, T. H.; Behlke, A. D.; Davis, M. B.; Racicot, R. A.; Gauthier, J. A. (2015). "The origin of snakes: Revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 15: 87. doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0358-5. PMC   4438441 . PMID   25989795.
  2. Reeder, T. W.; Townsend, T. M.; Mulcahy, D. G.; Noonan, B. P.; Wood, P. L.; Sites, J. W.; Wiens, J. J. (2015). "Integrated Analyses Resolve Conflicts over Squamate Reptile Phylogeny and Reveal Unexpected Placements for Fossil Taxa". PLoS ONE. 10 (3): e0118199. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1018199R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118199. PMC   4372529 . PMID   25803280.
  3. Wiens, John J.; Brandley, Matthew C.; Reeder, Tod W. (2006). "Why Does a Trait Evolve Multiple Times within a Clade? Repeated Evolution of Snakelike Body Form in Squamate Reptiles". Evolution. 60 (1): 123–41. doi:10.1554/05-328.1. PMID   16568638.
  4. 1 2 Roland Bauchot, ed. (1994). Snakes: A Natural History. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. p. 220. ISBN   978-1-4027-3181-5.
  5. 1 2 3 "Serpentes". Integrated Taxonomic Information System . Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 snake species list at the Reptile Database Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine . Accessed 4 April 2017.
  7. 1 2 S. Blair Hedges (August 4, 2008). "At the lower size limit in snakes: two new species of threadsnakes (Squamata: Leptotyphlopidae: Leptotyphlops) from the Lesser Antilles" (PDF). Zootaxa . 1841: 1–30. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  8. 1 2 Fredriksson, G. M. (2005). "Predation on Sun Bears by Reticulated Python in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo". Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 53 (1): 165–168. Archived from the original on 2014-07-09.
  9. 1 2 Head, Jason J.; Jonathan I. Bloch; Alexander K. Hastings; Jason R. Bourque; Edwin A. Cadena; Fabiany A. Herrera; P. David Polly; Carlos A. Jaramillo (February 2009). "Giant boid snake from the paleocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures". Nature . 457 (7230): 715–718. Bibcode:2009Natur.457..715H. doi:10.1038/nature07671. PMID   19194448.
  10. Perkins, Sid (27 January 2015). "Fossils of oldest known snakes unearthed". news.sciencemag.org. Archived from the original on 30 January 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.

    Caldwell, M. W.; Nydam, R. L.; Palci, A.; Apesteguía, S. (2015). "The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution". Nature Communications. 6 (5996): 5996. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6E5996C. doi:10.1038/ncomms6996. PMID   25625704.

  11. Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-, Meaning: snake, Old Indian: nāgá- m. "snake", Germanic: *snēk-a- m., *snak-an- m., *snak-ō f.; *snak-a- vb., Russ. meaning: жаба (змея), References: WP (Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen) II 697 f.
  12. Online Etymology Dictionary, s.v. "snake Archived 2010-07-19 at the Wayback Machine ", retrieved on 22 September 2009.
  13. "Definition of serpent". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  14. 1 2 Lee, Michael S. Y.; Andrew F. Hugall, Robin Lawson & John D. Scanlon (2007). "Phylogeny of snakes (Serpentes): combining morphological and molecular data in likelihood, Bayesian and parsimony analyses". Systematics and Biodiversity. 5 (4): 371–389. doi:10.1017/S1477200007002290. hdl:2440/44258.
  15. Durand, J.F. (2004). "The origin of snakes". Geoscience Africa 2004. Abstract Volume, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, pp. 187.
  16. Vidal, N., Rage, J.-C., Couloux, A. and Hedges, S.B. (2009). "Snakes (Serpentes)". Pp. 390–397 in Hedges, S. B. and Kumar, S. (eds.), The Timetree of Life. Oxford University Press.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN   0-8069-6460-X.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Sanchez, Alejandro. "Diapsids III: Snakes". Father Sanchez's Web Site of West Indian Natural History. Archived from the original on 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
  19. 1 2 "New Fossil Snake With Legs". UNEP WCMC Database. Washington, D.C.: American Association For The Advancement Of Science. Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
  20. 1 2 Holman, J. Alan (2000). Fossil Snakes of North America (First ed.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 284–323. ISBN   978-0253337214.
  21. 1 2 Mc Dowell, Samuel (1972). The evolution of the tongue of snakes and its bearing on snake origins. Evolutionary Biology. 6. pp. 191–273. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-9063-3_8. ISBN   978-1-4684-9065-7.
  22. Apesteguía, Sebastián; Zaher, Hussam (April 2006). "A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum". Nature. 440 (7087): 1037–1040. Bibcode:2006Natur.440.1037A. doi:10.1038/nature04413. PMID   16625194. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
  23. 1 2 3 Mertens, Robert (1961). "Lanthanotus: an important lizard in evolution". Sarawak Museum Journal. 10: 320–322.
  24. Jonathan, Webb (24 July 2014). "Four-legged snake ancestor 'dug burrows'". BBC Science & Environment. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved Jul 24, 2015.
  25. Yong, Ed (2015-07-23). "A Fossil Snake With Four Legs". Archived from the original on 2015-07-23. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  26. Martill, David M.; Tischlinger, Helmut; Longrich, Nicholas R. (2015-07-24). "A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana". Science. 349 (6246): 416–419. Bibcode:2015Sci...349..416M. doi:10.1126/science.aaa9208. ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   26206932. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26.
  27. "What a Legless Mouse Tells Us About Snake Evolution". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 2016-10-24. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  28. "Snakes Used to Have Legs and Arms … Until These Mutations Happened". Live Science. Archived from the original on 2016-10-22. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  29. Leal, Francisca (2016). "Loss and Re-emergence of Legs in Snakes by Modular Evolution of Sonic hedgehog and HOXD Enhancers". Current Biology. 26 (21): 2966–2973. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.09.020. PMID   27773569.
  30. Kvon, EZ; Kamneva, OK; Melo, US; Barozzi, I; Osterwalder, M; Mannion, BJ; Tissières, V; Pickle, CS; Plajzer-Frick, I; Lee, EA; Kato, M; Garvin, TH; Akiyama, JA; Afzal, V; Lopez-Rios, J; Rubin, EM; Dickel, DE; Pennacchio, LA; Visel, A (2016). "Progressive Loss of Function in a Limb Enhancer during Snake Evolution". Cell. 167 (3): 633–642.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.028. PMC   5484524 . PMID   27768887.
  31. 1 2 Conant R, Collins JT. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 450 pp. 48 plates. ISBN   0-395-37022-1.
  32. Natural History Information Centre; Auckland War Memorial Museum. "Natural History Questions". Auckland War Memorial Museum | Tamaki Paenga Hira. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland War Memorial Museum. Q. Are there any snakes in New Zealand?. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  33. Pough; et al. (2002) [1992]. Herpetology: Third Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN   978-0-13-100849-6.
  34. 1 2 McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN   1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN   1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  35. Spawls S, Howell K, Drewes R, Ashe J. 2004. A Field Guide To The Reptiles Of East Africa. London: A & C Black Publishers Ltd. 543 pp. ISBN   0-7136-6817-2.
  36. Elapidae at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database . Accessed 3 December 2008.
  37. Rivas, Jesús Antonio (2000). The life history of the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus), with emphasis on its reproductive Biology (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). University of Tennessee. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-03.
  38. Boback, S. M.; Guyer, C. (2003). "Empirical Evidence for an Optimal Body Size in Snakes". Evolution. 57 (2): 345–351. doi:10.1554/0014-3820(2003)057[0345:EEFAOB]2.0.CO;2. ISSN   0014-3820. PMID   12683530.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 Cogger(1991), p. 180.
  40. "Reptile Senses: Understanding Their World". Petplace.com. 2015-05-18. Archived from the original on 2015-02-19. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
  41. Smith, Malcolm A. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma . Vol I, Loricata and Testudines. p. 30.
  42. 1 2 3 4 Archived August 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  43. Allen, William L.; Baddeley, Roland; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Cuthill, Innes C. (2013). "The evolution and function of pattern diversity in snakes". Behavioral Ecology. 24 (5): 1237–1250. doi:10.1093/beheco/art058. ISSN   1465-7279.
  44. "ZooPax: A Matter of Scale: Part III". Whozoo.org. Archived from the original on 2016-01-16. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
  45. 1 2 Archived November 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  46. 1 2 Wilcox, Robert A; Whitham, Emma M (15 April 2003). "The symbol of modern medicine: why one snake is more than two". Annals of Internal Medicine. 138 (8): 673–7. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.731.8485 . doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138-8-200304150-00016. PMID   12693891. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
  47. 1 2 3 Rosenfeld (1989), p. 11.
  48. Harline, P H (1971). "Physiological basis for detection of sound and vibration in snakes" (PDF). J. Exp. Biol. 54 (2): 349–371. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-12-17.
  49. Friedel, P; Young, BA; van Hemmen, JL (2008). "Auditory Localization of Ground-Borne Vibrations in Snakes". Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (4): 048701. Bibcode:2008PhRvL.100d8701F. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.100.048701. PMID   18352341.
  50. Lisa Zyga (2008-02-13). "Desert Snake Hears Mouse Footsteps with its Jaw". PhysOrg. Archived from the original on 2011-10-10.
  51. Cogger, H 1993 Fauna of Australia. Vol. 2A Amphibia and Reptilia. Australian Biological Resources Studies, Canberra.
  52. Arnold, E.N. (1984). "Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and their relatives". Journal of Natural History. 18 (1): 127–169. doi:10.1080/00222938400770131.
  53. Ananjeva, N. B.; Orlov, N. L. (1994). "Caudal autotomy in Colubrid snake Xenochrophis piscator from Vietnam". Russian Journal of Herpetology. 1 (2).
  54. Gaete, Marcia; Tucker, Abigail S. (2013). "Organized Emergence of Multiple-Generations of Teeth in Snakes Is Dysregulated by Activation of Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signalling". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e74484. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...874484G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074484. PMC   3760860 . PMID   24019968.
  55. Jensen, Bjarke; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Wang, Tobias (2014). "Structure and function of the hearts of lizards and snakes". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 89 (2): 302–336. doi:10.1111/brv.12056. ISSN   1469-185X. PMID   23998743.
  56. Burggren, Warren W. (1 February 1987). "Form and Function in Reptilian Circulations". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 27 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1093/icb/27.1.5. ISSN   1540-7063.
  57. Mathur, Prahlad (1944). "The anatomy of the reptilian heart. Part I. Varanus monitor (Linn.)". Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. Sect. B 20: 1–29. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  58. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mader, Douglas (June 1995). "Reptilian Anatomy". Reptiles. 3 (2): 84–93.
  59. 1 2 3 4 5 Freiberg (1984), p. 125.
  60. 1 2 Freiberg (1984), p. 123.
  61. 1 2 3 4 Freiberg (1984), p. 126.
  62. Fry, Brian G.; Vidal, Nicholas; Norman, Janette A.; Vonk, Freek J.; Scheib, Holger; Ramjan, S. F. Ryan; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Fung, Kim; Hedges, S. Blair; Richardson, Michael K.; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Ignjatovic, Vera; Summerhayes, Robyn; Kochva, Elazar (2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes". Nature. 439 (7076): 584–588. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..584F. doi:10.1038/nature04328. PMID   16292255.
  63. 1 2 3 4 Capula (1989), p. 117.
  64. Robert D. Aldridge; David M. Sever (19 April 2016). Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Snakes. CRC Press. ISBN   978-1-4398-5833-2.
  65. 1 2 Cogger (1991), p. 186.
  66. 1 2 Capula (1989), p. 118.
  67. 1 2 3 Cogger (1991), p. 182.
  68. Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T (2004). "Courtship tactics in garter snakes: How do a male's morphology and behaviour influence his mating success?". Animal Behaviour. 67 (3): 477–83. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.05.007.
  69. Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Weatherhead, Patrick J. (2005). "Genetic evidence for sexual selection in black ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta". Animal Behaviour. 69 (1): 225–34. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.03.012.
  70. 1 2 Booth W, Smith CF, Eskridge PH, Hoss SK, Mendelson JR, Schuett GW (2012). "Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates". Biol. Lett. 8 (6): 983–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0666. PMC   3497136 . PMID   22977071.
  71. Booth W, Million L, Reynolds RG, Burghardt GM, Vargo EL, Schal C, Tzika AC, Schuett GW (2011). "Consecutive virgin births in the new world boid snake, the Colombian rainbow Boa, Epicrates maurus". J. Hered. 102 (6): 759–63. doi:10.1093/jhered/esr080. PMID   21868391.
  72. 1 2 3 4 5 Behler (1979) p. 581
  73. Hori, Michio; Asami, Takahiro; Hoso, Masaki (2007). "Right-handed snakes: convergent evolution of asymmetry for functional specialization". Biology Letters. 3 (2): 169–72. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0600. PMC   2375934 . PMID   17307721.
  74. Pyron, RA; Burbrink, F; Wiens, JJ (2013). "A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-93. PMC   3682911 . PMID   23627680.
  75. Freiberg (1984), pp. 125–127.
  76. Tattersall, GJ; Milsom, WK; Abe, AS; Brito, SP; Andrade, DV (2004). "The thermogenesis of digestion in rattlesnakes". Journal of Experimental Biology. 207 (Pt 4): 579–585. doi:10.1242/jeb.00790. PMID   14718501. Archived from the original on 2005-11-30. Retrieved 2006-05-26.
  77. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cogger(1991), p. 175.
  78. 1 2 Gray, J. (1946). "The mechanism of locomotion in snakes". Journal of Experimental Biology. 23 (2): 101–120. PMID   20281580.
  79. 1 2 Hekrotte, Carlton (1967). "Relations of Body Temperature, Size, and Crawling Speed of the Common Garter Snake, Thamnophis s. sirtalis". Copeia. 23 (4): 759–763. doi:10.2307/1441886. JSTOR   1441886.
  80. 1 2 3 Walton, M.; Jayne, B. C.; Bennett, A. F. (1967). "The energetic cost of limbless locomotion". Science. 249 (4968): 524–527. doi:10.1126/science.249.4968.524. PMID   17735283.
  81. 1 2 Gray, J; H.W., H (1950). "Kinetics of locomotion of the grass snake". Journal of Experimental Biology. 26 (4): 354–367. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09.
  82. Gray, J; Lissman (1953). "Undulatory propulsion". Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science . 94: 551–578.
  83. Jayne, B. C. (1988). "Muscular mechanisms of snake locomotion: an electromyographic study of lateral undulation of the Florida banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata) and the yellow rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta)". Journal of Morphology. 197 (2): 159–181. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051970204. PMID   3184194.
  84. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cogger(1991), p. 177.
  85. 1 2 Jayne, B.C. (1986). "Kinematics of terrestrial snake locomotion". Copeia. 1986 (4): 915–927. doi:10.2307/1445288. JSTOR   1445288.
  86. 1 2 3 4 Astley, H.C.; Jayne, B.C. (2007). "Effects of perch diameter and incline on the kinematics, performance and modes of arboreal locomotion of corn snakes (Elaphe guttata)". Journal of Experimental Biology. 210 (Pt 21): 3862–3872. doi:10.1242/jeb.009050. PMID   17951427.
  87. 1 2 Freiberg (1984), p. 135.
  88. Socha, JJ (2002). "Gliding flight in the paradise tree snake". Nature. 418 (6898): 603–604. Bibcode:2002Natur.418..603S. doi:10.1038/418603a. PMID   12167849.
  89. 1 2 Cogger (1991), p. 176.
  90. 1 2 MedlinePlus > Snake bites Archived 2010-12-04 at the Wayback Machine from Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapcynski JS, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2004. Update Date: 2/27/2008. Updated by: Stephen C. Acosta, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  91. "Snake Bite First Aid – Snakebite". Health-care-clinic.org. Archived from the original on 2016-01-16. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
  92. WHO. "The 17 neglected tropical diseases". WHO. WHO. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  93. Sinha, Kounteya (25 July 2006). "No more the land of snake charmers..." The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011.
  94. "Snakebite envenoming". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2017-04-18. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  95. Dubinsky, I (1996). "Rattlesnake bite in a patient with horse allergy and von Willebrand's disease: case report". Can Fam Physician. 42: 2207–11. PMC   2146932 . PMID   8939322.
  96. 1 2 3 Bagla, Pallava (April 23, 2002). "India's Snake Charmers Fade, Blaming Eco-Laws, TV". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
  97. "Snake charmer's bluff" Archived 2016-08-18 at the Wayback Machine International Wildlife Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, page 482
  98. Whitaker, Romulus & Captain, Ashok. Snakes of India: The Field Guide. (2004) pp 11 to 13.
  99. Irvine, F. R. (1954). "Snakes as food for man". British Journal of Herpetology. 1 (10): 183–189.
  100. 1 2 Flynn, Eugene (April 23, 2002). "Flynn Of The Orient Meets The Cobra". Fabulous Travel. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
  101. Allen, David (July 22, 2001). "Okinawa's potent habu sake packs healthy punch, poisonous snake". Stars and Stripes . Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
  102. "蛇酒的泡制与药用(The production and medicinal qualities of snake wine)". 2007-04-09. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06.
  103. Ernest, Carl; George R. Zug; Molly Dwyer Griffin (1996). Snakes in Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. p. 203. ISBN   978-1-56098-648-5.
  104. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. pp. 166–168. ISBN   978-0714117058.
  105. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hornung, Erik (2001). The Secret Lore of Egypt: Its Impact on the West. Ithaca, New York and London, England: Cornell University Press. pp. 13, 44. ISBN   978-0-8014-3847-9.
  106. Phinney, Edward, Jr. (1971). "Perseus' Battle with the Gorgons". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 102: 445–463. doi:10.2307/2935950. JSTOR   2935950.
  107. Kinsley, David (1989). The Goddesses' Mirror: Visions of the Divine from East and West. Albany, New York: New York State University Press. p. 151. ISBN   978-0-88706-836-2.
  108. Deacy, Susan (2008). Athena. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-30066-7.
  109. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.37, 38, 39
  110. Seelig, Beth J. (August 2002). "The Rape of Medusa in the Temple of Athena: Aspects of Triangulation in the Girl". The International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 83 (4): 895–911. doi:10.1516/3NLL-UG13-TP2J-927M.
  111. 1 2 West, Martin Litchfield (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 258. ISBN   978-0-19-928075-9.
  112. 1 2 Ogden, Daniel (2013). Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Ancient Greek and Roman Worlds. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN   978-0-19-955732-5.
  113. 1 2 Deane (1833). p. 61.
  114. Deane (1833). pp. 62–64.
  115. "The Chinese Calendar". timeanddate.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  116. Benson, Elizabeth (1972). The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN   978-0-500-72001-1.
  117. Berrin, Katherine; Larco Museum (1997). The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN   978-0-500-01802-6.
  118. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. Miller, Mary 1993 Thames & Hudson. London ISBN   978-0-500-27928-1
  119. Numbers 21:6–21:9
  120. John 3:14
  121. 1 2 Genesis 3:1
  122. Revelation 20:2
  123. Sharer, Robert J.; Loa P. Traxler (2006). The Ancient Maya (6th (fully revised) ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 619. ISBN   978-0-8047-4817-9. OCLC   57577446.
  124. Vivek Kumar Vyas, Keyur Brahmbahtt, Ustav Parmar; Brahmbhatt; Bhatt; Parmar (February 2012). "Theraputic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspective". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 3 (2): 156–162. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60042-8. PMC   3627178 . PMID   23593597.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  125. Holland, Jennifer S. (Feb 2013). "The Bite That Heals". National Geographic.
  126. Wilcox, Christie (2016). Venomous. Scientific American. ISBN   978-0374283377.

Further reading