Lesser Antilles

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Lesser Antilles
Map of the Caribbean - Lesser Antilles.png
Location within the Caribbean
Coordinates: 14°14′N61°21′W / 14.233°N 61.350°W / 14.233; -61.350 Coordinates: 14°14′N61°21′W / 14.233°N 61.350°W / 14.233; -61.350
Region Caribbean
Island States
Area
  Total14,364 km2 (5,546 sq mi)
Population
 (2009)
  Total3,949,250
  Density274.9/km2 (712/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Lesser Antillean
Time zone UTC−4 (AST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−3 (ADT)
Trunk Bay, United States Virgin Islands Sunscreen in the Water (24775121614).jpg
Trunk Bay, United States Virgin Islands

The Lesser Antilles (Spanish: Antillas Menores; French: Petites Antilles; Papiamento : Antias Menor; Dutch : Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. Most of them are part of a long, partially volcanic island arc between the Greater Antilles to the north-west and the continent of South America. [1] The islands of the Lesser Antilles form the eastern boundary of the Caribbean Sea where it meets the Atlantic Ocean. Together, the Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles make up the Antilles. (Somewhat confusingly, the word Caribbean is sometimes used to refer only to the Antilles, and sometimes used to refer to a much larger region.) The Lesser and Greater Antilles, together with the Lucayan Archipelago, are collectively known as the West Indies.

Contents

History after European arrival

The Spanish were the first Europeans to arrive on the islands with the arrival of Christopher Columbus. In 1493, on his second voyage, Columbus reached the coast of the Caribbean Sea, where he sailed to discover several islands of the Lesser Antilles archipelago. He called the first island he discovered on this trip the Deseada. The Spanish claimed the island of Dominica and took solemn possession on the land of the island they called Marigalante. They then anchored next to the island they called Guadeloupe. Later they visited Montserrat, Antigua and San Cristobal. They then crossed the archipelago of the Eleven Thousand Virgins.

Over the next centuries, the Spanish, French, Dutch, Danish and English fought over several of the islands.

Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc was a French merchant and adventurer in the Caribbean, who established the first permanent French colony, Saint-Pierre, on the island of Martinique in 1635. Belain sailed to the Caribbean in 1625, hoping to establish a French settlement on the island of St Christopher (St Kitts). In 1626 the French under Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc began to take an interest in Guadeloupe, driving out the Spanish colonists.

Martinique was mapped by Columbus in 1493, but Spain had little interest in the territory. Christopher Columbus landed on 15 June 1502 after 21 days of crossing with trade winds, his fastest oceanic journey. On 15 September 1635, Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, the French governor of the island of San Cristóbal, landed in the port of San Pedro with 80–150 French settlers after being expelled from San Cristóbal by the English. D'Esnambuc claimed Martinique for the French King Louis XIII and the "Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique".

A Spanish colonial castle on Margarita Island, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela MargaritaCastle.jpg
A Spanish colonial castle on Margarita Island, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela

Margarita Island in present-day Venezuela was discovered on 15 August 1498 during Columbus' third voyage. On that trip the Admiral would also discover the mainland, Venezuela. On that August day, Columbus spotted three islands, two of them small, low and arid (the present day Coche and Cubagua),

The province of Trinidad was created in the 16th century by the Spanish, and its capital was San José de Oruña. But during the Napoleonic Wars, in February 1797, a British force began occupying the territory. And in 1802 Spain recognized the British sovereignty.

In 1917 the United States bought the Danish Virgin Islands. Most of the British colonies became independent states, the islands of the Lesser Antilles belonging to Venezuela were divided into 2 different entities the State of Nueva Esparta and the Federal Dependencies (1938). In 1986 Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles, officially becoming a country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 2010 the rest of the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved to form smaller entities.

On July 18, 1995, the previously dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the southern part of the island of Montserrat became active. The eruptions destroyed the Georgian-era capital of Montserrat, Plymouth. Between 1995 and 2000, two-thirds of the island's population was forced to flee, mainly to the UK, leaving less than 1200 people on the island in 1997 (rising to almost 5000 by 2016).

The two official French overseas departments are Guadeloupe and Martinique. St. Martin and St. Barthélemy, formerly part of the department of Guadeloupe, have had a separate status as overseas entities since 2007.

Geography

View of southern tip of Dominica Dominica 053.jpg
View of southern tip of Dominica

The islands of the Lesser Antilles are divided into three groups: the Windward Islands in the south, the Leeward Islands in the north, and the Leeward Antilles in the west.

The Windward Islands are so called because they were more windward to sailing ships arriving in the New World than the Leeward Islands, given that the prevailing trade winds blow east to west. The trans-Atlantic currents and winds that provided the fastest route across the ocean brought these ships to the rough dividing line between the Windward and Leeward Islands.

The Leeward Antilles consist of the Dutch ABC islands just off the coast of Venezuela, plus a group of Venezuelan islands.

Geological formation

The Lesser Antilles more or less coincide with the outer cliff of the Caribbean Plate. Many of the islands were formed as a result of the subduction of oceanic crust of the Atlantic Plate under the Caribbean Plate in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. This process is ongoing and is responsible not only for many of the islands, but also for volcanic and earthquake activity in the region. The islands along the South American coast are largely the result of the interaction of the South American Plate and the Caribbean Plate which is mainly strike-slip, but includes a component of compression.

Geologically, the Lesser Antilles island arc stretches from Grenada in the south to Anguilla in the north. The Virgin Islands and Sombrero Island are geologically part of the Greater Antilles, while Trinidad is part of South America and Tobago is the remainder of a separate island arc. The Leeward Antilles are also a separate island arc, which is accreting to South America.

Political divisions

The Lesser Antilles are divided into eight independent nations and numerous dependent and non-sovereign states (which are politically associated with the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and the United States). Over one third of the total area and population of the Lesser Antilles lies within Trinidad and Tobago, a sovereign nation comprising the two southernmost islands of the Windward Island chain.

Pigeon Point, Trinidad and Tobago Pigeon Point beach.jpg
Pigeon Point, Trinidad and Tobago

Sovereign states

Name Subdivisions Area
(km2)
Population
(July 1, 2005, est.)
Population density
(per km2)
Capital
Antigua and Barbuda Parishes 44085,632195 St. John's
Barbuda 1611,3709.65 Codrington
Redonda 200 n/a
Barbados Parishes 431284,589660 Bridgetown
Dominica Parishes 75472,66096.3 Roseau
Grenada Parishes 344110,000319.8 St. George's
Saint Kitts and Nevis Parishes 26142,696163.5 Basseterre
Nevis 9312,106130.1 Charlestown
Saint Lucia Districts 616173,765282 Castries
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Parishes 389110,000283 Kingstown
Trinidad and Tobago Regions 5,1311,405,953253.3 Port of Spain
Tobago 30060,000180 Scarborough
Total8,3672,179,295260.5
Beach at the Anse de Grande Saline on Saint Barthelemy, French Antilles Beach at the Anse de Grande Saline on St. Barthelemy, French West Indies - panoramio.jpg
Beach at the Anse de Grande Saline on Saint Barthélemy, French Antilles

Non-sovereign states and territories

Name Sovereign state Subdivisions Area
(km2)
Population
(July 1, 2005, est.)
Population density
(per km2)
Capital
Aruba Netherlands Districts193103,065534.0 Oranjestad
Anguilla UKDistricts9113,600149.4 The Valley
Bonaire Netherlands28814,00648.6 Kralendijk
British Virgin Islands UK Districts 15327,000176.5 Road Town
Curaçao NetherlandsDistricts444180,592406.7 Willemstad
Guadeloupe France Arrondissements 1,780440,000247.2 Basse-Terre
Martinique France Arrondissements 1,128400,000354.6 Fort-de-France
Montserrat UKParishes1204,65538.8 Brades
Saba Netherlands131,424109.5 The Bottom
Saint Barthélemy FranceParoisses (parishes)217,448354.6 Gustavia
Saint-Martin France5335,000660.4 Marigot
Sint Eustatius Netherlands343,10091.2 Oranjestad
Sint Maarten Netherlands3440,9171,203.4 Philipsburg
Spanish Virgin Islands (Puerto Rico)United States Barrios 165.111,11967.35 Culebra
Isabel II
United States Virgin Islands United States Districts 346108,448313.4 Charlotte Amalie
Nueva Esparta Venezuela Municipalities1,150491,610427.5 La Asunción
Federal Dependencies of Venezuela VenezuelaFederal dependencies3422,1556.3 Gran Roque
Total5,9971,769,955320.1
Los Roques archipelago, Federal Dependencies of Venezuela in the Leeward Antilles Gran roque.jpg
Los Roques archipelago, Federal Dependencies of Venezuela in the Leeward Antilles

Several islands off the north coast of Venezuela and politically part of that country are also considered part of the Lesser Antilles. These are listed in the section below.

Islands

The main Lesser Antilles are (from north to south to west):

Leeward Islands

Leeward Islands Leeward Islands.jpg
Leeward Islands
Carriacou, Grenada Beach at Hillsborough - panoramio.jpg
Carriacou, Grenada

Windward Islands

Leeward Antilles

Map of the Leeward Antilles SouthernCaribbeanIslands.PNG
Map of the Leeward Antilles
Curacao, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Curacao (Unsplash 8po6zR17PqE).jpg
Curaçao, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Islands north of the Venezuelan coast (from west to east):

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "West Indies." Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2001. ( ISBN   0-87779-546-0) Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc., p. 1298.
  2. "Windward Islands | islands, West Indies". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  3. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "The Scotland District of Barbados". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  4. "The Windward Islands and Barbados". countrystudies.us. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  5. Cohen, Saul B., ed. "West Indies" Archived August 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine The Columbia Gazetteer of North America. Archived August 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine New York: Columbia University Press – Bartleby. Accessed: September 19, 2006
  6. ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL CONSTITUTED PURSUANT TO ARTICLE 287, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH ANNEX VII, OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA IN THE MATTER OF AN ARBITRATION BETWEEN: BARBADOS – AND – THE REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Archived December 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine – The Hague, April 11, 2006 (Pages 15–16)

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References

Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg The dictionary definition of Lesser Antilles at Wiktionary