Caribbean Community

Last updated
Flag of CARICOM.svg
Flag
Location Caricom.svg
  Full members
  Associate members
  Observers
Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana
Largest cities
Official languages English, Dutch, French, Spanish
Working language English
Other languages
Type Supranational organisation
Member states
Leaders
 Chairman
Timothy Harris
Irwin LaRocque
Establishment
4 July 1973
 Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas
2001
Area
 Total
458,480 km2 (177,020 sq mi)
Population
 2018 estimate
18,265,664 [1]
 Density
34.8/km2 (90.1/sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)2018 estimate
 Total
$145.3 billion [2]
 Per capita
$7,954.82
GDP  (nominal)2018 estimate
 Total
$77.232 billion
 Per capita
$4,228
HDI  (2018)Increase2.svg 0.730 [3]
high
Currency
Website
CARICOM.org

The Caribbean Community (CARICOM or CC) is an organisation of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies having primary objectives to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy. [4] The organisation was established in 1973. Its major activities involve coordinating economic policies and development planning; devising and instituting special projects for the less-developed countries within its jurisdiction; operating as a regional single market for many of its members (Caricom Single Market); and handling regional trade disputes. The secretariat headquarters is in Georgetown, Guyana. CARICOM is an official United Nations Observer. [5]

Caribbean region to the center-east of America composed of many islands and of coastal regions of continental countries surrounding the Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Georgetown, Guyana Capital City in Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana

Georgetown is a city and the capital of Guyana, located in Region 4, which is also known as the Demerara-Mahaica region. It is the country's largest urban centre. It is situated on the Atlantic Ocean coast at the mouth of the Demerara River and it was nicknamed the 'Garden City of the Caribbean.'

Contents

Established mainly by the English-speaking parts of the Caribbean, CARICOM has become multilingual in practice with the addition of Dutch-speaking Suriname on 4 July 1995 and Haitian Kreyòl- and French-speaking Haiti on 2 July 2002. Furthermore, it was suggested that Spanish should also become a working language. [6] In July 2012, CARICOM announced that they were considering making French and Dutch official languages. [7] In 2001, the heads of government signed a revised Treaty of Chaguaramas that cleared the way to transform the idea of a common market CARICOM into a Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy. Part of the revised treaty establishes and implements the Caribbean Court of Justice.

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Suriname Country in South America

Suriname, officially known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of approximately 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.

Haitian Creole Language spoken in Haiti

Haitian Creole is a French-based creole language spoken by 10–12 million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians. It is called kreyòl ayisyen or just kreyòl by its speakers, and créole haïtien in French.

Membership

Currently CARICOM has 15 full members, 5 associate members and 8 observers. All of the associate members are British overseas territories, and it is currently not established what the role of the associate members will be. The observers are states which engage in at least one of CARICOM's technical committees. Although the group has close ties with Cuba, that nation was excluded due to lack of full democratic internal political arrangement. In 2017 Cuba and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) bloc signed the "CARICOM-Cuba Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement" [8] to facilitate closer ties.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

CARICOM members [9]
StatusNameJoin dateNotes
Full memberFlag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 4 July 1974
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 4 July 1983Not part of customs union
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 1 August 1973One of the four founding members
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1 May 1974
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 1 May 1974
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 1 May 1974
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 1 August 1973One of the four founding members
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 2 July 2002Provisional membership on 4 July 1998
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 1 August 1973One of the four founding members
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat 1 May 1974 British overseas territory
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26 July 1974Joined as Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 1 May 1974
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1 May 1974
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 4 July 1995
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 1 August 1973One of the four founding members
AssociateFlag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla July 1999 British overseas territory
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda 2 July 2003 British overseas territory
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands July 1991 British overseas territory
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands 16 May 2002 British overseas territory
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands July 1991 British overseas territory
ObserverFlag of Aruba.svg  Aruba Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Flag of Curacao.svg  Curaçao Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico Unincorporated territory of the United States
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg  Sint Maarten Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela

Organisational structure

Structures comprised by the overall Caribbean Community (CARICOM). [10]

Under Article 4 CARICOM breaks its 15 member states into two groups: Less Developed Countries (LDCs) and More Developed Countries (MDCs). [11]

The countries of CARICOM which are designated as Less Developed Countries (LDCs) are: [11]

The countries of CARICOM which are designated as More Developed Countries (MDCs) are: [11]

Chairmanship

The post of Chairman (Head of CARICOM) is held in rotation by the regional Heads of State (for the republics) and Heads of Government (for the realms) of CARICOM's 15 member states. These include: Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.

Heads of government

CARICOM contains a quasi-Cabinet of the individual Heads of Government. These heads are given specific specialised portfolios of responsibility for overall regional development and integration. [12]

Secretariat

The goal statement of the CARICOM Secretariat is:

To provide dynamic leadership and service, in partnership with Community institutions and Groups, toward the attainment of a viable, internationally competitive and sustainable Community, with improved quality of life for all.

Organs and bodies

Principal organs
OrganDescription
CARICOM Heads of GovernmentConsisting of the various heads of Government from each member state
Standing Committee of MinistersMinisterial responsibilities for specific areas, for example the Standing Committee of Ministers responsible for Health will consist of Ministers of Health from each member state

Community Council

The Community Council consists of ministers responsible for community affairs and any other Minister designated by the member states in their absolute discretion. It is one of the community's principal organs; the other is the Conference of the Heads of Government. It is supported by four other organs and three bodies.

Secondary organs
Secondary organAbbreviation
Council for Finance and PlanningCOFAP
Council for Foreign and Community RelationsCOFCOR
Council for Human and Social DevelopmentCOHSOD
Council for Trade and Economic DevelopmentCOTED
Bodies
BodyDescription
Legal Affairs Committeeprovides legal advice
Budget Committeeexamines the draft budget and work programme of the Secretariat and submits recommendations to the Community Council.
Committee of the Central Bank Governorsprovides recommendations to the COFAP on monetary and financial matters.

Institutions

The 23 designated institutions of CARICOM are as follows:

Institutions
InstitutionAbbreviation
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency CDEMA
Caribbean Meteorological Institute CMI
Caribbean Meteorological Organisation CMO
Caribbean Food Corporation CFC
Caribbean Environment Health Institute CEHI
Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute CARDI
Caribbean Regional Centre for the Education and training of Animal Health and Veterinary Public Health Assistants REPAHA
Assembly of Caribbean Community Parliamentarians ACCP
Caribbean Centre for Development Administration CARICAD
Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute CFNI
CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security IMPACS
Caribbean Examinations Council CXC
CARICOM Single Market and Economy CSME
Caribbean Court of Justice CCJ
CARICOM Competition Commission CCC
Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism CRFM
Caribbean Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality CROSQ
Caribbean Telecommunications Union CTU
Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre CCCCC
Caribbean Organisation of Tax Administrators COTA
Council of Legal EducationCLE
Caribbean Aviation Safety and Securing Oversight System CASSOS
Caribbean Regional Information and Translation Institute CRITI

The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is based in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago and was chiefly developed to act as a settlement unit for disputes on the functioning of the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy (CSME) (known as "original jurisdiction"). In addition, some of the region's Commonwealth Caribbean member states of CARICOM have opted to supplement original jurisdiction with "appellate jurisdiction" which by practice replaces the Privy Council (in London, United Kingdom) with the CCJ.

As of 2018, the majority of member states continue to utilize the Privy Council as their final appellate court and three member states do not use the CCJ for either its original jurisdiction or its appellate jurisdiction because they have either not signed the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (the Bahamas and Haiti) or are a current United Kingdom Overseas Territory (Montserrat). A handful of various public propositions have been held in several countries of CARICOM polling on public support for transitioning of appellate jurisdiction to the CCJ, and to date the majority of these measures held have failed.

Associate institutions

The six designated associate institutions of CARICOM are as follows:

Associate institutions
Associate institutionAbbreviation
Caribbean Development Bank CDB
University of Guyana UG
University of the West Indies UWI
Caribbean Law Institute / Caribbean Law Institute Centre CLI / CLIC
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States OECS
West Indies Cricket Board WICB

Standard and song

The flag of the Caribbean Community was chosen and approved in November 1983 at the Conference of Heads of Government Meeting in Port of Spain, Trinidad. The original design by the firm of WINART Studies in Georgetown, Guyana was substantially modified at the July 1983 Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government. [13] The flag was first flown on 4 July 1984 in Nassau, Bahamas at the fifth Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government. [14]

The flag features a blue background, but the upper part is a light blue representing sky and the lower, a darker blue representing the Caribbean Sea. The yellow circle in the centre represents the sun on which is printed in black the logo of the Caribbean Community, two interlocking Cs. The two Cs are in the form of broken links in a chain, symbolising both unity and a break with the colonial past.[ citation needed ] The narrow ring of green around the sun represents the vegetation of the region. [13]

For CARICOM's 40th anniversary, a competition to compose an official song or anthem for CARICOM was launched in April 2013 [15] to promote choosing a song that promoted unity and inspired CARICOM identity and pride. A regional panel of judges comprising independent experts in music was nominated by member states and the CARICOM Secretariat. Three rounds of competition condensed 63 entries to a final three, from which judges chose Celebrating CARICOM by Michele Henderson of Dominica [15] in March 2014. [16] Henderson won a US$10,000 prize. [17] Her song was produced by her husband, Roland Delsol Jr., and arranged by Earlson Matthew. It also featured Michael Ferrol on drums and choral input from the St. Alphonsus Choir. It was re-produced for CARICOM by Carl Beaver Henderson of Trinidad and Tobago. [16]

A second-place entry titled My CARICOM came from Jamaican Adiel Thomas [15] who won US$5,000, [17] and a third-place song titled One CARICOM by Carmella Lawrence of St. Kitts and Nevis, [15] won US$2,500. [17] The other songs from the top-ten finalists (in no particular order) were:

The first official performance of Celebrating CARICOM by Henderson took place on Tuesday 1 July 2014 at the opening ceremony for the Thirty-Fifth Regional Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government in Antigua and Barbuda. [15]

History

CARICOM, originally the Caribbean Community and Common Market, was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas [18] which took effect on 1 August 1973. The first four signatories were Barbados, Jamaica, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.

CARICOM superseded the 1965–1972 Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) organised to provide a continued economic linkage between the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean after the dissolution of the West Indies Federation, which lasted from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962.

A revised Treaty of Chaguaramas established the Caribbean Community including the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) and was signed by the CARICOM Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community on 5 July 2001 at their Twenty-Second Meeting of the Conference in Nassau, The Bahamas. [11] The revised treaty cleared the way to transform the idea of a common market CARICOM into the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy.

Haiti's membership in CARICOM remained effectively suspended from 29 February 2004 through early June 2006 following the 2004 Haitian coup d'état and the removal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide from the presidency. [19] [20] CARICOM announced that no democratically elected government in CARICOM should have its leader deposed. The fourteen other heads of government sought to have Aristide fly from Africa to Jamaica and share his account of events with them, which infuriated the interim Haitian prime minister, Gérard Latortue, who announced he would take steps to take Haiti out of CARICOM. CARICOM thus voted on suspending the participation of Haitian officials from the councils of CARICOM. [21] Following the presidential election of René Préval, Haitian officials were readmitted and Préval himself gave the opening address at the CARICOM Council of Ministers meeting in July.

Since 2013 the CARICOM-bloc and with the Dominican Republic have been tied to the European Union via an Economic Partnership Agreements signed in 2008 known as CARIFORUM. [22] The treaty grants all members of the European Union and CARIFORUM equal rights in terms of trade and investment. Under Article 234 of the agreement, the European Court of Justice handles dispute resolution between CARIFORUM and European Union states. [23]

Statistics

Population and economic statistics of full and associate members
MemberMembershipLand area (km2) [24] Population (2019) GDP (PPP) Millions USD (2017) [25] GDP Per Capita (PPP) USD (2017)Human Development Index (2018)
Flag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla associate9115,174175.412,200
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua & Barbuda full member442.6104,0842,39026,3000.780
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas full member10,010385,3409,33925,1000.807
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados full member430287,0104,91917,5000.800
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize full member22,806398,0503,2308,3000.708
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda associate5463,7795,19885,700
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands associate15132,20650042,300
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands associate26464,4202,50743,800
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica full member75174,67985112,0000.715
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada full member344108,8251,59014,7000.772
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana full member214,970786,5086,3678,3000.654
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti full member27,56011,242,85619,8801,8000.498
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica full member10,8312,728,86426,2009,2000.732
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat full member1025,22043.88,500
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis full member26156,3451,52826,8000.778
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia full member606180,4542,38413,5000.747
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines full member389109,8031,28111,6000.723
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname full member156,000573,0857,92813,9000.720
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad & Tobago full member5,1281,359,19342,78031,2000.784
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands associate94837,91063229,100
Full membersmembers only432,51018,400,316130,71115,2470.730

Thousands of Caricom nationals live within other member states of the Community.

An estimated 30,000 Jamaicans legally reside in other CARICOM member states, [26] mainly in the Bahamas (5,600), [27] Antigua & Barbuda (estimated 12,000), [28] Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago). [26] Also, an estimated 150 Jamaicans live and work in Montserrat. [28] A November 21, 2013 estimated put 16,958 Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad & Tobago, as according to the records of the Office of the Chief Immigration Officer, their entry certificates would have since expired. [29] By October 2014, the estimated Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad and Tobago was 19,000 along with an estimated 7,169 Barbadians and 25,884 Guyanese residing illegally. [30] An estimated 8,000 Trinidadians and Tobagonians live in Jamaica. [31]

Exclusive Economic Zones of the member states of the CARICOM. Considering them, the total area reaches the 2 300 297 km2. Aguas territoriales CARICOM.svg
Exclusive Economic Zones of the member states of the CARICOM. Considering them, the total area reaches the 2 300 297 km².

Barbados hosts a large diaspora population of Guyanese, of whom (in 2005) 5,032 lived there permanently as citizens, permanent residents, immigrants (with immigrant status) and Caricom skilled nationals; 3,200 were residing in Barbados temporarily under work permits, as students, or with "reside and work" status. A further 2,000-3,000 Guyanese were estimated to be living illegally in Barbados at the time. [32] Migration between Barbados and Guyana has deep roots, going back over 150 years, with the most intense period of Barbadian migration to then-British Guiana occurring between 1863 and 1886, although as late as the 1920s and 1930s Barbadians were still leaving Barbados for British Guiana. [33]

Migration between Guyana and Suriname also goes back a number of years. An estimated 50,000 Guyanese had migrated to Suriname by 1986 [34] [35] In 1987 an estimated 30-40,000 Guyanese were in Suriname. [36] Many Guyanese left Suriname in the 1970s and 1980s, either voluntarily by expulsion. Over 5,000 were expelled in January 1985 alone. [37] in the instability Suriname experienced following independence, both coups and civil war. [35] In 2013 an estimated 11,530 Guyanese had emigrated to Suriname and 4,662 Surinamese to Guyana. [38]

Relationship to other supranational Caribbean organisations

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesCaribbean CommunityAssociation of Caribbean StatesMontserratAntigua and BarbudaDominicaGrenadaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesThe BahamasBarbadosBelizeGuyanaHaitiJamaicaSurinameTrinidad and TobagoColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominican RepublicGuatemalaHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPanamaEl SalvadorVenezuelaCaribbean Community
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various Supranational Caribbean Organisations and agreements.

Association of Caribbean States

CARICOM was instrumental in the formation of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) on 24 July 1994. The original idea for the Association came from a recommendation of the West Indian Commission, established in 1989 by the CARICOM heads of state and government. The Commission advocated both deepening the integration process (through the CARICOM Single Market and Economy) and widening it through a separate regional organisation encompassing all states in the Caribbean. [39]

CARICOM accepted the commission's recommendations and opened dialogue with other Caribbean states, the Central American states and the Latin American nations of Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico which border the Caribbean, for consultation on the proposals of the West Indian Commission. [39]

At an October 1993 summit the heads of state and government of CARICOM and the presidents of the then-Group of Three (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela) formally decided to create an association grouping all states of the Caribbean basin. A work schedule for its formation was adopted. The aim was to create the association in less than a year, an objective which was achieved with the formal creation of the ACS. [39]

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States

CARICOM was also involved in the formation of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) on 3 December 2010. The idea for CELAC originated at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit on 23 February 2010 in Mexico. [40] [41] [42] [43] [44]

European Union: Economic Partnership Agreements

Since 2013, the CARICOM-bloc and the Dominican Republic have been tied to the European Union via an Economic Partnership Agreements known as CARIFORUM signed in 2008. [22] The treaty grants all members of the European Union and CARIFORUM equal rights in terms of trade and investment. Within the agreement under Article 234, the European Court of Justice also carries dispute resolution mechanisms between CARIFORUM and the European Union states. [23]

OHADAC Project

In May 2016, Caricom's court of original jurisdiction, the CCJ, signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the ACP Legal Association based in Guadeloupe recognising and supporting the goals of implementing a harmonised business law framework in the Caribbean through ACP Legal Association's OHADAC Project. [45]

OHADAC is the acronym for the French "Organisation pour l'Harmonisation du Droit des Affaires en les Caraïbes", which translates into English as "Organisation for the Harmonisation of Business Law in the Caribbean". The OHADAC Project takes inspiration from a similar organisation in Africa and aims to enhance economic integration across the entire Caribbean and facilitate increased trade and international investment through unified laws and alternative dispute resolution methods. [45]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) carries out research and development for agriculture in the Caribbean region. Its headquarters are on the campus of the University of the West Indies (UWI), at St. Augustine in Trinidad and Tobago and it also has national offices throughout the region.

References

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  2. https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/PPPGDP@WEO/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD
  3. List of countries by HDI
  4. Ramjeet, Oscar (2009-04-16). "CARICOM countries will speak with one voice in meetings with US and Canadian leaders". Caribbean Net News. Retrieved 2009-04-16.[ dead link ]
  5. https://www.un.org/en/sections/member-states/intergovernmental-organizations/index.html
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2011-11-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. "Communiqué Issued at the Conclusion of the Thirty-Third Regular Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community, 4-6 July 2012, Gros Islet, Saint Lucia", "Heads of Government recognized that, although English was the official language of the Community, the facility to communicate in their languages could enhance the participation of Haiti and Suriname in the integration process. They therefore requested the conduct of a study to examine the possibilities and implications, including costs, of introducing French and Dutch."
  8. CARICOM-Cuba Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
  9. "CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 2017. p. 971.
  10. 1 2 3 4 Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas Archived 2011-11-10 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Regional Portfolios of CARICOM Heads of Government
  12. 1 2 CARICOM Standard
  13. Flag of the Caribbean Community and Common Market
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  21. 1 2 Caribbean moves afoot to restructure CARIFORUM, Peter Richards, Tuesday April 12th 2011
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  25. 1 2 30,000 Jamaicans residing in other CARICOM member states
  26. Jamaicans of the Bahamas
  27. 1 2 Prime Minister Golding calls on Jamaicans in Antigua and Barbuda to cooperate with government and people there
  28. Close to 17,000 Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad
  29. 7,000 illegal Bajans in T&T
  30. Bissessar celebrates new Trinidad and Tobago High Commission
  31. Guyanese, British and Americans among illegal immigrants living in Barbados
  32. Mudheads in Barbados, a lived experience
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  40. "Acuerdan crear Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños". Associated Press . February 23, 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  41. "América Latina crea una OEA sin Estados Unidos". El País . February 23, 2010.
  42. US Embassy Cable - Mexico's Latin American Summit 22-23 February
  43. Rio Group approves its expansion at Unity Summit
  44. 1 2 CCJ signs MOU on harmonising business law in Caribbean