|Type||Primary Organ - Regional Branch|
|Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean|
|United Nations Economic and Social Council|
The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, known as ECLAC, UNECLAC or in Spanish and Portuguese CEPAL, is a United Nations regional commission to encourage economic cooperation. ECLAC includes 46 member States (20 in Latin America, 13 in the Caribbean and 13 from outside the region), and 13 associate members which are various non-independent territories, associated island countries and a commonwealth in the Caribbean. ECLAC publishes statistics covering the countries of the regionand makes cooperative agreements with nonprofit institutions. ECLAC's headquarters is in Santiago, Chile.
ECLAC was established in 1948 as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America,or UNECLA. In 1984, a resolution was passed to include the countries of the Caribbean in the name. It reports to the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
The following are all Member States of ECLAC:
The following are all associate members of ECLAC:
|Alicia Bárcena Ibarra||Mexico||July 2008 – present|
|José Luis Machinea||Argentina||December 2003 - June 2008|
|José Antonio Ocampo||Colombia||January 1998 – August 2003|
|Gert Rosenthal||Guatemala||January 1988 – December 1997|
|Norberto González||Argentina||March 1985 – December 1987|
|Enrique V. Iglesias||Uruguay||April 1972 – February 1985|
|Carlos Quintana||Mexico||January 1967 – March 1972|
|José Antonio Mayobre||Venezuela||August 1963 – December 1966|
|Raúl Prebisch||Argentina||May 1950 – July 1963|
|Gustavo Martínez Cabañas||Mexico||December 1948 – April 1950|
The formation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America was crucial to the beginning of "Big D development". Many economic scholars attribute the founding of ECLA and its policy implementation in Latin America for the subsequent debates on structuralism and dependency theory. Although forming in the post-war period, the historic roots of the ECLA trace back to political movement made long before the war had begun.
Before World War II, the perception of economic development in Latin America was formulated primarily from colonial ideology. This perception, combined with the Monroe Doctrine that asserted the United States as the only foreign power that could intervene in Latin American affairs, led to substantial resentment in Latin America. In the eyes of those living in the continent, Latin America was considerably economically strong; most had livable wages and industry was relatively dynamic.This concern of a need for economic restructuring was taken up by the League of Nations and manifested in a document drawn up by Stanley Bruce and presented to the League in 1939. This in turn strongly influenced the creation of the United Nations Economic and Social Committee in 1944. Although it was a largely ineffective policy development initially, the formation of the ECLA proved to have profound effects in Latin America in following decades. For example, by 1955, Peru was receiving $28.5 million in loans per ECLA request. Most of these loans were utilized as means to finance foreign exchange costs, creating more jobs and heightening export trade. To investigate the extent to which this aid was supporting industrial development plans in Peru, ECLA was sent in to study its economic structure. In order to maintain stronghold over future developmental initiatives, ECLA and its branches continued providing financial support to Peru to assist in the country's general development.
The terms of trade at this time, set by the United States, introduced the concept of "unequal exchange" in that the so-called "North" mandated prices that allowed them a greater return on its own resources than that of the "South's". Thus, although the export sector had grown during this time, certain significant economic and social issues continued to threaten this period of so-called stability. Although real income was on the rise, its distribution was still very uneven. Social problems were still overwhelmingly prevalent; large portions of the population were unnourished and without homes, and the education and health system were inept.
Raúl Prebisch was an Argentine economist known for his contributions to structuralist economics such as the Prebisch–Singer hypothesis, which formed the basis of economic dependency theory. He became the executive director of the Economic Commission for Latin America in 1950. In 1950, he also released the very influential study The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems.
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It was established in order to increase economic activity in Asia and the Far East, as well as to foster economic relations between the region and other areas of the world.
The Association of Caribbean States is a union of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin. It was formed with the aim of promoting consultation, cooperation, and concerted action among all the countries of the Caribbean. The primary purpose of the ACS is to develop greater trade between the nations, enhance transportation, develop sustainable tourism, and facilitate greater and more effective responses to local natural disasters.
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Pedro Vuskovic Bravo was a Chilean economist of Croatian descent, political figure, minister and author of the economic plan implemented by Salvador Allende during his government called the Vuskovic plan. His economic policies were used by economists Rudi Dornbusch and Sebastian Edwards to coin the term macroeconomic populism.
Gert Rosenthal Königsberger is a Guatemalan diplomat.
This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Barbados.
Rebeca Grynspan Mayufis is a Costa Rican economist who has been serving as Ibero-American Secretary General since 2014. She is a former UN Under-Secretary-General, and the Associate Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) appointed by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. She was the Vice President of Costa Rica from 1994 to 1998. Grynspan previously served as Director of UNDP's Regional Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, appointed to the position by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in December 2005.
Chile–Uruguay relations refers to the current and historical relations between the Republic of Chile and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Both nations are members of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, Group of 77, Latin American Integration Association, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the United Nations.
The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) is a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean states thought out on February 23, 2010, at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit, and created on December 3, 2011, in Caracas, Venezuela, with the signature of The Declaration of Caracas. It consists of 32 sovereign countries in the Americas. Due to the focus of the organization on Latin American and Caribbean countries, other countries and territories in the Americas, Brazil, Canada and the United States, as well as the overseas territories in the Americas of France, the Netherlands, Denmark (Greenland) and the United Kingdom are not included.
eLAC is an intergovernmental strategy that conceives of information and communications technologies (ICTs) as instruments for economic development and social inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is based on a public-private sector partnership and is part of a long-term vision in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), those of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), and now, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It contributes to the implementation of these long-term goals by pursuing a consecutive series of frequently adjusted short-term action plans with concrete qualitative and quantitative goals to be achieved. Five consecutive plans have already been worked on to implement this vision:
José Antonio Mayobre was a Venezuelan economist who worked as an academic economist, a diplomat and international civil servant. He was a Minister of Finance of Venezuela and the Executive Secretary of the ECLAC.
The European Union – Latin America and Caribbean Foundation is an international organisation created in 2010 by the Heads of State and Government of the European Union (EU), Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) with the mission to strengthen and promote the strategic partnership between both regions, improve its visibility and encourage the participation of the respective civil societies.
Ricardo Ffrench-Davis is a Chilean Economist. He is Professor of the Department of Economics and the Instituto de Estudios Internacionales at the University of Chile.
The Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries, or GRULAC, is one of the five United Nations Regional Groups composed of 33 Member States from Central and South America, as well as some islands in the West Indies. Its members compose 17% of all United Nations members.
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Juan Alberto Fuentes Knight is a Guatemalan economist, politician, and non-profit official. Among other roles, he has served as Minister of Finance in Guatemala and as chairman of Oxfam International.
The Library of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean was established in 1948 as part of the creation of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean; this coincided with the inauguration of the Economic Commission for Latin America by the United Nations, in support of its mandate in the region. The Library has four branches: the Hernán Santa Cruz Library in Santiago, the Centro de Recursos de Información y Distribución de Documentos in México D.F., the Raúl Prebisch Library in Brasilia and the Caribbean Knowledge Management Centre in Port of Spain. These four form the ECLAC Library.
The Regional Agreement on Access to Information, Public Participation and Justice in Environmental Matters in Latin America and the Caribbean, better known as the Escazú Agreement, is an international treaty signed by 24 Latin American and Caribbean nations concerning the rights of access to information about the environment, public participation in environmental decision-making, environmental justice, and a healthy and sustainable environment for current and future generations. The agreement is open to 33 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Of the 24 signatories, it has been ratified by twelve: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Uruguay.
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