Americas

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The Americas
Americas (orthographic projection).svg
Area42,549,000 km2
(16,428,000 sq mi)
Population964,920,000 [1]
GDP (nominal)$27.43 trillion [1]
GDP per capita$28,428 [1]
HDI0.736 [2]
Demonym American, [3] New Worlder [4] (see usage)
Countries35
Languages Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, Haitian Creole, Quechua, Guaraní, Aymara, Nahuatl, Dutch and many others
Time zones UTC−10:00 to UTC
Largest cities Largest metropolitan areas
Largest cities
UN M49 code 019 – Americas
001World
1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection N&SAmerica-pol.jpg
1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

The Americas (also collectively called America; French : Amérique, Dutch : Amerika, Spanish and Portuguese: América) comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. [5] [6] [7] Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Dutch language A West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third-most-widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 450 million native speakers in Spain and in the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Contents

Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km (8,700 mi) from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America.

Lists of islands of the Americas Wikimedia list article

Following are links to lists of islands of the Americas which relates to all islands associated with South America and North America, including those of the Caribbean.

Earth Third planet from the Sun in the Solar System

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth orbits around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times.

American Cordillera mountain chain along the western side of North and South America

The American Cordillera is a chain of mountain ranges (cordilleras) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, South America and West Antarctica. It is also the backbone of the volcanic arc that forms the eastern half of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Settlement of the Americas Prehistoric migration from Asia

The first settlement of the Americas began when Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge, which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum. These populations expanded south of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and rapidly throughout both North and South America, by 14,000 years ago. The earliest populations in the Americas, before roughly 10,000 years ago, are known as Paleo-Indians.

Asia Earths largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements, as well as vast barely populated regions. Its 4.5 billion people constitute roughly 60% of the world's population.

Na-Dene languages Native American language family

Na-Dene is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages. An old inclusion of Haida is now considered doubtful.

The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson. [8] However, the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. The Spanish presence involved the enslavement of large numbers of the indigenous population of America. [9] During the first half of the 16th century, Spanish colonists conducted raids throughout the Caribbean Basin, bringing captives from Central America, northern South America, and Florida back to Hispaniola and other Spanish settlements. [10]

Norsemen historical ethnolinguistic group of people originating in Scandinavia

The Norsemen were the North Germanic peoples of the Early Middle Ages, during which they spoke Old Norse language and practiced Old Norse religion. The language belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages and is the predecessor of the modern Germanic languages of Scandinavia. During the late eighth century, Norsemen embarked on a large-scale expansion in all directions, giving rise to the Viking Age. In English-language scholarship since the 19th century, Norse seafaring traders, settlers and warriors have commonly been referred to as Vikings. Though lacking a common ethnonym, the Viking Age Norsemen still had a common identity, which survives among their modern descendants, the Danes, Icelanders, Faroe Islanders, Norwegians and Swedes, who are now generally referred to as "Scandinavians" rather than Norsemen.

Leif Erikson Norse explorer, discoverer of New Foundland

Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson was a Norse explorer from Iceland. He was the first known European to have set foot on continental North America, before Christopher Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada. Later archaeological evidence suggests that Vinland may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and that the L'Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station.

Voyages of Christopher Columbus 1492-1502 voyages to the Americas; beginning of the Columbian exchange

In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, continents which were completely unknown in Europe, Asia and Africa and were outside the Old World political and economic system. The four voyages of Columbus began the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas. [11] Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and importation of African slaves largely replaced the indigenous peoples.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

West Africa Westernmost region of the African continent

West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, the Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The population of West Africa is estimated at about 362 million people as of 2016, and at 381,981,000 as of 2017, of which 189,672,000 are female and 192,309,000 male.

Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas Native American population changes resulting from contact with Europeans after 1492.

The population figure of indigenous peoples of the Americas before the 1492 Spanish voyage of Christopher Columbus has proven difficult to establish. Scholars rely on archaeological data and written records from European settlers. Most scholars writing at the end of the 19th century estimated that the pre-Columbian population was as low as 10 million; by the end of the 20th century most scholars gravitated to a middle estimate of around 50 million, with some historians arguing for an estimate of 100 million or more. Contact with the Europeans led to the European colonization of the Americas, in which millions of immigrants from Europe eventually settled in the Americas.

Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and largely ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of Indo-European languages: primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and, to a lesser extent, Dutch.

Decolonization of the Americas process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule

Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule. Decolonization began with a series of revolutions in the late 18th and early to mid-19th centuries. The status quo then prevailed for more than a century, excepting the independence of Cuba.

American Revolution Revolt in which the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the assistance of France, winning independence from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America.

Spanish–American War Conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States

The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana Harbor in Cuba, leading to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U.S. predominance in the Caribbean region, and resulted in U.S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U.S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately in the Philippine–American War.

The Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of whom reside in the United States, Brazil, and Mexico. It is home to eight megacities (metropolitan areas with ten million inhabitants or more): New York City (23.9 million), Mexico City (21.2 million), São Paulo (21.2 million), Los Angeles (18.8 million), Buenos Aires (15.6 million), [12] Rio de Janeiro (13.0 million), Bogotá (10.4 million), and Lima (10.1 million).

Etymology and naming

America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. Amerigo Vespucci (with turban).jpg
America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.

The name America was first recorded in 1507. Christie's auction house says a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term. [14] The name was also used (together with the related term Amerigen) in the Cosmographiae Introductio , apparently written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America. [15] It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. America derives from Americus, the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name. The feminine form America accorded with the feminine names of Asia, Africa, and Europa. [16]

In modern English, North and South America are generally considered separate continents, and taken together are called America [17] [18] [19] or the Americas in the plural. When conceived as a unitary continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English commonly refers to the United States of America. [19]

Historically, in the English-speaking world, the term America used to refer to a single continent until the 1950s (as in Van Loon's Geography of 1937): According to historians Kären Wigen and Martin W. Lewis, [20]

While it might seem surprising to find North and South America still joined into a single continent in a book published in the United States in 1937, such a notion remained fairly common until World War II. It cannot be coincidental that this idea served American geopolitical designs at the time, which sought both Western Hemispheric domination and disengagement from the "Old World" continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. By the 1950s, however, virtually all American geographers had come to insist that the visually distinct landmasses of North and South America deserved separate designations.

This shift did not seem to happen in most other cultural hemispheres on Earth, such as Romance-speaking (including France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Switzerland, and the Romance-speaking countries of Latin America and Africa), Germanic (but excluding English) speaking (including Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Icelands, Faroe Islands), Baltic-Slavic languages (including Czech Rep., Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithunia, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria) and in many other hemispheres, where America is still considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, [21] [22] as well as Central America. [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]

History

Settlement

Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory. Spreading homo sapiens la.svg
Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory.

The first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years. [30] [31] [32] Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. [33] Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago. [32] [34]

Statue representing the Americas at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta Palazzo Ferreria statue 4 America.jpeg
Statue representing the Americas at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago, [35] when sea levels were significantly lowered during the Quaternary glaciation. [33] [36] These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. [37] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. [38] Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. [39] Both routes may have been taken, although the genetic evidences suggests a single founding population. [40] The micro-satellite diversity and distributions specific to South American Indigenous people indicates that certain populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. [41]

A second migration occurred after the initial peopling of the Americas; [42] Na Dene speakers found predominantly in North American groups at varying genetic rates with the highest frequency found among the Athabaskans at 42% derive from this second wave. [43] Linguists and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian language groups and ABO blood group system distributions. [42] [44] [45] [46] Then the people of the Arctic small tool tradition a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait around 2,500 BCE (4,500 years ago) moved into North America. [47] The Arctic small tool tradition, a Paleo-Eskimo culture branched off into two cultural variants, including the Pre-Dorset, and the Independence traditions of Greenland. [48] The descendants of the Pre-Dorset cultural group, the Dorset culture was displaced by the final migrants from the Bering sea coast line the ancestors of modern Inuit, the Thule people by 1000  Common Era (CE). [48] Around the same time as the Inuit migrated into Greenland, Viking settlers began arriving in Greenland in 982 and Vinland shortly thereafter, establishing a settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland. [49] The Viking settlers quickly abandoned Vinland, and disappeared from Greenland by 1500. [50]

Pre-Columbian era

Parkin Site, a Mississippian site in Arkansas, circa 1539 Parkin Mounds Aerial HRoe 2016.jpg
Parkin Site, a Mississippian site in Arkansas, circa 1539

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the Early Modern period. The term Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Muisca, Cañaris).

Many pre-Columbian civilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are known only through archeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya, had their own written records. However, most Europeans of the time viewed such texts as pagan, and much was destroyed in Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge. [51]

European colonization

Christopher Columbus leads expedition to the New World, 1492. Landing of Columbus (2).jpg
Christopher Columbus leads expedition to the New World, 1492.

Although there had been previous trans-oceanic contact, large-scale European colonization of the Americas began with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The first Spanish settlement in the Americas was La Isabela in northern Hispaniola. This town was abandoned shortly after in favor of Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founded in 1496, the oldest American city of European foundation. This was the base from which the Spanish monarchy administered its new colonies and their expansion. Santo Domingo was subject to frequent raids by English and French pirates. On the continent, Panama City on the Pacific coast of Central America, founded on August 15, 1519, played an important role, being the base for the Spanish conquest of South America. The spread of new diseases brought by Europeans and Africans killed many of the inhabitants of North America and South America, [52] [53] with a general population crash of Native Americans occurring in the mid-16th century, often well ahead of European contact. [54] European immigrants were often part of state-sponsored attempts to found colonies in the Americas. Migration continued as people moved to the Americas fleeing religious persecution or seeking economic opportunities. Millions of individuals were forcibly transported to the Americas as slaves, prisoners or indentured servants.

Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas. Americas independence map.PNG
Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas.

Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution and the Haitian Revolution in the late 1700s. This was followed by numerous Latin American wars of independence in the early 1800s. Between 1811 and 1825, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Gran Colombia, the United Provinces of Central America, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia gained independence from Spain and Portugal in armed revolutions. After the Dominican Republic won independence from Haiti, it was re-annexed by Spain in 1861, but reclaimed its independence in 1865 at the conclusion of the Dominican Restoration War. The last violent episode of decolonization was the Cuban War of Independence which became the Spanish–American War, which resulted in the independence of Cuba in 1898, and the transfer of sovereignty over Puerto Rico from Spain to the United States.

Peaceful decolonization began with the purchase by the United States of Louisiana from France in 1803, Florida from Spain in 1819, of Alaska from Russia in 1867, and the Danish West Indies from Denmark in 1916. Canada became independent of the United Kingdom, starting with the Balfour Declaration of 1926, Statute of Westminster 1931, and ending with the patriation of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. The Dominion of Newfoundland similarly achieved partial independence under the Balfour Declaration and Statute of Westminster, but was re-absorbed into the United Kingdom in 1934. It was subsequently confederated with Canada in 1949.

The remaining European colonies in the Caribbean began to achieve peaceful independence well after World War II. Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago became independent in 1962, and Guyana and Barbados both achieved independence in 1966. In the 1970s, the Bahamas, Grenada, Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines all became independent of the United Kingdom, and Suriname became independent of the Netherlands. Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis achieved independence from the United Kingdom in the 1980s.

Geography

Satellite photo of the Americas Earth-DSCOVR-20150706-IFV.jpg
Satellite photo of the Americas

Extent

The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere. [55] The northernmost point of the Americas is Kaffeklubben Island, which is the most northerly point of land on Earth. [56] The southernmost point is the islands of Southern Thule, although they are sometimes considered part of Antarctica. [57] The mainland of the Americas is the world's longest north-to-south landmass. The distance between its two polar extremities, the Boothia Peninsula in northern Canada and Cape Froward in Chilean Patagonia, is roughly 14,000 km (8,700 mi). [58] The mainland's most westerly point is the end of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska; Attu Island, further off the Alaskan coast to the west, is considered the westernmost point of the Americas. Ponta do Seixas in northeastern Brazil forms the easternmost extremity of the mainland, [58] while Nordostrundingen, in Greenland, is the most easterly point of the continental shelf.

Geology

South America broke off from the west of the supercontinent Gondwana around 135 million years ago, forming its own continent. [59] Around 15 million years ago, the collision of the Caribbean Plate and the Pacific Plate resulted in the emergence of a series of volcanoes along the border that created a number of islands. The gaps in the archipelago of Central America filled in with material eroded off North America and South America, plus new land created by continued volcanism. By three million years ago, the continents of North America and South America were linked by the Isthmus of Panama, thereby forming the single landmass of the Americas. [60] The Great American Interchange resulted in many species being spread across the Americas, such as the cougar, porcupine, opossums, armadillos and hummingbirds. [61]

Topography

Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas Aconcagua 13.JPG
Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas

The geography of the western Americas is dominated by the American cordillera, with the Andes running along the west coast of South America [62] and the Rocky Mountains and other North American Cordillera ranges running along the western side of North America. [63] The 2,300-kilometer-long (1,400 mi) Appalachian Mountains run along the east coast of North America from Alabama to Newfoundland. [64] North of the Appalachians, the Arctic Cordillera runs along the eastern coast of Canada. [65]

The largest mountain ranges are the Andes and Rocky Mountains. The Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range reach similar altitudes as the Rocky Mountains, but are significantly smaller. In North America, the greatest number of fourteeners are in the United States, and more specifically in the U.S. state of Colorado. The highest peaks of the Americas are located in the Andes, with Aconcagua of Argentina being the highest; in North America Denali (Mount McKinley) in the U.S. state of Alaska is the tallest.

Between its coastal mountain ranges, North America has vast flat areas. The Interior Plains spread over much of the continent, with low relief. [66] The Canadian Shield covers almost 5 million km² of North America and is generally quite flat. [67] Similarly, the north-east of South America is covered by the flat Amazon Basin. [68] The Brazilian Highlands on the east coast are fairly smooth but show some variations in landform, while farther south the Gran Chaco and Pampas are broad lowlands. [69]

Climate

Climate zones of the Americas in the Koppen climate classification system. Americas Koppen Map.png
Climate zones of the Americas in the Köppen climate classification system.

The climate of the Americas varies significantly from region to region. Tropical rainforest climate occurs in the latitudes of the Amazon, American cloud forests, Florida and Darien Gap. In the Rocky Mountains and Andes, dry and continental climates are observed. Often the higher altitudes of these mountains are snow-capped.

Southeastern North America is well known for its occurrence of tornadoes and hurricanes, of which the vast majority of tornadoes occur in the United States' Tornado Alley, [70] as well as in the southerly Dixie Alley in the North American late-winter and early spring seasons. Often parts of the Caribbean are exposed to the violent effects of hurricanes. These weather systems are formed by the collision of dry, cool air from Canada and wet, warm air from the Atlantic.

Hydrology

With coastal mountains and interior plains, the Americas have several large river basins that drain the continents. The largest river basin in North America is that of the Mississippi, covering the second largest watershed on the planet. [71] The Mississippi-Missouri river system drains most of 31 states of the U.S., most of the Great Plains, and large areas between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. This river is the fourth longest in the world and tenth most powerful in the world.

In North America, to the east of the Appalachian Mountains, there are no major rivers but rather a series of rivers and streams that flow east with their terminus in the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Hudson River, Saint John River, and Savannah River. A similar instance arises with central Canadian rivers that drain into Hudson Bay; the largest being the Churchill River. On the west coast of North America, the main rivers are the Colorado River, Columbia River, Yukon River, Fraser River, and Sacramento River.

The Colorado River drains much of the Southern Rockies and parts of the Great Basin and Range Province. The river flows approximately 1,450 miles (2,330 km) into the Gulf of California, [72] during which over time it has carved out natural phenomena such as the Grand Canyon and created phenomena such as the Salton Sea. The Columbia is a large river, 1,243 miles (2,000 km) long, in central western North America and is the most powerful river on the West Coast of the Americas. In the far northwest of North America, the Yukon drains much of the Alaskan peninsula and flows 1,980 miles (3,190 km) [73] from parts of Yukon and the Northwest Territory to the Pacific. Draining to the Arctic Ocean of Canada, the Mackenzie River drains waters from the Arctic Great Lakes of Arctic Canada, as opposed to the Saint-Lawrence River that drains the Great Lakes of Southern Canada into the Atlantic Ocean. The Mackenzie River is the largest in Canada and drains 1,805,200 square kilometers (697,000 sq mi). [74]

The largest river basin in South America is that of the Amazon, which has the highest volume flow of any river on Earth. [75] The second largest watershed of South America is that of the Paraná River, which covers about 2.5 million km². [76]

Ecology

North America and South America began to develop a shared population of flora and fauna around 2.5 million years ago, when continental drift brought the two continents into contact via the Isthmus of Panama. Initially, the exchange of biota was roughly equal, with North American genera migrating into South America in about the same proportions as South American genera migrated into North America. This exchange is known as the Great American Interchange. The exchange became lopsided after roughly a million years, with the total spread of South American genera into North America far more limited in scope than the spread on North American genera into South America. [77]

Countries and territories

There are 35 sovereign states in the Americas, as well as an autonomous country of Denmark, three overseas departments of France, three overseas collectivities of France, [78] and one uninhabited territory of France, eight overseas territories of the United Kingdom, three constituent countries of the Netherlands, three public bodies of the Netherlands, two unincorporated territories of the United States, and one uninhabited territory of the United States. [79]

Country or territory Total area
(km²) [80]
Population
[note 1]
Pop.
density
(per km²)
Languages (official in bold)Capital
Flag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla (United Kingdom)9113,452164.8 English The Valley
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 44286,295199.1 Creole, [81] English St. John's
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 2,766,89042,669,50014.3 Spanish Buenos Aires
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba (Netherlands)180101,484594.4 Papiamentu , Spanish, [82] Dutch Oranjestad
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas, The 13,943351,46124.5 Creole, [83] English Nassau
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 430285,000595.3 Bajan, [84] English Bridgetown
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 22,966349,72813.4 Spanish, Kriol, English [85] Belmopan
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda (United Kingdom)5464,2371,203.7 English Hamilton
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 1,098,58010,027,2548.4 Spanish and 36 indigenous languages La Paz and Sucre [86]
Flag of Bonaire.svg  Bonaire (Netherlands)29412,09341.1 Papiamentu , Spanish, Dutch [87] Kralendijk
Flag of Norway.svg  Bouvet Island (Norway) [88] 4900Uninhabited 
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 8,514,877203,106,00023.6 Portuguese Brasília
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom)15129,537152.3 English Road Town
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 9,984,67037,411,5923.8 English , French Ottawa
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands (United Kingdom)26455,456212.1 English George Town
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile [89] 756,95017,773,00022 Spanish Santiago
Flag of France.svg  Clipperton Island (France)6 [90] 0 [91] 0.0Uninhabited 
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 1,138,91047,757,00040 Spanish Bogotá
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 51,1004,667,09689.6 Spanish San José
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 109,88611,167,325102.0 Spanish Havana
Flag of Curacao.svg  Curaçao (Netherlands)444150,563317.1 Papiamentu, Dutch [87] Willemstad
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 75171,29389.2 French Patois, English [92] Roseau
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 48,67110,378,267207.3 Spanish Santo Domingo
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 283,56015,819,40053.8 Spanish , Quechua [93] Quito
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 21,0416,401,240293.0 Spanish San Salvador
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg  Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) [94] 12,1733,0000.26 English Stanley
Flag of France.svg  French Guiana (France)91,000237,5492.7 French Cayenne
Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland (Denmark)2,166,08656,4830.026 Greenlandic , Danish Nuuk (Godthåb)
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 344103,328302.3 English St. George's
Flag of France.svg  Guadeloupe (France)1,628405,739246.7 French Basse-Terre
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 108,88915,806,675128.8 Spanish , Garifuna and 23 Mayan languages Guatemala City
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 214,999784,8943.5 English Georgetown
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 27,75010,745,665361.5 Creole , French Port-au-Prince
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 112,4928,555,07266.4 Spanish Tegucigalpa
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10,9912,717,991247.4 Patois, English Kingston
Flag of France.svg  Martinique (France)1,128392,291352.6 Patois, [95] French Fort-de-France
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1,964,375119,713,20357.1 Spanish, 68 indigenous languages Mexico City
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat (United Kingdom)1024,92258.8 Creole English, English [96] Plymouth; Brades [97]
Flag of Navassa Island (local).svg  Navassa Island (United States)5 [90] 0 [91] 0.0Uninhabited 
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 130,3736,071,04544.1 Spanish Managua
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 75,4173,405,81345.8 Spanish Panama City
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 406,7506,783,37415.6 Guaraní , Spanish Asunción
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 1,285,22030,814,17522 Spanish, Quechua, and other indigenous languages Lima
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico (United States)8,8703,615,086448.9 Spanish , English San Juan
Flag of Saba.svg  Saba (Netherlands)131,537 [98] 118.2 English, Dutch The Bottom
Flag of France.svg  Saint Barthélemy (France)21 [90] 8,938 [91] 354.7 French Gustavia
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26155,000199.2 English Basseterre
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 539180,000319.1 English , French Creole Castries
Flag of France.svg  Saint Martin (France)54 [90] 36,979552.2 French Marigot
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France)2426,08124.8 French Saint-Pierre
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 389109,000280.2 English Kingstown
Flag of Sint Eustatius.svg  Sint Eustatius (Netherlands)212,739 [98] 130.4 Dutch , English Oranjestad
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg  Sint Maarten (Netherlands)3437,4291,176.7 English , Spanish, Dutch Philipsburg
Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg South Georgia and
South Sandwich Islands
(UK)
[99]
3,093200.01 English Grytviken
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 163,270534,1893 Dutch and others [100] Paramaribo
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 5,1301,328,019261.0 English Port of Spain
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands (UK)94831,45834.8 Creole English, English [101] Cockburn Town
Flag of the United States.svg  United States [note 2] 9,629,091320,206,00034.2 English, Spanish Washington, D.C.
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  U.S. Virgin Islands (United States)347106,405317.0 English, Spanish Charlotte Amalie
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 176,2203,286,31419.4 Spanish Montevideo
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 916,44530,206,30730.2 Spanish and 40 indigenous languages Caracas
Total42,320,985973,186,92521.9

Demography

Population

In 2015 the total population of the Americas was about 985 million people, divided as follows: [note 1]

Largest urban centers

There are three urban centers that each hold titles for being the largest population area based on the three main demographic concepts: [102]

A city proper is the locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government. [103] [104] [105] [106] [107]
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization and do not include large swaths of rural land, as do metropolitan areas.[ citation needed ]
Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.[ citation needed ]

In accordance with these definitions, the three largest population centers in the Americas are: Mexico City, anchor to the largest metropolitan area in the Americas; New York City, anchor to the largest urban area in the Americas; and São Paulo, the largest city proper in the Americas. All three cities maintain Alpha classification and large scale influence.

CountryCityCity PopulationMetro Area Population
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Mexico City 8,864,000 [108] 22,300,000 [109]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil São Paulo 12,038,175 [110] 21,742,939 [111]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States New York City 8,405,837 [112] 19,949,502 [113]
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Buenos Aires 2,891,082 [12] 15,594,428 [12]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States Los Angeles 3,928,864 [114] 13,131,431 [115]

Ethnology

The population of the Americas is made up of the descendants of four large ethnic groups and their combinations.

The majority of the population live in Latin America, named for its predominant cultures, rooted in Latin Europe (including the two dominant languages, Spanish and Portuguese, both Romance languages), more specifically in the Iberian nations of Portugal and Spain (hence the use of the term Ibero-America as a synonym). Latin America is typically contrasted with Anglo-America, where English, a Germanic language, is prevalent, and which comprises Canada (with the exception of francophone Canada rooted in Latin Europe [France]—see Québec and Acadia) and the United States. Both countries are located in North America, with cultures deriving predominantly from Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic roots.

Religion

The most prevalent faiths in the Americas are as follows:

Other faiths include Buddhism; Hinduism; Sikhism; Bahá'í Faith; a wide variety of indigenous religions, many of which can be categorized as animistic; new age religions and many African and African-derived religions. Syncretic faiths can also be found throughout the Americas.

Religious Demographics According to 2010 censuses/estimates in each country
Country Christians Catholics Protestants None/Atheists/Agnostics Others
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina [124] 86.2%76.5%9.7%11.3%2.5%
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 95.3%73.7%21.6%3.7%1.0%
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil [125] 86.8%64.6%22.2%8.4%4.8%
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada [119] 62.6%38.7%23.9%28.5%8.9%
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile [126] 76.0%60.0%16.0%21.0%3.0%
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia [127] 93.9%80.3%13.6%5.2%1.7%
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica [128] 84.3%70.5%13.8%11.3%4.3%
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic [129] 87.1%68.3%18.8%10.6%2.2%
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador [130] 95.6%87.8%7.7%3.5%1.0%
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador [131] 75.5%45.8%29.7%24.3%1.2%
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala [132] 79.3%47.6%31.7%18.3%2.4%
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras [133] 83.0%47.9%35.1%14.3%2.7%
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico [134] 92.2%82.7%8.7%4.9%2.9%
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua [135] 81.1%54.3%26.8%16.8%2.1%
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 90.0%75.0%15.0%7.0%3.0%
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 96.8%90.4%6.4%1.4%1.8%
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru [136] 96.7%81.3%12.5%1.9%1.4%
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay [137] 58.2%47.1%11.1%40.4%1.5%
Flag of the United States.svg  United States [138] 79.9%25.9%54.0%15.2%5.0%
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela [139] 89.0%72.0%17.0%8.0%3.0%

Languages

Languages spoken in the Americas Languages of the American Continent.png
Languages spoken in the Americas

Various languages are spoken in the Americas. Some are of European origin, others are spoken by indigenous peoples or are the mixture of various languages like the different creoles. [128]

The most widely spoken language in the Americas is Spanish. [140] The dominant language of Latin America is Spanish, though the most populous nation in Latin America, Brazil, speaks Portuguese. Small enclaves of French-, Dutch- and English-speaking regions also exist in Latin America, notably in French Guiana, Suriname, and Belize and Guyana respectively. Haitian Creole is dominant in the nation of Haiti, where French is also spoken. Native languages are more prominent in Latin America than in Anglo-America, with Nahuatl, Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní as the most common. Various other native languages are spoken with less frequency across both Anglo-America and Latin America. Creole languages other than Haitian Creole are also spoken in parts of Latin America.

The dominant language of Anglo-America is English. French is also official in Canada, where it is the predominant language in Quebec and an official language in New Brunswick along with English. It is also an important language in Louisiana, and in parts of New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. Spanish has kept an ongoing presence in the Southwestern United States, which formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, especially in California and New Mexico, where a distinct variety of Spanish spoken since the 17th century has survived. It has more recently become widely spoken in other parts of the United States because of heavy immigration from Latin America. High levels of immigration in general have brought great linguistic diversity to Anglo-America, with over 300 languages known to be spoken in the United States alone, but most languages are spoken only in small enclaves and by relatively small immigrant groups.

The nations of Guyana, Suriname, and Belize are generally considered[ by whom? ] not to fall into either Anglo-America or Latin America because of their language differences from Latin America, geographic differences from Anglo-America, and cultural and historical differences from both regions; English is the primary language of Guyana and Belize, and Dutch is the primary language of Suriname.

Most of the non-native languages have, to different degrees, evolved differently from the mother country, but are usually still mutually intelligible. Some have combined, however, which has even resulted in completely new languages, such as Papiamento, which is a combination of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch (representing the respective colonizers), native Arawak, various African languages, and, more recently English. The lingua franca Portuñol, a mixture of Portuguese and Spanish, is spoken in the border regions of Brazil and neighboring Spanish-speaking countries. [141] More specifically, Riverense Portuñol is spoken by around 100,000 people in the border regions of Brazil and Uruguay. Because of immigration, there are many communities where other languages are spoken from all parts of the world, especially in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay—very important destinations for immigrants. [142] [143] [144]

Terminology

Subdivisions of the Americas
MapLegend
LocationNSAm.png
  North America (NA)
  South America (SA)
  May be included in
       either NA or SA
LocationNSAm2.png
  North America (NA)
  May be included in NA
  Central America
  Caribbean
  South America
LocationNSAm3.png
  North America (NA)
  May be included in NA

       Northern America

  Middle America (MA)
  Caribbean (may be
        included in MA)
  South America (SA)
  May be included
        in MA or SA
LocationNSAngloLatin.png
  Anglo-America (A-A)
  May be included in A-A
  Latin America (LA)
  May be included in LA

English

Speakers of English generally refer to the landmasses of North America and South America as the Americas, the Western Hemisphere , or the New World . [145] The adjective American may be used to indicate something pertains to the Americas, [3] but this term is primarily used in English to indicate something pertaining to the United States. [3] [146] [147] Some non-ambiguous alternatives exist, such as the adjective Pan-American, [148] or New Worlder as a demonym for a resident of the closely related New World. [4] Use of America in the hemispherical sense is sometimes retained, or can occur when translated from other languages. [149] For example, the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) in Paris maintains a single continental association for "America", represented by one of the five Olympic rings. [150]

American linguist H.L. Mencken said, " The Latin-Americans use Norteamericano in formal writing, but, save in Panama, prefer nicknames in colloquial speech." [151] To avoid "American" one can use constructed terms in their languages derived from "United States" or even "North America". [147] [152] [153] In Canada, its southern neighbor is often referred to as "the United States", "the U.S.A.", or (informally) "the States", while U.S. citizens are generally referred to as "Americans". [147] Most Canadians resent being referred to as "Americans". [147]

Spanish

In Spanish, América is a single continent composed of the subcontinents of América del Sur and América del Norte, the land bridge of América Central, and the islands of the Antillas . Americano or americana in Spanish refers to a person from América in a similar way that europeo or europea refers to a person from Europa. The terms sudamericano/a, centroamericano/a, antillano/a and norteamericano/a can be used to more specifically refer to the location where a person may live.

Citizens of the United States of America are normally referred to by the term estadounidense (rough literal translation: "United Statesian") instead of americano or americana which is discouraged, [154] [155] and the country's name itself is officially translated as Estados Unidos de América (United States of America), commonly abbreviated as Estados Unidos (EEUU). [155] Also, the term norteamericano (North American) may refer to a citizen of the United States. This term is primarily used to refer to citizens of the United States, and less commonly to those of other North American countries. [154]

Portuguese

In Portuguese, América [156] is a single continent composed of América do Sul (South America), América Central (Central America) and América do Norte (North America). [157] It can be ambiguous, as América can be used to refer to the United States of America, but is avoided in print and formal environments. [158] [159]

French

In French the word américain may be used for things relating to the Americas; however, similar to English, it is most often used for things relating to the United States, with the term états-unien sometimes used for clarity. Panaméricain may be used as an adjective to refer to the Americas without ambiguity. [160] French speakers may use the noun Amérique to refer to the whole landmass as one continent, or two continents, Amérique du Nord and Amérique du Sud. In French, Amérique is seldom used to refer to the United States, leading to some ambiguity when it is. Similar to English usage, les Amériques or des Amériques is used to refer unambiguously to the Americas.

Dutch

In Dutch, the word Amerika mostly refers to the United States. [161] [162] Although the United States is equally often referred to as de Verenigde Staten ("the United States") or de VS ("the US"), Amerika relatively rarely refers to the Americas, but it is the only commonly used Dutch word for the Americas. This often leads to ambiguity; and to stress that something concerns the Americas as a whole, Dutch uses a combination, namely Noord- en Zuid-Amerika (North and South America).

Latin America is generally referred to as Latijns Amerika or Midden-Amerika for Central America.

The adjective Amerikaans is most often used for things or people relating to the United States. There are no alternative words to distinguish between things relating to the United States or to the Americas. Dutch uses the local alternative for things relating to elsewhere in the Americas, such as Argentijns for Argentine, etc.

Multinational organizations

The following is a list of multinational organizations in the Americas.

Economy

RankCountry GDP (nominal, Peak Year)
millions of USD [163]
Peak Year
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 21,344,6672019
2Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2,613,9922011
3Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1,847,2072013
4Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1,314,5692014
5Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 642,9282017
6Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 381,8442013
7Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 334,0692011
8Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 298,1722018
9Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 232,0802019
10Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 107,5112018
RankCountry GDP (PPP, Peak Year)
millions of USD
Peak Year
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 21,344,6672019
2Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 3,495,5782019
3Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 2,658,0412019
4Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1,896,7252019
5Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 920,2092019
6Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 784,7472019
7Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 555,4222013
8Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 506,9782019
9Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 483,9292019
10Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 254,8652015

Dominica, Panama and the Dominican Republic have the fastest-growing economy in the Americas according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), [164]

In 2016, five to seven countries in the southern part of the Americas had weakening economies in decline, compared to only three countries in the northern part of the Americas. [165] [166] Haiti has the lowest GDP per capita in the Americas, although its economy was growing slightly as of 2016. [165] [166]

See also

Notes

  1. Includes the states of Hawaii and Alaska which are both separated from the US mainland, with Hawaii is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania while Alaska is located between Canada and Asia (Russia).

Related Research Articles

The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used. American is derived from America, a term originally denoting all of the New World. In some expressions, it retains this Pan-American sense, but its usage has evolved over time and, for various historical reasons, the word came to denote people or things specifically from the United States of America.

Autumn one of the Earths four temperate seasons, occurring between summer and winter

Autumn, also known as fall in North American English, is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer to winter, in September or March, when the duration of daylight becomes noticeably shorter and the temperature cools considerably. One of its main features in temperate climates is the shedding of leaves from deciduous trees.

The term Latino is a noun and adjective often used in English and Spanish to refer to people in the United States with cultural ties to Latin America, in particular to those countries which are Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking.

Latin America Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the Americas. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used also by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.

North America Continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

The term Hispanic refers to the people that originate from, or reside in, a former Spanish Empire viceroyalty.

Lingua franca languages used to facilitate trade between groups without a common native language

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Western Hemisphere half of the Earth that is west of the prime meridian and east of 180° longitude

The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian and east of the antimeridian. The other half is called the Eastern Hemisphere.

The naming of the Americas, or America, occurred shortly after Christopher Columbus' voyage to the Americas in 1492. It is generally accepted that the name derives from Amerigo Vespucci, the Italian explorer, who explored the new continents in the following years. However, some have suggested other explanations, including being named after a mountain range in Nicaragua, or after Richard Amerike of Bristol.

Hispanic America Region comprising the American countries inhabited by Spanish-speaking populations

Hispanic America, also known as Spanish America, is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.

Anglo-Americans Wikipedia disambiguation page

Anglo-Americans are people who are English-speaking inhabitants of Anglo-America. It typically refers to the nations and ethnic groups in the Americas that speak English as a native language who comprise the majority of people who speak English as a first language. This usage originated in the discussion of the history of English-speaking people of the United States and the Spanish-speaking people residing in the western United States during the Mexican–American War.

Latin Americans are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with both their nationality and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous Amerindian population, all Latin Americans or their ancestors immigrated since 1492. Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Portuguese, Black Africans, Italians, Lebanese and Japanese in the world. The region also has large German, French, and Jewish diasporas.

Americas (terminology)

The Americas, also known as America, are lands of the Western Hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture.

The languages of North America reflect not only that continent's indigenous peoples, but the European colonization as well. The most widely spoken languages in North America are English, Spanish, and to a lesser extent French, and, especially in the Caribbean, creole languages lexified by them.

European emigration can be defined as subsequent emigration waves from the European continent to other continents. The origins of the various European diasporas can be traced to the people who left the European nation states or stateless ethnic communities on the European continent.

Outline of North America Overview of and topical guide to North America

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to North America.

Caribbean Region to the center-east of America composed of many islands / coastal regions surrounding the Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Continent Very large landmass identified by convention

A continent is one of several very large landmasses. This type of landmass is only known to exist on Earth. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in area to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

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Further reading

Coordinates: 19°N96°W / 19°N 96°W / 19; -96