Yukon

Last updated

Yukon
Coordinates: 63°N135°W / 63°N 135°W / 63; -135 [1] Coordinates: 63°N135°W / 63°N 135°W / 63; -135 [2]
CountryCanada
Confederation June 13, 1898 (9th)
Capital
(and largest city)
Whitehorse
Largest metroWhitehorse
Government
  Type Parliamentary system
  Commissioner Angélique Bernard
  Premier Sandy Silver
Legislature Yukon Legislative Assembly
Federal representation Parliament of Canada
House seats 1 of 338 (0.3%)
Senate seats 1 of 105 (1%)
Area
  Total482,443 km2 (186,272 sq mi)
  Land474,391 km2 (183,163 sq mi)
  Water8,052 km2 (3,109 sq mi)  1.7%
  Rank9th
 4.8% of Canada
Population
 (2021)
  Total40,232 [3]
  Estimate 
(Q3 2022)
43,789 [4]
  Rank12th
  Density0.08/km2 (0.2/sq mi)
Demonyms Yukoner
FR: Yukonnais(e)
Official languages
  • English
  • French [5]
GDP
  Rank13th
  Total (2017)C$3.089 billion [6]
  Per capitaC$75,141 (3rd)
HDI
  HDI (2019)0.924 [7] Very high (5th)
Time zone UTC−07:00
Canadian postal abbr.
YT
Postal code prefix
Y
ISO 3166 code CA-YT
Flower Fireweed
Tree Subalpine fir [8]
Bird Common raven
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Yukon ( /ˈjuːkɒn/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) YOO-kon; French:  [jykɔ̃] ; formerly called Yukon Territory and also referred to as the Yukon) [9] is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories. It also is the second-least populated province or territory in Canada, with a population of 43,744 as of March 2022. Whitehorse, the territorial capital, is the largest settlement in any of the three territories. [10]

Contents

Yukon was split from the North-West Territories in 1898 as the Yukon Territory. The federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, [9] though Yukon Territory is also still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. [11] In 2021, territorial government policy was changed so that “The Yukon” would be recommended for use in official territorial government materials. [12]

Though officially bilingual (English and French), the Yukon government also recognizes First Nations languages.

At 5,959 m (19,551 ft), Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent (after Denali in the U.S. state of Alaska). Most of the Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long, cold winters and brief, warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate.

Notable rivers include the Yukon River as well as the Pelly, Stewart, Peel, White, Liard, and Tatshenshini rivers.

Etymology

The territory is named after the Yukon River, the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. [13] [14]

Geography

The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U.S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 kilometres (752 mi) mostly along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. [15] Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea. Its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains.

The Yukon River at Schwatka Lake and the entry to Miles Canyon Canon Miles, Yukon, Canada, 2017-08-26, DD 130-132 PAN.jpg
The Yukon River at Schwatka Lake and the entry to Miles Canyon

Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the Yukon River. The southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Other watersheds in the territory include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the AlsekTatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast.

Canada's highest point, Mount Logan (5,959 m or 19,551 ft), is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north.

Notable widespread tree species within the Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the short growing season and severe climate. [16]

Climate

Koppen climate types in Yukon Yukon Koppen.svg
Köppen climate types in Yukon

While the average winter temperature in the Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as the Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C (−76 °F) three times, 1947, 1952, and 1968. The most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F). [17]

Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July, August, and even September, the Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and even May. The Yukon has recorded 36 °C (97 °F) three times. The first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C (97 °F). 14 years later this record was almost beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C (97 °F) in May 1983. The old record was finally broken 21 years later in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C (97.7 °F). [18]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Yukon [18] [19]
CityJuly average highJuly average lowJanuary average highJanuary average low
Whitehorse 21 °C (70 °F)8 °C (46 °F)−11 °C (12 °F)−19 °C (−2 °F)
Dawson City 23 °C (73 °F)8 °C (46 °F)−22 °C (−8 °F)−30 °C (−22 °F)
Old Crow 20 °C (68 °F)9 °C (48 °F)−25 °C (−13 °F)−34 °C (−29 °F)

History

Hill-side mining during the Klondike Gold Rush, c. 1899 Klondike mining, c.1899.jpg
Hill-side mining during the Klondike Gold Rush, c.1899

Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, and the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in the Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America. [20] The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. [20]

The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U.S. state of Alaska blanketed the southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, and which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in the Yukon and further south in Canada.

Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s, gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898.

Demographics

The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. [21] With a land area of 474,712.64 km2 (183,287.57 sq mi), it had a population density of

Unlike in other Canadian provinces and territories, Statistics Canada uses the entire territory as a single at-large census division.

Ethnicity

According to the 2016 Canada Census the majority of the territory's population was of European descent, although it has a significant population of First Nations communities across the territory. The 2011 National Household Survey examined the Yukon's ethnocultural diversity and immigration. At that time, 87.7% of residents were Canadian-born and 24.2% were of Indigenous origin. The most common countries of birth for immigrants were the United Kingdom (15.9%), the Philippines (15.0%), and the United States (13.2%). Among very recent immigrants (between 2006 and 2011) living in the Yukon, 63.5% were born in Asia. [24]

Visible minority and indigenous identity (2016): [25] [26]

   European Canadian (68.1%)
   Visible minority (8.5%)
   First Nations (19.1%)
   Métis (2.9%)
   Inuit (0.6%)
  Other Indigenous responses (0.8%)

As of the 2016 census, the top ten ancestries in the Yukon were: [27]

RankEthnic groupPopulation (2016)Percentage
1 English 9,680
2 Aboriginal 8,665
3 Canadian 8,640
4 Scottish 8,295
5 Irish 6,930
6 German 5,575
7 French 5,040
8 Ukrainian 2,200
9 Dutch 1,760
10 Norwegian 1,380

Language

The most commonly reported mother tongue among the 33,145 single responses to the 2011 Canadian census was English at 28,065 (

The Yukon's Language Act "recognises the significance" of the territory's aboriginal languages in the Yukon, and permits their use in Legislative Assembly proceedings, although only English and French are available for laws and court proceedings. [29]

Religion

The 2011 National Household Survey reported that 49.9% of Yukoners reported having no religious affiliation, the highest percentage in Canada. The most frequently reported religious affiliation was Christianity, reported by 46.2% of residents. Of these, the most common denominations were the Catholic Church (39.6%), the Anglican Church of Canada (17.8%) and the United Church of Canada (9.6%). [31]

Religious beliefs in Yukon (2011 census) [32]
ReligionAdherents % of the population
Irreligious 16,635
Christianity 15,375
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality395
Buddhism 290
Hinduism 165
Sikhism 90
Islam 40
Judaism 20
Other religions300
Total33,320

Economy

A conveyor belt and cart outside of a mine tunnel in the Yukon. The economy of the territory has historically been centred around mining. Hopper and Cart (15671202387).jpg
A conveyor belt and cart outside of a mine tunnel in the Yukon. The economy of the territory has historically been centred around mining.

The Yukon's major industry is mining (lead, zinc, silver, gold, asbestos and copper). The government acquired the land from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1870 and split it from the Northwest Territories in 1898 to fill the need for local government created by the population influx of the gold rush. Thousands of these prospectors moved to the territory, ushering a period of Yukon history recorded by authors such as Robert W. Service and Jack London. The memory of this period and the early days of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as the territory's scenic wonders and outdoor recreation opportunities, makes tourism the second most important industry in the territory.

Manufacturing, including furniture, clothing, and handicrafts, follows in importance, along with hydroelectricity. The traditional industries of trapping and fishing have declined. As of 2012, the government sector directly employs approximately 6,300 out of a labour force of 20,800, on a population of 27,500. [33] [34]

On May 1, 2015, the Yukon modified its Business Corporations Act, [35] [36] [37] in an effort to attract more benefits and participants to its economy. One amendment to the BCA lets a proxy be given for voting purposes. Another change will allow directors to pursue business opportunities declined by the corporation, a practice off-limits in most other jurisdictions due to the inherent potential for conflicts of interest. [38] One of the changes will allow a corporation to serve as a director of a subsidiary registered in Yukon. [39] The legislation also allows companies to add provisions in their articles of incorporation giving directors blanket approval to sell off all of the company's assets without requiring a shareholder vote. [39] If provided for by a unanimous shareholders agreement, a corporation is not required to have directors at all. [40] There is increased flexibility regarding the location of corporate records offices, including the ability to maintain a records office outside of Yukon so long as it is accessible by electronic means. [40]

Tourism

Ivvavik National Park is one of three national parks located in Yukon. Sheep Slot Rapids, Firth River, Ivvavik National Park, YT.jpg
Ivvavik National Park is one of three national parks located in Yukon.

The Yukon's tourism motto is "Larger than life". [41] The Yukon's tourism relies heavily on its natural environment, and there are many organized outfitters and guides available for activities such as but not limited to hunting, angling, canoeing/kayaking, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, ice climbing, and dog sledding. These activities are offered both in an organized setting or in the backcountry, which is accessible by air or snowmobile. The Yukon's festivals and sporting events include the Adäka Cultural Festival, Yukon International Storytelling Festival, and the Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous. The Yukon's latitude enables the view of aurora borealis.

The Yukon Government maintains a series of territorial parks including, [42] parks such as Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park, [43] Tombstone Territorial Park, [44] and Fishing Branch Ni'iinlii'njik Park. [45] Coal River Springs Territorial Park) [46] Parks Canada, a federal agency of the Government of Canada, also maintains three national parks and reserves within the territory, Kluane National Park and Reserve, Ivvavik National Park, and Vuntut National Park.

The Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre is an interpretive centre with a focus on the Beringia land bridge. Whitehorse entrance Yukon Beringia.JPG
The Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre is an interpretive centre with a focus on the Beringia land bridge.

The Yukon is also home to 12 National Historic Sites of Canada. The sites are also administered by Parks Canada, with five of the 12 sites being located within national parks. The territory is host to a number of museums, including the Copperbelt Railway & Mining Museum, the SS Klondike boat museum, the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre in Whitehorse; as well as the Keno City Mining Museum in Keno City. The territory also holds a number of enterprises that allows tourists to experience pre-colonial and modern cultures of Yukon's First Nations and Inuit. [47]

Culture

The Yukon has a wide array of cultural and sporting events that attract artists, local residents, and tourists. Annual events include the Adäka Cultural Festival, Dawson City Music Festival, Yukon International Storytelling Festival, Yukon Quest dog sled race, Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous, as well as Klondike Gold Rush memorials. [48] [49] and the Northern Lights Centre. [50] [51]

A musher during the start of the Yukon Quest dog sledding race in Whitehorse YQ Start Whitehorse 2005 0002.jpg
A musher during the start of the Yukon Quest dog sledding race in Whitehorse

The Yukon's Aboriginal culture is also strongly reflected in such areas as winter sports, as in the Yukon Quest sled dog race. The modern comic-book character Yukon Jack depicts a heroic aboriginal persona. Similarly, the territorial government also recognizes that First Nations and Inuit languages plays a part in cultural heritage of the territory; these languages include Tlingit, and the less common Tahltan, as well as seven Athapaskan languages, Upper Tanana, Gwich'in, Hän, Northern Tutchone, Southern Tutchone, Kaska, and Tagish, some of which are rare. [52]

Arts

Notable Yukon artists include Jim Robb and Ted Harrison, whose paintings have become iconic for their depictions of historic and contemporary life and culture in the Yukon. [53]

With the Klondike Gold Rush, a number of folk songs from the Yukon became popular, including "Rush to the Klondike" (1897, written by W. T. Diefenbaker), "The Klondike Gold Rush", "I've Got the Klondike Fever" (1898) and "La Chanson du Klondyke".

A notable cultural and tourist feature is the legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush (1897–1899), which inspired contemporary writers of the time such as Jack London, Robert W. Service, and Jules Verne, and which continues to inspire films and games, such as Mae West's Klondike Annie and The Yukon Trail (see Cultural legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush).

Government

Yukon Legislature

The Yukon Legislative Building is the meeting place for the territory's legislative assembly. Yukon Legislature main entrance.jpg
The Yukon Legislative Building is the meeting place for the territory's legislative assembly.

Executive power in the Yukon is formally vested in the Territorial Commissioner, [54] who plays an analogous role to that of a provincial lieutenant governor. As guarantor of responsible government in the territory, the Commissioner generally acts on the advice of the Premier of Yukon, who commands the confidence of the elected Legislative Assembly. Unlike lieutenant governors, commissioners are not direct representatives of the King but are instead appointed by the federal government.

The Yukon has numerous political parties and candidates who stand for election to the 19 seats in the Yukon Legislative Assembly. Those elected to the legislature are known as members of the Legislative Assembly and may use the post nominal letters "MLA". The three parties presently represented are the centre-leaning Yukon Liberal Party (8 seats) – who currently form government, the centre-right leaning Yukon Party (8), and the centre-left leaning Yukon New Democratic Party (3). [55]

The 9th and current premier of Yukon is Sandy Silver, who represents the electoral district of Klondike as its MLA. Silver took office following the 2016 Yukon general election, where his Liberals won a majority government. After the 2021 Yukon general election, the Liberals were reduced to a minority government, though they were able to continue governing due to a formal agreement with the NDP. [56]

Local government

Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type Yukon municipalities.png
Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type

The vast majority of Yukon's land mass is unorganized, with no defined municipal or otherwise supralocal level of government like in other parts of Canada.

For most individuals in the Yukon though, local level governance is provided by municipalities. The Yukon's eight municipalities cover only

Municipal governments are created by the Yukon Government in accordance with the Municipal Act of 2001. [61] Municipal governments provide "jurisdiction services, facilities, or things that a local government considers necessary or desirable for all or part of its community". [61] Classifications of municipalities under the Municipal Act include cities and towns. [61] Whitehorse is the capital of the Yukon and its only city. The remaining seven municipalities are towns, of which four were villages that were continued as towns upon adoption of the 2001 Municipal Act. [61]

The usage is somewhat confusing: according to the Municipal Act of 2001 villages are legally given the status of towns, but may call themselves villages in English. In French they are called villages, and the French word ville, which means town is not used for them. Instead larger settlements are called ville and even bigger ones grande ville, apart from Dawson which is called a cité, and in English is also called a city. Keno City, though unincorporated, also bears city in its name.

History

In the 19th century, the Yukon was a segment of North-Western Territory that was administered by the Hudson's Bay Company, and then of the Northwest Territories administered by the federal Canadian government. It only obtained a recognizable local government in 1895 when it became a separate district of the Northwest Territories. [62] In 1898, it was made a separate territory with its own commissioner and an appointed Territorial Council. [63]

From the early 19th century to 1870, the areas that made up the Yukon were administered by the Hudson's Bay Company as the North-Western Territory. North-western-territory.png
From the early 19th century to 1870, the areas that made up the Yukon were administered by the Hudson's Bay Company as the North-Western Territory.

Prior to 1979, the territory was administered by the commissioner who was appointed by the federal Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The commissioner had a role in appointing the territory's Executive Council, served as chair, and had a day-to-day role in governing the territory. The elected Territorial Council had a purely advisory role. In 1979, a significant degree of power was devolved from the commissioner and the federal government to the territorial legislature which, in that year, adopted a party system of responsible government. This change was accomplished through a letter from Jake Epp, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, rather than through formal legislation.

In preparation for responsible government, political parties were organized and ran candidates to the Yukon Legislative Assembly for the first time in 1978. The Progressive Conservatives won these elections and formed the first party government of Yukon in January 1979. The Yukon New Democratic Party (NDP) formed the government from 1985 to 1992 under Tony Penikett and again from 1996 under Piers McDonald until being defeated in 2000. The conservatives returned to power in 1992 under John Ostashek after having renamed themselves the Yukon Party. The Liberal government of Pat Duncan was defeated in elections in November 2002, with Dennis Fentie of the Yukon Party forming the government as premier.

The Yukon Act, passed on April 1, 2003, formalized the powers of the Yukon Government and devolved additional powers to the territorial government (e.g., control over land and natural resources). As of 2003, other than criminal prosecutions, the Yukon Government has much of the same powers as provincial governments, and the other two territories are looking to obtaining the same powers.[ citation needed ]

Federal representation

At the federal level, the Yukon is represented in the Parliament of Canada by one member of Parliament (MP) and one senator. MPs from Canadian territories are full and equal voting representatives and residents of the territory enjoy the same rights as other Canadian citizens. One Yukon MP, Erik Nielsen, served as Deputy Prime Minister under Brian Mulroney, while another, Audrey McLaughlin, was the leader of the federal New Democratic Party (NDP) from 1989 to 1995.

First Nations

Transportation

Before modern forms of transportation, the rivers and mountain passes were the main transportation routes for the coastal Tlingit people trading with the Athabascans of which the Chilkoot Pass and Dalton Trail, as well as the first Europeans.

Air

Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport hub for Yukon. Whitehorse Airport, Yukon Territory.jpg
Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport hub for Yukon.

Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport infrastructure hub, with scheduled direct flights to Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Calgary, Edmonton, Yellowknife, Inuvik, Ottawa, Dawson City, Old Crow, Juneau and Frankfurt [78] (pre-COVID). Whitehorse International Airport is also the headquarters and primary hub for Air North, Yukon's Airline. Every Yukon community is served by an airport or community aerodrome.[ citation needed ] The communities of Dawson City and Old Crow have regularly scheduled service through Air North. Air charter businesses exist primarily to serve the tourism and mining exploration industries.[ citation needed ]

Rail

Yukon passenger rail
BSicon exKBHFa.svg
Whitehorse
Closed 1982
BSicon KBHFxa.svg
Carcross
BSicon HST.svg
Watson
BSicon HST.svg
Pit Spur
BSicon CONTf.svg

The railway ceased operation in the 1980s with the first closure of the Faro mine. It is now run during the summer months for the tourism season, with operations between Carcross and Skagway, Alaska.[ citation needed ] [79]

The Alaska-Alberta Railway Development Corporation (A2A) is planning to construct a new railway line that would cross the Yukon, connecting Watson Lake and possibly Carmacks but not Whitehorse.

Roads

The Klondike Highway is one of several territorial highways in Yukon. Yukon Highway.jpg
The Klondike Highway is one of several territorial highways in Yukon.

Today, major land routes include the Alaska Highway, the Klondike Highway (between Skagway and Dawson City), the Haines Highway (between Haines, Alaska, and Haines Junction), and the Dempster Highway (linking Inuvik, Northwest Territories to the Klondike Highway, and the only road access route to the Arctic Ocean, in Canada), all paved except for the Dempster. Other highways with less traffic include the Robert Campbell Highway linking Carmacks (on the Klondike Highway) to Watson Lake (Alaska Highway) via Faro and Ross River, and the Silver Trail linking the old silver mining communities of Mayo, Elsa and Keno City to the Klondike Highway at the Stewart River bridge. Air travel is the only way to reach the far-north community of Old Crow.

Waterways

From the Gold Rush until the 1950s, riverboats plied the Yukon River, mostly between Whitehorse and Dawson City, with some making their way further to Alaska and over to the Bering Sea, and other tributaries of the Yukon River such as the Stewart River. Most of the riverboats were owned by the British-Yukon Navigation Company, an arm of the White Pass and Yukon Route, which also operated a narrow gauge railway between Skagway, Alaska, and Whitehorse.

See also

Notes

  1. The remaining 99.8% of Yukon's land mass contains two unincorporated hamlets, four unorganized areas, four Indian settlements, four self-governments (Indian reserves), thirteen unincorporated settlements and a Teslin land claim. [57] Unorganized Yukon, one of the four unorganized areas, accounts for the vast majority of the territory's land mass, at

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Whitehorse</span> Capital and largest city of Yukon, Canada

Whitehorse is the capital of Yukon, and the largest city in Northern Canada. It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1426 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which rises in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in Alaska. The city was named after the White Horse Rapids for their resemblance to the mane of a white horse, near Miles Canyon, before the river was dammed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yukon River</span> Major watercourse in northwestern North America

The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. From its source in British Columbia, Canada, it flows through Canada's territory of Yukon. The lower half of the river continues westwards through the U.S. state of Alaska. The river is 3,190 kilometres (1,980 mi) long and empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta. The average flow is 6,400–7,000 m3/s (230,000–250,000 cu ft/s). The total drainage area is 833,000 km2 (321,500 sq mi), of which 323,800 km2 (125,000 sq mi) lies in Canada. The total area is more than 25% larger than Texas or Alberta.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern Canada</span> Region of Canada

Northern Canada, colloquially the North or the Territories, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to the three territories of Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This area covers about 48 per cent of Canada's total land area, but has less than 1 per cent of Canada's population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dawson City</span> Town in Yukon, Canada

Dawson City, officially the City of Dawson, is a town in the Canadian territory of Yukon. It is inseparably linked to the Klondike Gold Rush (1896–99). Its population was 1,577 as of the 2021 census, making it the second-largest town in Yukon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carcross</span> Place in Yukon, Canada

Carcross, originally known as Caribou Crossing, is an unincorporated community in Yukon, Canada, on Bennett Lake and Nares Lake. It is home to the Carcross/Tagish First Nation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Klondike Highway</span> Highway in Skagway, Alaska, United States and Yukon Territory, Canada

The Klondike Highway is a highway that runs from the Alaska Panhandle through the province of British Columbia and the territory of Yukon in Canada, linking the coastal town of Skagway, Alaska, to Dawson City, Yukon. Its route somewhat parallels the route used by prospectors in the 1898 Klondike Gold Rush.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carmacks, Yukon</span> Village in Yukon, Canada

Carmacks is a village in Yukon, Canada, on the Yukon River along the Klondike Highway, and at the west end of the Robert Campbell Highway from Watson Lake. The population is 493. It is the home of the Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation, a Northern Tutchone-speaking people.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Watson Lake, Yukon</span> Town in Yukon, Canada

Watson Lake is a town in Yukon, Canada, located at mile 635 on the Alaska Highway close to the British Columbia border. It has a population of 790 in 2016. The town is named for Frank Watson, an American-born trapper and prospector, who settled in the area at the end of the 19th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Yukon</span>

Yukon is in the northwestern corner of Canada and is bordered by Alaska and the Northwest Territories. The sparsely populated territory abounds with natural scenic beauty, with snowmelt lakes and perennial white-capped mountains, including many of Canada's highest mountains. The territory's climate is Arctic in territory north of Old Crow, subarctic in the region, between Whitehorse and Old Crow, and humid continental climate south of Whitehorse and in areas close to the British Columbia border. Most of the territory is boreal forest with tundra being the main vegetation zone only in the extreme north and at high elevations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mayo, Yukon</span> Village in Yukon, Canada

Mayo is a village in Yukon, Canada, along the Silver Trail and the Stewart River. It had a population of 200 in 2016. The Yukon Bureau of Statistics estimated a population of 496 in 2019. It is also the home of the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyäk Dun, whose primary language is Northern Tutchone. Na-Cho Nyäk Dun translates into "big river people."

Pelly Crossing is a community in Yukon, Canada. It lies where the Klondike Highway crosses the Pelly River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Champagne Landing</span> Place in Yukon, Canada

Champagne Landing or Champagne Landing 10 is a First Nations settlement on the Alaska Highway in Canada's Yukon. Its residents are citizens of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ibex Valley, Yukon</span>

Ibex Valley is a hamlet in Canada's Yukon. The hamlet is considered a local advisory area with an advisory council providing local government. Its population in 2001 according to the Canada 2001 Census was 315.

Mount Lorne is a hamlet in Canada's Yukon. The hamlet is considered a local advisory area with an advisory council providing local government.

Marsh Lake is an unincorporated community on the Alaska Highway on the shores of Marsh Lake southeast of Whitehorse in Canada's Yukon. The area was organized in 2001, as a local area council to help the residents with some form of municipal government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kluane</span> Provincial electoral district in Yukon, Canada

Kluane is an electoral district which returns a member to the Legislative Assembly of the Canadian territory of Yukon. It is named after Kluane National Park, which is within the riding. It is one of the Yukon's eight rural districts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Yukon</span> Aspect of history

The history of Yukon covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians through the Beringia land bridge approximately 20,000 years ago. In the 18th century, Russian explorers began to trade with the First Nations people along the Alaskan coast, and later established trade networks extending into Yukon. By the 19th century, traders from the Hudson's Bay Company were also active in the region. The region was administered as a part of the North-Western Territory until 1870, when the United Kingdom transferred the territory to Canada and it became the North-West Territories.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Braeburn Lodge</span>

Braeburn Lodge is a roadhouse on the Klondike Highway in the Yukon Territory of Canada. It is located east of Braeburn Lake and north of Braeburn Mountain, on the path of the former Dawson Overland Trail, which was built in 1902 between Whitehorse and Dawson City. The lodge itself is a tourist destination and is famous for its large cinnamon buns. Nearby Cinnamon Bun Airport is named for the lodge's cinnamon buns. Every February, Braeburn Lodge hosts a checkpoint of the long-distance Yukon Quest sled dog race.

Frederick Howard Collins was the commissioner of Yukon from 1955 to 1962. He succeeded Wilfred George Brown and was followed in the position by George Robertson Cameron. The Yukon territorial government today resembles those in the Canadian provinces, i.e., parliamentary and with a Premier. But historically, and during the term of Collins, the federally-appointed Commissioner was the actual chief executive of the territory. Collins brought with him to the Yukon a long tenure in the Canadian army. Serving in both world wars, he had risen to the rank of lieutenant colonel. He also came with his experience as a civil servant in the Federal Treasury Board.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indigenous peoples in Yukon</span> Indigenous peoples of Yukon, Canada

The Indigenous peoples of Yukon are ethnic groups who, prior to European contact, occupied the former countries now collectively known as Yukon. While most First Nations in the Canadian territory are a part of the wider Dene Nation, there are Tlingit and Métis nations that blend into the wider spectrum of indigeneity across Canada. Traditionally hunter-gatherers, indigenous peoples and their associated nations retain close connections to the land, the rivers and the seasons of their respective countries or homelands. Their histories are recorded and passed down the generations through oral traditions. European contact and invasion brought many changes to the native cultures of Yukon including land loss and non-traditional governance and education. However, indigenous people in Yukon continue to foster their connections with the land in seasonal wage labour such as fishing and trapping. Today, indigenous groups aim to maintain and develop indigenous languages, traditional or culturally-appropriate forms of education, cultures, spiritualities and indigenous rights.

References

  1. "Yukon". Geographical Names Data Base . Natural Resources Canada.
  2. "Yukon". Geographical Names Data Base . Natural Resources Canada.
  3. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada . February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  4. "Population estimates, quarterly". Statistics Canada. December 16, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  5. "The Legal Context of Canada's Official Languages". University of Ottawa. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  6. "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2017)". Statistics Canada. September 22, 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  7. "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  8. "Government of Yukon: Emblems and Symbols". Archived from the original on February 12, 2012.
  9. 1 2 "Yukon Act, SC 2002, c 7". CanLII. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  10. Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (February 8, 2017). "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  11. "Table 8 Abbreviations and codes for provinces and territories, 2011 Census". Statistics Canada. December 30, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  12. "Back to 'the' Yukon: The big return of a 3-letter word". CBC. August 10, 2021. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  13. "Dear Sir, I have great pleasure in informing you that I have at length after much trouble and difficulties, succeed[ed] in reaching the 'Youcon', or white water River, so named by the (Gwich'in) natives from the pale colour of its water. ..., I have the honour to Remain Your obt Servt, John Bell" Hudson's Bay Company Correspondence to George Simpson from John Bell (August 1, 1845), HBC Archives, D.5/14, fos. 212-215d, also quoted in, Coates, Kenneth S. & Morrison, William R. (1988). Land of the Midnight Sun: A History of the Yukon. Hurtig Publishers. p. 21. ISBN   0-88830-331-9 . Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  14. In Gwich'in, adjectives, such as choo [big] and gąįį [white], follow the nouns that they modify. Thus, white water is chųų gąįį [water white]. White water river is chųų gąįį han [water white river]. Peter, Katherine (1979). Dinjii Zhuh Ginjik Nagwan Tr'iłtsąįį: Gwich'in Junior Dictionary (PDF). Univ. of Alaska. pp. ii (ą, į, ų are nasalized a, i, u), xii (adjectives follow nouns), 19 (nitsii or choo [big]), 88 (ocean = chųų choo [water big]), 105 (han [river]), 142 (chųų [water]), 144 (gąįį [white]). Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  15. "Boundary Facts". International Boundary Commission. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011. Length of boundary by province – Yukon- 1,210 km or 752 miles
  16. Carl Duncan, "The Dempster: Highway to the Arctic Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine " accessed 2009.10.22.
  17. "Life at Minus 80: The Men of Snag". The Weather Doctor. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
  18. 1 2 "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. October 31, 2011. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
  19. "Whitehorse – Geography and Climate". www.yukoncommunities.yk.ca. Archived from the original on October 6, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  20. 1 2 Services, Cultural. Archaeology Program. Department of Tourism and Culture. [Online] March 8, 2011. [Cited: April 7, 2012.]
  21. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada . February 2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  22. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Yukon)". Statistics Canada. January 13, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  23. "Population estimates, quarterly". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  24. "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, 2011 National Household Survey" (PDF). Statistics Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  25. "Aboriginal Peoples Highlight Tables". 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  26. "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  27. Statistics Canada (October 25, 2017). "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Yukon, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data".
  28. 1 2 3 4 "Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census, Yukon". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  29. "Language Act, Statues of the Yukon (2002)" (PDF). Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  30. "Council of Yukon First Nations-Our Nations". July 14, 2002. Archived from the original on July 14, 2002.
  31. "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, 2011 National Householder" (PDF). 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  32. StatCan (May 8, 2013). "NHS Profile, Yukon, 2011" . Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  33. "Archived – Public sector employment, wages and salaries, seasonally unadjusted and adjusted". Statistics Canada. August 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  34. "Labour force characteristics by province, territory and economic region, annual (x 1,000)". Statistics Canada. January 28, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  35. gov.yk.ca: "Business Corporations Act" Archived October 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine , May 1, 2015
  36. gov.yk.ca: "O.I.C. 2015/06 Business Corporations Act" Archived October 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine , May 1, 2015
  37. gov.yk.ca: "O.I.C. 2015/07 Societies Act" Archived October 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine , May 1, 2015
  38. cbc.ca: "Go north, not west: Yukon lures businesses with new company rules", May 1, 2015
  39. 1 2 theglobeandmail.com: "Yukon's move to draw corporations worries shareholders coalition", June 18, 2015
  40. 1 2 deallawwire.com: "Changes of note to the Yukon Business Corporations Act" Archived September 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine , June 2, 2015
  41. Travel Yukon Archived October 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  42. "Territorial Parks". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Archived from the original on February 12, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  43. "Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Archived from the original on March 13, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  44. "Tombstone Territorial Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Archived from the original on March 15, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  45. "Fishing Branch Ni'iinlii'njik Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Archived from the original on December 18, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  46. "Coal River Springs Territorial Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  47. "Yukon First Nation Tourist Association". Yfnta.org. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  48. "Dawson Music Festival". Dcmf.com. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  49. "Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre". Beringia.com. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  50. "Northern Lights Centre". Northernlightscentre.ca. Archived from the original on February 3, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  51. "Whitehorse fish ladder". Yukonenergy.ca. February 1, 2011. Archived from the original on September 3, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  52. Yukon Territory History and Culture Archived September 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , Pinnacle Travel
  53. Hocking, Anthony (1979). The Yukon and Northwest Territories. McGraw-Hill Ryerson. p. 29. ISBN   978-0-07-082694-6.
  54. "About". commissionerofyukon.ca. April 12, 2022. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  55. Silva, Steve (April 19, 2021). "Yukon NDP win final riding by rare drawing of lots, maintaining Liberal, Yukon Party tie in assembly".
  56. "Yukon Liberals, NDP strike agreement to govern after election tie". CTVNews. April 28, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
  57. "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names: From January 2, 2012 to January 1, 2013" (PDF) (PDF). Statistics Canada. pp. 6–7. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  58. 1 2 "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Yukon)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  59. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. February 6, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  60. "Yukon Communities". Yukon Government: Department of Community Services. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  61. 1 2 3 4 "Municipal Act" (PDF). Government of Yukon. 2002. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  62. Coates and Morrison, p.74
  63. Coates and Morrison, p.103
  64. "Executive Council". Ctfn.ca. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  65. "Dän nätthe dä̀tthʼi (Chief and Council)". Champagne and Aishihik First Nations. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  66. "Governance and Administration". First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun. October 20, 2016. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  67. "Chief and Council". Kluane First Nation. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  68. "Doris Bill elected Kwanlin Dun chief". CBC News. March 20, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  69. "Liard First Nation". Kaska Dena Council. Archived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  70. "Chief & Council". Little Salmon Carmacks First Nation. Archived from the original on January 12, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  71. "Dylan Loblaw elected chief of Ross River Dena Council". CBC News. March 15, 2022. Retrieved August 2, 2022.
  72. Selkirk First Nation. "The Council". Selkirk First Nation. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  73. "Chief and Council". Government of the Ta'an Kwäch'än Council. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  74. "Richard Sidney elected chief of Teslin Tlingit Council". CBC News. July 15, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  75. "Roberta Joseph new chief of Dawson's Tr'ondek Hwech'in". CBC News. October 10, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  76. "Humbled Beyond Words Dana Tizya-Tramm becomes Chief of Vuntut Gwitchin". CBC News. January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  77. "Chief & Council". White River First Nation. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  78. "Timetable, Summer 2017" (PDF). Condor Airlines. August 6, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  79. "THE WHITE PASS AND YUKON ROUTE AVALANCHE PROGRAM, FORECASTING AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR A HISTORICAL RAILROAD" (PDF).

Further reading