Parliamentary system

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Forms of government.svg
Systems of government
Republican forms of government:
   Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature
   Semi-presidential system with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the rest of the executive, who is appointed by the president and accountable to the legislature
   Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial and non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive and is dependent on the confidence of the legislature
  Republics with an executive presidency elected by the legislature

Monarchical forms of government:
   Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial and non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
   Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial monarch, but where royalty still hold significant executive and/or legislative power
   Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive

  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. transitional government or unclear political situations)

A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

Contents

Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as Thailand, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, and Japan), or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland, Germany, India, and Italy). In a few parliamentary republics, such as Botswana, South Africa, and Suriname, among some others, the head of government is also head of state, but is elected by and is answerable to parliament. In bicameral parliaments, the head of government is generally, though not always, a member of the lower house.

Parliamentarianism is the dominant form of government in Europe, with 32 of its 50 sovereign states being parliamentarian. It is also common in the Caribbean, being the form of government of 10 of its 13 island states, and in Oceania. Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most often in former colonies of the British Empire that subscribe to a particular brand of parliamentarianism known as the Westminster system.

History

Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. Eventually, these councils have slowly evolved into the modern parliamentary system.

The first parliaments date back to Europe in the Middle Ages: specifically in 1188 Alfonso IX, King of Leon (Spain) convened the three states in the Cortes of León. [1] [2] An early example of parliamentary government developed in today's Netherlands and Belgium during the Dutch revolt (1581), when the sovereign, legislative and executive powers were taken over by the States General of the Netherlands from the monarch, King Philip II of Spain.[ citation needed ] The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707–1800 and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden between 1721–1772.

In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for convening two famous parliaments. [3] [4] The first, in 1258, stripped the king of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. [5] Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689. [6] [7]

In the Kingdom of Great Britain, the monarch, in theory, chaired cabinet and chose ministers. In practice, King George I's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole. The gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, and in deciding whom the king could ask to form a government. By the 19th century, the Great Reform Act of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding who was prime minister and the complexion of the government. [8] [9]

Other countries gradually adopted what came to be called the Westminster Model of government, with an executive answerable to parliament, and exercising, in the name of the head of state, powers nominally vested in the head of state. Hence the use of phrases like Her Majesty's government or His Excellency's government. Such a system became particularly prevalent in older British dominions, many of which had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament; such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the Irish Free State and the Union of South Africa. Some of these parliaments were reformed from, or were initially developed as distinct from their original British model: the Australian Senate, for instance, has since its inception more closely reflected the US Senate than the British House of Lords; whereas since 1950 there is no upper house in New Zealand.

Democracy and parliamentarianism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I, partially imposed by the democratic victors,[ how? ] the United States, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republic and the new Austrian Republic. Nineteenth-century urbanisation, the Industrial Revolution and modernism had already fuelled the political left's struggle for democracy and parliamentarianism for a long time. In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, democratic reforms were often seen as a means to counter popular revolutionary currents.

Characteristics

A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament (or houses) or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber. A bicameral parliament usually consists of a directly elected lower house with the power to determine the executive government, and an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house.

Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems. [10]

The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament. Houses.of.parliament.overall.arp.jpg
The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
The Reichstag Building in Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries. Berlin reichstag CP.jpg
The Reichstag Building in Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries.

Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ as to how the prime minister and government are appointed and whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament, rather than just the absence of its disapproval. Some countries such as India also require the prime minister to be a member of the legislature, though in other countries this only exists as a convention.

Furthermore, there are variations as to what conditions exist (if any) for the government to have the right to dissolve the parliament:

The parliamentary system can be contrasted with a presidential system which operates under a stricter separation of powers, whereby the executive does not form part of—nor is appointed by—the parliamentary or legislative body. In such a system, parliaments or congresses do not select or dismiss heads of governments, and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may be the case for parliaments. There also exists the semi-presidential system that draws on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems by combining a powerful president with an executive responsible to parliament: for example, the French Fifth Republic.

Parliamentarianism may also apply to regional and local governments. An example is the city of Oslo, which has an executive council (Byråd) as a part of the parliamentary system.

Anti-defection law

A few parliamentary democratic nations such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. have enacted a law which prohibits floor crossing or switching the party after election process. With this law, the elected representative have to lose their seat in the Parliament House, if they defy the direction of the party in any voting. [17] [18] [19]

In the UK Parliament, a member is free to cross over to the other side, without being daunted by any disqualification law. In the US, Canada, and Australia, there is no restraint on legislators switching sides. [20]

Advantages

Supporters generally claim three basic advantages for parliamentary systems:

Adaptability

Parliamentary systems like that found in the United Kingdom are widely considered to be more flexible, allowing rapid change in legislation and policy as long as there is a stable majority or coalition in parliament, allowing the government to have 'few legal limits on what it can do' [21] Due to the first-past-the-post 'this system produces the classic "Westminster Model" with the twin virtues of strong but responsive party government'. [22] This electoral system providing a strong majority in the House of Commons, paired with the fused power system results in a particularly powerful Government able to provide change and 'innovate'. [23]

Scrutiny and accountability

The United Kingdom's fused power system is often noted to be advantageous with regards to accountability. The centralised government allows for more transparency as to where decisions originate from, this directly contrasts with the United States' system with former Treasury Secretary C. Douglas Dillon saying "the president blames Congress, the Congress blames the president, and the public remains confused and disgusted with government in Washington". [24] Furthermore, ministers of the U.K. cabinet are subject to weekly Question Periods in which their actions/policies are scrutinised, no such regular check on the government exists in the U.S. system.

Distribution of power

Parliamentary government has attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided. In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person, the president, whereas power is more divided in a parliamentary system with its collegial executive. In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement, in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a powerful president to a system more structurally similar to classical parliamentary government. Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be tantamount to Shiite domination of the large Sunni minority. Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired.

It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in parliamentary government, as the government and prime minister do not have the power to make unilateral decisions, as the entire government cabinet is answerable and accountable to parliament. Parliamentary systems are less likely to allow celebrity-based politics to fully dominate a society, unlike what often happens in presidential systems, where name-recall and popularity can catapult a celebrity, actor, or popular politician to the presidency despite such candidate's lack of competence and experience.

Some scholars like Juan Linz, Fred Riggs, Bruce Ackerman, and Robert Dahl have found that parliamentary government is less prone to authoritarian collapse. These scholars point out that since World War II, two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy. By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing coups and other constitutional breakdowns. A 2001 World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with less corruption, which is supported by a separate study that arrived at the same conclusions.

Calling of elections

In his 1867 book The English Constitution , Walter Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for producing serious debates, for allowing for a change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural, as it can potentially allow a president who has disappointed the public with a dismal performance in the second year of his term to continue on until the end of his four-year term. Under a parliamentary system, a prime minister that has lost support in the middle of his term can be easily replaced by his own peers.

Although Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused. Previously under some systems, such as the British, a ruling party could schedule elections when it felt that it was likely to retain power, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity. (Election timing in the UK, however, is now partly fixed under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.) Thus, by a shrewd timing of elections, in a parliamentary system, a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date. Conversely, flexibility in the timing of parliamentary elections can avoid periods of legislative gridlock that can occur in a fixed period presidential system. In any case, voters ultimately have the power to choose whether to vote for the ruling party or someone else.

Disadvantages and criticisms

Critics generally claim these basic disadvantages for parliamentary systems:

Legislative flip-flopping

The ability for strong parliamentary governments to 'push' legislation through with the ease of fused power systems such as in the United Kingdom, whilst positive in allowing rapid adaptation when necessary e.g. the nationalisation of services during the world wars, does have its drawbacks. The flip-flopping of legislation back and forth as the majority in parliament changed between the Conservatives and Labour over the period 1940–1980, contesting over the nationalisation and privatisation of the British Steel Industry resulted in major instability for the British steel sector. [25]

Party fragmentation

In R. Kent Weaver's book Are Parliamentary Systems Better?, he writes that an advantage of presidential systems is their ability to allow and accommodate more diverse viewpoints. He states that because "legislators are not compelled to vote against their constituents on matters of local concern, parties can serve as organizational and roll-call cuing vehicles without forcing out dissidents." [26]

Countries

Africa

CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Botswana.svg Botswana Parliament of Botswana elects the President who appoints the Cabinet
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia Federal Parliamentary Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers
Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius National Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Mauritius
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia Federal Parliament of Somalia elects the President who appoints the Prime Minister
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa Parliament of South Africa elects the President who appoints the Cabinet

Americas

Parliament of Canada Centre Block - Parliament Hill.jpg
Parliament of Canada
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua and BarbudaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is appointed Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda by the Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, who then appoints the Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of the Bahamas.svg The BahamasLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of the Bahamas is appointed Prime Minister of the Bahamas by the Governor-General of the Bahamas, who then appoints the Cabinet of the Bahamas on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Barbados.svg BarbadosLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Barbados is appointed Prime Minister of Barbados by the Governor-General of Barbados, who then appoints the Cabinet of Barbados on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Belize.svg BelizeLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Belize is appointed Prime Minister of Belize by the Governor-General of Belize, who then appoints the Cabinet of Belize on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg CanadaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Commons of Canada is appointed Prime Minister of Canada by the Governor General of Canada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Dominica.svg Dominica Parliament approves the Cabinet of Dominica
Flag of Grenada.svg GrenadaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Grenada is appointed Prime Minister of Grenada by the Governor-General of Grenada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Grenada on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Jamaica.svg JamaicaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Jamaica is appointed Prime Minister of Jamaica by the Governor-General of Jamaica, who then appoints the Cabinet of Jamaica on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Saint Kitts and NevisLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevis is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis by the Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Kitts and Nevis on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Saint LuciaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Lucia is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Lucia by the Governor-General of Saint Lucia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Lucia on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines by the Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname National Assembly elects the President, who appoints the Cabinet of Suriname
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago approves the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago

Asia

Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India Sansad Bhavan-2.jpg
Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India
Council of Representatives of Iraq Baghdad Convention Center.jpg
Council of Representatives of Iraq
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem Knesset Building (South Side).JPG
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem
Parliament of Malaysia MalaysianParliament.jpg
Parliament of Malaysia
Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban of Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (Roehl).jpg
Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban of Bangladesh
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh Jatiya Sangsad approves the Cabinet of Bangladesh
Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan Parliament of Bhutan approves the Lhengye Zhungtshog
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia Parliament of Cambodia approves the Council of Ministers
Flag of India.svg India President of India appoints the leader of the political party or alliance that has the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha as Prime Minister of India, who then forms the Union Council of Ministers
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq Council of Representatives approves the Cabinet of Iraq
Flag of Israel.svg IsraelLeader of the political party with the most Knesset seats in the governing coalition is appointed Prime Minister of Israel by the President of Israel. The Prime Minister then appoints the Cabinet of Israel.
Flag of Japan.svg Japan National Diet nominates the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Japan
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait National Assembly approves the Crown Prince who appoints the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Kuwait
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan Supreme Council approves the Cabinet of Kyrgyzstan
Flag of Lebanon.svg LebanonMaronite Christian president is elected by the Parliament of Lebanon. He appoints the Prime Minister (a Sunni Muslim) and the cabinet. The Parliament thereafter approves the Cabinet of Lebanon through a vote of confidence (a simple majority).
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia Parliament of Malaysia appoints the Cabinet of Malaysia
Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar Assembly of the Union, by an electoral college, elects the President who forms the Cabinet of Myanmar
Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal Parliament of Nepal elects the Prime Minister who, by turn, appoints the Cabinet of Nepal
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Parliament of Pakistan appoints the Cabinet of Pakistan
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore Parliament of Singapore approves the Cabinet of Singapore
Flag of Thailand.svg ThailandThe Monarch appoints the MP nominated by in the House of Representatives (usually the leader of the largest party or coalition) as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet of Thailand.

Europe

National Assembly of Armenia National Assembly of Armenia.jpg
National Assembly of Armenia
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament Zyrat te parlamentit.jpg
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament Congreso de los Diputados (Espana) 14.jpg
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Albania.svg Albania Parliament of Albania approves the Cabinet of Albania
Flag of Andorra.svg Andorra
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia National Assembly appoints and (no sooner than one year) can dismiss through the constructive vote of no confidence the Government of Armenia
Flag of Austria.svg AustriaIn theory, chancellor and ministers are appointed by the President. As a practical matter, they are unable to govern without the support (or at least toleration) of a majority in the National Council. The cabinet is politically answerable to the National Council and can be dismissed by the National Council through a motion of no confidence.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Federal Parliament approves the Cabinet of Belgium
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria National Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria
Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia Croatian Parliament approves President of Government and the Cabinet nominated by him/her.
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic President of the Czech Republic appoints the leader of the largest party or coalition in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet. The Prime Minister must gain a vote of confidence by the Chamber of Deputies.
Flag of Denmark.svg DenmarkThe Monarch appoints, based on recommendations from the leaders of the parties in Folketinget, the cabinet leader who is most likely to successfully assemble a Cabinet which will not be disapproved by a majority in Folketinget.
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia Riigikogu elects the Prime Minister candidate nominated by the President of the Republic (normally this candidate is the leader of the parliamentary coalition of parties). The Government of the Republic of Estonia is later appointed by the President of the Republic under proposal of the approved Prime Minister candidate. The Riigikogu may remove the Prime Minister and any other member of the government through a motion of no confidence.
Flag of Finland.svg Finland Parliament of Finland appoints the Cabinet of Finland
Flag of Germany.svg Germany Bundestag elects the Federal Chancellor (after nomination from the President of Germany), who forms the Cabinet
Flag of Greece.svg Greece Hellenic Parliament approves the Cabinet of Greece
Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary National Assembly approves the Cabinet of Hungary
Flag of Iceland.svg IcelandThe President of Iceland appoints and discharges the Cabinet of Iceland. Ministers can not even resign without being discharged by presidential decree.
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland Dáil Éireann nominates the Taoiseach, who is then appointed by the President of Ireland
Flag of Italy.svg Italy Italian Parliament grants and revokes its confidence in the Cabinet of Italy, appointed by the President of Italy
Flag of Kosovo.svg Kosovo Assembly of Kosovo appoints the Government of Kosovo
Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia Saeima appoints the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies appoints the Cabinet of Luxembourg
Flag of Malta.svg Malta House of Representatives appoints the Cabinet of Malta
Flag of Moldova.svg Moldova Parliament of Moldova appoints the Cabinet of Moldova
Flag of Montenegro.svg Montenegro Parliament of Montenegro appoints the Government of Montenegro
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Second Chamber of the States-General can dismiss the Cabinet of the Netherlands through a motion of no confidence
Flag of North Macedonia.svg North Macedonia Assembly approves the Government of North Macedonia
Flag of Norway.svg NorwayThe Monarch appoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in Stortinget as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino
Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia National Assembly appoints the Government of Serbia
Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia National Council approves the Government of Slovakia
Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia National Assembly appoints the Government of Slovenia
Flag of Spain.svg Spain The Congress of Deputies elects the President of the Government, who forms the Cabinet
Flag of Sweden.svg SwedenThe Riksdag elects the Prime Minister, who in turn appoints the other members of the Government
Flag of Switzerland.svg  SwitzerlandA United Federal Assembly elects the members of the Swiss Federal Council
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomThe Leader, almost invariably a Member of Parliament (MP) and of the political party which commands or is likely to command the confidence of a majority of the House of Commons, is appointed Prime Minister by the British sovereign, who then appoints members of the Cabinet on the nomination and advice of the Prime Minister.

Oceania

Parliament of Australia Parliament House Canberra Dusk Panorama.jpg
Parliament of Australia
Parliament of New Zealand Parlamento da Nova Zelandia.jpg
Parliament of New Zealand
National Parliament of Papua New Guinea Port Moresby parliament building front, by Steve Shattuck.jpg
National Parliament of Papua New Guinea
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Australia (converted).svg AustraliaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Australian House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of Australia by the Governor-General of Australia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Australia on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of New Zealand.svg New ZealandLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the New Zealand House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of New Zealand by the Governor-General of New Zealand, who then appoints the Cabinet of New Zealand on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New GuineaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Parliament is appointed Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, who then appoints the Cabinet of Papua New Guinea on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Samoa.svg Samoa Legislative Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Samoa
Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu Parliament of Vanuatu appoints the Cabinet of Vanuatu

See also

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The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia is the supreme law of Somalia. It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Federal Republic and source of legal authority. It sets out the rights and duties of its citizens, and defines the structure of government. The Provisional Constitution was adopted on August 1, 2012 by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu, Banaadir.

Semi-parliamentary system

Semi-parliamentary system can refer to either a prime-ministerial system, in which voters simultaneously vote for both members of legislature and the prime minister, or to a system of government in which the legislature is split into two parts that are both directly elected—one that has the power to remove the members of the executive by a vote of no confidence and another that does not. The former was first proposed by Maurice Duverger, who used it to refer to Israel from 1996-2001.

References

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