Parliamentary system

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Parliamentary republics
Parliamentary constitutional monarchies where royalty does not hold significant power
Parliamentary constitutional monarchies which have a separate head of government but where royalty holds significant executive and/or legislative power
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This map presents only the de jure form of government, and not the de facto degree of democracy. Some countries which are de jure republics are de facto authoritarian regimes. For a measure of the degree of democracy in countries around the world, see the Democracy Index.
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World's states colored by form of government

A parliamentary system, or parliamentarian democracy, is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of the legislature, typically a parliament, to which it is accountable. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, where the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

Contents

Countries with parliamentary systems may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament, or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature. In a few parliamentary republics, among some others, the head of government is also head of state, but is elected by and is answerable to parliament. In bicameral parliaments, the head of government is generally, though not always, a member of the lower house.

Parliamentarianism is the dominant form of government in Europe, with 32 of its 50 sovereign states being parliamentarian. It is also common in the Caribbean, being the form of government of 10 of its 13 island states, and in Oceania. Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most often in former colonies of the British Empire that subscribe to a particular brand of parliamentarianism known as the Westminster system.

History

Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. Eventually, these councils have slowly evolved into the modern parliamentary system.

The first parliaments date back to Europe in the Middle Ages: specifically in 1188 Alfonso IX, King of Leon (Spain) convened the three states in the Cortes of León. [1] [2] An early example of parliamentary government developed in today's Netherlands and Belgium during the Dutch revolt (1581), when the sovereign, legislative and executive powers were taken over by the States General of the Netherlands from the monarch, King Philip II of Spain.[ citation needed ] The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707 and 1800 and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden between 1721 and 1772.

In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for convening two famous parliaments. [3] [4] [5] The first, in 1258, stripped the king of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. [6] Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689. [7] [8]

In the Kingdom of Great Britain, the monarch, in theory, chaired cabinet and chose ministers. In practice, King George I's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole. The gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, and in deciding whom the king could ask to form a government. By the 19th century, the Great Reform Act of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding who was prime minister and the complexion of the government. [9] [10]

Other countries gradually adopted what came to be called the Westminster system of government, with an executive answerable to the lower house of a bicameral parliament, and exercising, in the name of the head of state, powers nominally vested in the head of state – hence the use of phrases such as Her Majesty's government (in constitutional monarchies) or His Excellency's government (in parliamentary republics). Such a system became particularly prevalent in older British dominions, many of which had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament; such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the Irish Free State and the Union of South Africa. Some of these parliaments were reformed from, or were initially developed as distinct from their original British model: the Australian Senate, for instance, has since its inception more closely reflected the US Senate than the British House of Lords; whereas since 1950 there is no upper house in New Zealand. Many of these countries such as Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados have severed institutional ties to Great Britain by becoming republics with their own ceremonial Presidents, but retain the Westminster system of government.

Democracy and parliamentarianism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I, partially imposed by the democratic victors,[ how? ] the United States, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republic and the First Austrian Republic. Nineteenth-century urbanisation, the Industrial Revolution and modernism had already made the parliamentarist demands of the Radicals and the emerging movement of social democrats increasingly impossible to ignore; these forces came to dominate many states that transitioned to parliamentarism, particularly in the French Third Republic where the Radical Party and its centre-left allies dominated the government for several decades. However, the rise of Fascism in the 1930s put an end to parliamentary democracy in Italy and Germany, among others.

After the Second World War, the defeated fascist Axis powers were occupied by the victorious Allies. In those countries occupied by the Allied democracies (the United States, United Kingdom, and France) parliamentary constitutions were implemented, resulting in the parliamentary constitutions of Italy and West Germany (now all of Germany) and the 1947 Constitution of Japan. The experiences of the war in the occupied nations where the legitimate democratic governments were allowed to return strengthened the public commitment to parliamentary principles; in Denmark, a new constitution was written in 1953, while a long and acrimonious debate in Norway resulted in no changes being made to that country's strongly entrenched democratic constitution.

Characteristics

A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament (or houses) or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber. A bicameral parliament usually consists of a directly elected lower house with the power to determine the executive government, and an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house.

Types

Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems. [11]

Westminster system

The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament. Houses.of.parliament.overall.arp.jpg
The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.

Consensus system

The Reichstag Building in Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries. Berlin reichstag CP.jpg
The Reichstag Building in Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries.
  • The Western European parliamentary model (e.g., Spain, Germany) tends to have a more consensual debating system and usually has semi-circular debating chambers. Consensus systems have more of a tendency to use proportional representation with open party lists than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber. Some Western European countries' parliaments (e.g., in the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Sweden) implement the principle of dualism as a form of separation of powers. In countries using this system, Members of Parliament have to resign their place in Parliament upon being appointed (or elected) minister. Ministers in those countries usually actively participate in parliamentary debates, but are not entitled to vote.

Election of the head of government

Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ as to how the prime minister and government are appointed and whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament, rather than just the absence of its disapproval. Some countries such as India also require the prime minister to be a member of the legislature, though in other countries this only exists as a convention.

Power of dissolution and call for election

Furthermore, there are variations as to what conditions exist (if any) for the government to have the right to dissolve the parliament:

The parliamentary system can be contrasted with a presidential system which operates under a stricter separation of powers, whereby the executive does not form part of—nor is appointed by—the parliamentary or legislative body. In such a system, parliaments or congresses do not select or dismiss heads of governments, and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may be the case for parliaments (although the parliament may still be able to dissolve itself, as in the case of Cyprus). There also exists the semi-presidential system that draws on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems by combining a powerful president with an executive responsible to parliament: for example, the French Fifth Republic.

Parliamentarianism may also apply to regional and local governments. An example is the city of Oslo, which has an executive council (Byråd) as a part of the parliamentary system. The devolved nations of the United Kingdom are also parliamentary and which, as with the UK Parliament, may hold early elections - this has only occurred with regards to the Northern Ireland Assembly in 2017 and 2022.

Anti-defection law

A few parliamentary democratic nations such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. have enacted laws which prohibit floor crossing or switching parties after the election. Under these laws, elected representatives will lose their seat in the parliament if they go against their party in votes. [17] [18] [19]

In the UK parliament, a member is free to cross over to a different party. In Canada and Australia, there are no restraints on legislators switching sides. [20]

Parliamentary sovereignty

A few parliamentary democracies such as the United Kingdom and New Zealand have weak or non-existent checks on the legislative power of their Parliaments, [21] [22] where any newly approved Act shall take precedence over all prior Acts. All laws are equally unentrenched, wherein judicial review may not outright annul nor amend them, as frequently occurs in other parliamentary systems like Germany. Whilst the head of state for both nations (Monarch, and or Governor General) has the de-jure power to withhold assent to any bill passed by their Parliament, this check has not been exercised in Britain since the 1708 Scottish Militia Bill.

Whilst both the UK and New Zealand have some Acts or parliamentary rules establishing supermajorities or additional legislative procedures for certain legislation, such as previously with the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (FTPA), these can be bypassed through the enactment of another that amends or ignores these supermajorities away, such as with the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019 - bypassing the 2/3rd supermajority required for an early dissolution under the FTPA [23] -, which enabled the early dissolution for the 2019 general election.

Advantages

Adaptability

Parliamentary systems like that found in the United Kingdom are widely considered to be more flexible, allowing rapid change in legislation and policy as long as there is a stable majority or coalition in parliament, allowing the government to have 'few legal limits on what it can do' [24] Due to the first-past-the-post voting method, this system produces the classic "Westminster Model" with the twin virtues of strong but responsive party government. [25] This electoral system providing a strong majority in the House of Commons, paired with the fused power system results in a particularly powerful Government able to provide change and 'innovate'. [24]

Scrutiny and accountability

The United Kingdom's fused power system is often noted to be advantageous with regards to accountability. The centralised government allows for more transparency as to where decisions originate from, this directly contrasts with the United States' system with former Treasury Secretary C. Douglas Dillon saying "the president blames Congress, the Congress blames the president, and the public remains confused and disgusted with government in Washington". [26] Furthermore, ministers of the U.K. cabinet are subject to weekly Question Periods in which their actions/policies are scrutinised; no such regular check on the government exists in the U.S. system.

Distribution of power

A 2001 World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with less corruption. [27]

Calling of elections

In his 1867 book The English Constitution , Walter Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for producing serious debates, for allowing for a change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural, as it can potentially allow a president who has disappointed the public with a dismal performance in the second year of his term to continue on until the end of his four-year term. Under a parliamentary system, a prime minister that has lost support in the middle of his term can be easily replaced by his own peers.

Although Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused. Under some systems, such as the British, a ruling party can schedule elections when it believes that it is likely to retain power, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity. (from 2011, election timing in the UK was partially fixed under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.) Thus, by a shrewd timing of elections, in a parliamentary system, a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date. Conversely, flexibility in the timing of parliamentary elections can avoid periods of legislative gridlock that can occur in a fixed period presidential system. In any case, voters ultimately have the power to choose whether to vote for the ruling party or someone else.

Disadvantages and criticisms

Incomplete separation of power

According to Arturo Fontaine parliamentary systems in Europe have yielded very powerful heads of government which is rather what is often criticized about presidential systems. Fontaine compares United Kingdom's Margaret Thatcher to the United States' Ronald Reagan noting the former head of government was much more powerful despite governing under a parliamentary system. [28] The rise to power of Viktor Orbán in Hungary has been claimed to shows how the parliamentary systems can be subverted. [28] The situation in Hungary was according to Fontaine allowed by the deficient separation of powers that characterises parliamentary and semi-presidential systems. [28] Once Orbán's party got 70% of the vote in a single election there was no institution that was able to balance the concentration of power. [28] In a presidential system it would require two or three separate elections to create the same effect; the presidential election, the lower chamber election and the senate election. Fontaine also notes as a warning example of the flaws of parliamentary systems that if the United States would have had a parliamentary system Donald Trump could, as head of government, have dissolved the United States Congress. [28]

Legislative flip-flopping

The ability for strong parliamentary governments to push legislation through with the ease of fused power systems such as in the United Kingdom, whilst positive in allowing rapid adaptation when necessary e.g. the nationalisation of services during the world wars, in the opinion of some commentators does have its drawbacks. The flip-flopping of legislation back and forth as the majority in parliament changed between the Conservatives and Labour over the period 1940–1980, contesting over the nationalisation and privatisation of the British Steel Industry resulted in major instability for the British steel sector. [24]

Political fragmentation

In R. Kent Weaver's book Are Parliamentary Systems Better?, he writes that an advantage of presidential systems is their ability to allow and accommodate more diverse viewpoints. He states that because "legislators are not compelled to vote against their constituents on matters of local concern, parties can serve as organizational and roll-call cuing vehicles without forcing out dissidents." [24]

Democratic Unaccountability

All current parliamentary democracies see the indirect election or appointment of their head of government. As a result, the electorate has limited power to remove or install the person or party wielding the most power. Although strategic voting may enable the party of the prime minister to be removed or empowered, this can be at the expense of voters first preferences in the many parliamentary systems utilising first past the post, or having no effect in dislodging those parties who consistently form part of a coalition government, as with the current Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte and his party the VVD's 4 terms in office, despite his peak support reaching only 26.6% in 2012 - earning the epithet 'Teflon Rutte' for his ability to survive elections. [29]

Countries

Africa

CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Botswana.svg Botswana Parliament of Botswana elects the President who appoints the Cabinet
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia Federal Parliamentary Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers
Flag of Lesotho.svg Lesotho National Assembly of Lesotho determines the Prime Minister of Lesotho
Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius National Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Mauritius
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia Federal Parliament of Somalia elects the President who appoints the Prime Minister
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa Parliament of South Africa elects the President who appoints the Cabinet

Americas

Parliament of Canada Centre Block - Parliament Hill.jpg
Parliament of Canada
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua and BarbudaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is appointed Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda by the Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, who then appoints the Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of the Bahamas.svg The BahamasLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of the Bahamas is appointed Prime Minister of the Bahamas by the Governor-General of the Bahamas, who then appoints the Cabinet of the Bahamas on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Barbados.svg BarbadosLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Barbados is appointed Prime Minister of Barbados by the President of Barbados, who then appoints the Cabinet of Barbados on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Belize.svg BelizeLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Belize is appointed Prime Minister of Belize by the Governor-General of Belize, who then appoints the Cabinet of Belize on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg CanadaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Commons of Canada is appointed Prime Minister of Canada by the Governor General of Canada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Dominica.svg Dominica Parliament approves the Cabinet of Dominica
Flag of Grenada.svg GrenadaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Grenada is appointed Prime Minister of Grenada by the Governor-General of Grenada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Grenada on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Jamaica.svg JamaicaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Jamaica is appointed Prime Minister of Jamaica by the Governor-General of Jamaica, who then appoints the Cabinet of Jamaica on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Saint Kitts and NevisLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevis is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis by the Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Kitts and Nevis on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Saint LuciaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Lucia is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Lucia by the Governor-General of Saint Lucia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Lucia on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines by the Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname National Assembly elects the President, who appoints the Cabinet of Suriname
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and TobagoLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Trinidad and Tobago is appointed Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago by the President of Trinidad and Tobago, who then appoints the Cabinet of Trinidad and Tobago on the advice of the Prime Minister

Asia

Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban, parliament building of Bangladesh National Assembly of Bangladesh (06).jpg
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban, parliament building of Bangladesh
Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India Sansad Bhavan-2.jpg
Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India
Council of Representatives of Iraq Baghdad Convention Center.jpg
Council of Representatives of Iraq
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem Knesset Building (South Side).JPG
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem
Parliament of Malaysia MalaysianParliament.jpg
Parliament of Malaysia
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh Jatiya Sangsad approves the Cabinet of Bangladesh
Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan Parliament of Bhutan approves the Lhengye Zhungtshog
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia Parliament of Cambodia approves the Council of Ministers
Flag of the Republic of China.svg China (Republic of)
  • 1947 Constitution: The Legislative Yuan approves the Executive Yuan in which the premier is nominated and appointed by the president, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan.
  • 2005 Amendments: The Legislative Yuan approves the Executive Yuan in which the premier is appointed by the president. The Legislative Yuan may vote for motion of no confidence.
Flag of India.svg India President of India appoints the leader of the political party or alliance that has the support of a majority in the House of the People as Prime Minister of India, who then forms the Union Council of Ministers
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq Council of Representatives approves the Cabinet of Iraq
Flag of Israel.svg IsraelA member of the Knesset that has the best chance of forming a coalition is given a mandate to do so by the President of Israel. On success, they are appointed as the Prime Minister of Israel. The Prime Minister then appoints the Cabinet of Israel.
Flag of Japan.svg Japan National Diet nominates the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Japan
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait National Assembly approves the Crown Prince who appoints the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Kuwait
Flag of Laos.svg Laos National Assembly elects the President who nominates the Prime Minister
Flag of Lebanon.svg LebanonMaronite Christian president is elected by the Parliament of Lebanon. He appoints the Prime Minister (a Sunni Muslim) and the cabinet. The Parliament thereafter approves the Cabinet of Lebanon through a vote of confidence (a simple majority).
Flag of Malaysia.svg MalaysiaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Dewan Rakyat is appointed Prime Minister of Malaysia by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, who then appoints the Cabinet of Malaysia on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar Assembly of the Union, by an electoral college, elects the President who forms the Cabinet of Myanmar
Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal Parliament of Nepal elects the Prime Minister who, by turn, appoints the Cabinet of Nepal
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Parliament of Pakistan appoints the Cabinet of Pakistan
Flag of Singapore.svg SingaporeLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Parliament of Singapore is appointed Prime Minister of Singapore by the President of Singapore, who then appoints the Cabinet of Singapore on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Flag of Thailand.svg ThailandThe Monarch appoints the MP or individual nominated by in the House of Representatives (usually the leader of the largest party or coalition) as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet of Thailand.
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam National Assembly elects the President and Prime Minister who forms the Cabinet.

Europe

National Assembly of Armenia National Assembly of Armenia.jpg
National Assembly of Armenia
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament Zyrat te parlamentit.jpg
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament Congreso de los Diputados (Espana) 14.jpg
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Albania.svg Albania Parliament of Albania approves the Cabinet of Albania
Flag of Andorra.svg Andorra
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia National Assembly appoints and (no sooner than one year) can dismiss through the constructive vote of no confidence the Government of Armenia
Flag of Austria.svg AustriaIn theory, chancellor and ministers are appointed by the President. As a practical matter, they are unable to govern without the support (or at least toleration) of a majority in the National Council. The cabinet is politically answerable to the National Council and can be dismissed by the National Council through a motion of no confidence.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Federal Parliament approves the Cabinet of Belgium
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria National Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria
Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia Croatian Parliament approves President of Government and the Cabinet nominated by him/her.
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic President of the Czech Republic appoints usually the leader of the largest party or coalition in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet. The Prime Minister must gain a vote of confidence by the Chamber of Deputies.
Flag of Denmark.svg DenmarkThe Monarch appoints, based on recommendations from the leaders of the parties in Folketinget, the cabinet leader who is most likely to successfully assemble a Cabinet which will not be disapproved by a majority in Folketinget.
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia Riigikogu elects the Prime Minister candidate nominated by the President of the Republic (normally this candidate is the leader of the parliamentary coalition of parties). The Government of the Republic of Estonia is later appointed by the President of the Republic under proposal of the approved Prime Minister candidate. The Riigikogu may remove the Prime Minister and any other member of the government through a motion of no confidence.
Flag of Finland.svg Finland Parliament of Finland appoints the Cabinet of Finland
Flag of Georgia.svg GeorgiaThe prime minister is nominated by a political party that has secured the best results in the parliamentary election. The nominee must win the confidence vote of the Parliament and then be appointed by the President of Georgia.
Flag of Germany.svg Germany Bundestag elects the Federal Chancellor (after nomination from the President of Germany), who forms the Cabinet
Flag of Greece.svg Greece Hellenic Parliament approves the Cabinet of Greece
Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary National Assembly approves the Cabinet of Hungary
Flag of Iceland.svg IcelandThe President of Iceland appoints and discharges the Cabinet of Iceland. Ministers can not even resign without being discharged by presidential decree.
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland Dáil Éireann nominates the Taoiseach, who is then appointed by the President of Ireland
Flag of Italy.svg Italy Italian Parliament grants and revokes its confidence in the Cabinet of Italy, appointed by the President of Italy
Flag of Kosovo.svg Kosovo Assembly of Kosovo appoints the Government of Kosovo
Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia Saeima appoints the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies appoints the Cabinet of Luxembourg
Flag of Malta.svg Malta House of Representatives appoints the Cabinet of Malta
Flag of Moldova.svg Moldova Parliament of Moldova appoints the Cabinet of Moldova
Flag of Montenegro.svg Montenegro Parliament of Montenegro appoints the Government of Montenegro
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Second Chamber of the States-General can dismiss the Cabinet of the Netherlands through a motion of no confidence
Flag of North Macedonia.svg North Macedonia Assembly approves the Government of North Macedonia
Flag of Norway.svg NorwayThe Monarch appoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in Stortinget as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet
Flag of Poland.svg PolandThe President of Poland and the governing party in the Sejm are elected by popular vote. The President appoints the Prime Minister from the largest party or coalition as the head of government. However, the Polish system is often regarded as de facto semi-presidential – the President of Poland has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament and can dissolve the parliament under certain conditions. [30] [31] [32] The Constitution of Poland defines the country's system as de jure parliamentary republic.
Flag of Portugal.svg PortugalAfter the elections for the Assembly of the Republic or the resignation of the previous government, the president listens to the parties in the Assembly of the Republic and invites someone to form a government, usually the leader of the biggest party. Then the president swears in the prime minister and the Government.
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino
Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia National Assembly appoints the Government of Serbia
Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia National Council approves the Government of Slovakia
Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia National Assembly appoints the Government of Slovenia
Flag of Spain.svg Spain The Congress of Deputies elects the President of the Government, who forms the Cabinet
Flag of Sweden.svg SwedenThe Riksdag elects the Prime Minister, who in turn appoints the other members of the Government
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg SwitzerlandA United Federal Assembly elects the members of the Swiss Federal Council
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomThe Leader, almost invariably a Member of Parliament (MP) and of the political party which commands or is likely to command the confidence of a majority of the House of Commons, is appointed Prime Minister by the British sovereign, who then appoints members of the Cabinet on the nomination and advice of the Prime Minister.

Oceania

Parliament of Australia Parliament House Canberra Dusk Panorama.jpg
Parliament of Australia
Parliament of New Zealand Parlamento da Nova Zelandia.jpg
Parliament of New Zealand
CountryConnection between the legislature and the executive
Flag of Australia (converted).svg AustraliaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Australian House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of Australia by the Governor-General of Australia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Australia on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of New Zealand.svg New ZealandLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the New Zealand House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of New Zealand by the Governor-General of New Zealand, who then appoints the Cabinet of New Zealand on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New GuineaLeader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Parliament is appointed Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, who then appoints the Cabinet of Papua New Guinea on the advice of the Prime Minister
Flag of Samoa.svg Samoa Legislative Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Samoa
Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu Parliament of Vanuatu appoints the Cabinet of Vanuatu

See also

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Singapore</span> Political system of Singapore

Singapore is a parliamentary representative democratic republic whereby the president of Singapore is the head of state, the prime minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet from the parliament, and to a lesser extent, the president. Cabinet has the general direction and control of the government and is accountable to Parliament. There are three separate branches of government: the legislature, executive and judiciary abiding by the Westminster system. Singapore has been described as being a de facto one-party state.

Sri Lanka is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and it relies on a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament. For decades, the party system was dominated by the socialist Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the conservative United National Party. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Sri Lanka's politics reflect the historical and political differences between the three main ethnic groups, the Sinhala majority and the Tamil and Muslim minorities, the latter two being concentrated in the north and east of the island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of the United Kingdom</span> Political system of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The United Kingdom is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Charles III, King of the United Kingdom, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Rishi Sunak, is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the British government, on behalf of and by the consent of the monarch, and the devolved governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the House of Commons and the House of Lords, as well as in the Scottish, Northern Irish and Welsh parliaments. The British political system is a two party system. Since the 1920s, the two dominant parties have been the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. Before the Labour Party rose in British politics, the Liberal Party was the other major political party, along with the Conservatives. While coalition and minority governments have been an occasional feature of parliamentary politics, the first-past-the-post electoral system used for general elections tends to maintain the dominance of these two parties, though each has in the past century relied upon a third party, such as the Liberal Democrats, to deliver a working majority in Parliament. A Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government held office from 2010 until 2015, the first coalition since 1945. The coalition ended following parliamentary elections on 7 May 2015, in which the Conservative Party won an outright majority of seats, 330 of the 650 seats in the House of Commons, while their coalition partners lost all but eight seats.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Westminster system</span> Parliamentary system of government

The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature. This concept was first developed in England.

Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, where the President of Albania is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Albania the head of government in a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised by the Government and the Prime Minister with its Cabinet. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Albania. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system of Albania is laid out in the 1998 constitution. The Parliament adopted the current constitution on 28 November 1998. Historically Albania has had many constitutions. Initially constituted as a monarchy in 1913, Albania became briefly a republic in 1925, and then a democratic monarchy in 1928. In 1939 Albania was invaded by Fascist Italian forces, imposing a puppet state, and later occupied by Nazi German forces. Following the partisan liberation from the Nazis in 1944 a provisional government was formed, which by 1946 had transformed into a Communist one party state. In March 1991 democracy was restored with multi-party elections.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Barbados</span>

The politics of Barbados function within a framework of a parliamentary republic with strong democratic traditions; constitutional safeguards for nationals of Barbados include: freedom of speech, press, worship, movement, and association.

A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. Although often the executive branch of government, and often personified by a single elected person who holds the office of "president", in practice, the presidency includes a much larger collective of people, such as chiefs of staff, advisers and other bureaucrats. Although often led by a single person, presidencies can also be of a collective nature, such as the presidency of the European Union is held on a rotating basis by the various national governments of the member states. Alternatively, the term presidency can also be applied to the governing authority of some churches, and may even refer to the holder of a non-governmental office of president in a corporation, business, charity, university, etc. or the institutional arrangement around them. For example, "the presidency of the Red Cross refused to support his idea." Rules and support to discourage vicarious liability leading to unnecessary pressure and the early termination of term have not been clarified. These may not be as yet supported by state let initiatives. Contributory liability and fraud may be the two most common ways to become removed from term of office and/or to prevent re-election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Presidential system</span> Form of government

A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state. In a presidential system, the head of government is directly or indirectly elected by the people and is not responsible to the legislature, and the legislature cannot dismiss the president except in extraordinary cases. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government comes to power by gaining the confidence of an elected legislature.

An indirect election or hierarchical voting is an election in which voters do not choose directly among candidates or parties for an office, but elect people who in turn choose candidates or parties. It is one of the oldest forms of elections and is used by many countries for heads of state, cabinets, heads of government, and/or upper houses. It is also used for some supranational legislatures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Australian Government</span> Federal government of Australia

The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Like other Westminster-style systems of government, the Australian Government is made up of three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Serbia</span>

The Politics of Serbia are defined by a unitary parliamentary framework that is defined by the Constitution of Serbia in which the president, currently Aleksandar Vučić, is the head of state while the prime minister, currently Ana Brnabić, is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the Serbian government and the President of Serbia. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral National Assembly which is composed of 250 proportionally elected deputies. The judiciary is independent and is headed by the Supreme Court of Cassation, which is also the highest court in Serbia.

Fusion of powers is a feature of some parliamentary forms of government where different branches of government are intermingled, typically the executive and legislative branches. It is contrasted with the separation of powers found in presidential, semi-presidential and dualistic parliamentary forms of government, where the membership of the legislative and executive powers cannot overlap. Fusion of powers exists in many, if not a majority of, parliamentary democracies, and does so by design. However, in all modern democratic polities the judiciary does not possess legislative or executive powers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cabinet (government)</span> Group of high ranking officials, usually representing the executive branch of government

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the executive branch's top leaders. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a cabinet varies: in some countries, it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision-making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Separation of powers in Singapore</span>

The Separation of powers in Singapore is governed by Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, which splits the power to govern the country between three branches of government – the parliament, which makes laws; the executive, which executes them; and the judiciary, which enforces them. Each branch, while wielding legitimate power and being protected from external influences, is subject to a system of checks and balances by the other branches to prevent abuse of power. This Westminster constitutional model was inherited from the British during Singapore's colonial years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Somalia</span>

The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia is the supreme law of Somalia. It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Federal Republic and source of legal authority. It sets out the rights and duties of its citizens, and defines the structure of government. The Provisional Constitution was adopted on August 1, 2012 by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu, Banaadir.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Semi-parliamentary system</span> System where voters vote simultaneously for both prime minister and members of legislature

Semi-parliamentary system can refer to either a prime-ministerial system, in which voters simultaneously vote for both members of legislature and the prime minister, or to a system of government in which the legislature is split into two parts that are both directly elected – one that has the power to remove the members of the executive by a vote of no confidence and another that does not. The former was first proposed by Maurice Duverger, who used it to refer to Israel from 1996-2001. The second was identified by German academic Steffen Ganghof.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">President of Barbados</span> Head of state of Barbados

The president of Barbados is the head of state of Barbados and the commander-in-chief of the Barbados Defence Force. The office was established when the country became a parliamentary republic on 30 November 2021. Before, the head of state was Elizabeth II, Queen of Barbados, who was represented on the island by a governor-general. The first and current president is Sandra Mason, who previously served as the last governor-general.

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