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|Systems of government|
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld).Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law.
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other government and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.[ clarification needed ]
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of a state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial/non-executive, figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms.
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In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister). [ clarification needed ]
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
An executive president is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government. Executive presidents are active in day-to-day governance of a nation, and are usually popularly elected.
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, South Africa and Suriname), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, they maintain a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998. It is currently Africa's oldest continuous democracy.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands, are an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets.
Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (190 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest state on the list of countries and dependencies by area behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest state in the South Pacific Ocean, the smallest island state, and the smallest republic. Its population is 11,347, making it the third smallest on the list of countries and dependencies by population, after the Vatican and Tuvalu.
In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.
Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Japan and Sweden where the monarch retains no formal authorities.
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
Napoleon III was the first elected President of France from 1848 to 1852. When he could not constitutionally be re-elected, he seized power in 1851 and became the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the war for Italian unification. After his defeat and downfall he went into exile and died in England in 1873.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire and later the Third French Republic, and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. Lasting from 19 July 1870 to 28 January 1871, the conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded. Some historians argue that the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck deliberately provoked the French into declaring war on Prussia in order to draw the independent southern German states—Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt—into an alliance with the North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, while others contend that Bismarck did not plan anything and merely exploited the circumstances as they unfolded. None, however, dispute the fact that Bismarck must have recognized the potential for new German alliances, given the situation as a whole.
The French Third Republic was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a Presidential one.[ original research? ]
Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in with South Africa (which left the Commonwealth soon after becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.
|Country||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Parliamentary republic adopted||Previous government form|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Parliament, by absolute majority||Unicameral||2018||Semi-presidential republic|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Bicameral||1945||One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss )|
|Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post vote||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2000||Semi-presidential republic|
|Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)||Bicameral||1993||Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1978||Associated state of the United Kingdom|
|Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Soviet Union)|
|Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Bicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2014||Military dictatorship|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2000||Semi-presidential republic|
|Electoral college (parliament and region delegates), by absolute majority||Unicameral||2018||Semi-presidential republic|
|Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority||Bicameral||1949||One-party state|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1975||Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy|
|Parliament, by absolute majority||Unicameral||1990||One-party state|
|Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1944||Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark)|
|Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1950||Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)|
|Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral||2005||One-party state|
|Direct election, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1949|| To 1936: Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2001||Semi-parliamentary republic|
|Parliament and region delegates, by absolute majority||Bicameral||1946||Constitutional monarchy|
|Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot,|
if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots
|Unicameral||2008||UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2010||Presidential republic|
|Parliament||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Soviet Union)|
|Parliament||Unicameral||1941||Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1974||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm )|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1992||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm )|
|Direct election, by second-round system|
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
|Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1992||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)|
|Parliament and state legislators||Bicameral||2015||Constitutional monarchy|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||2010||Semi-presidential republic|
|Parliament||Unicameral||1960||Trust Territory of New Zealand|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)|
|Direct election (since 1993)||Unicameral||1965||State of Malaysia|
|Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament)||Unicameral||1993||Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|Direct election, by second-round system||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Parliament||Bicameral||1976||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm )|
|Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority||Unicameral||1980||British–French condominium (New Hebrides)|
|Parliamentary republics with a "mixed-republican" system|
|Country||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Parliamentary republic adopted||Previous government form|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1966||British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)|
|Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1979||Protectorate|
|Parliament||Bicameral||1979||UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1986||UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|Parliament, by an electoral college||Bicameral||2010||Military dictatorship|
|Parliament||Unicameral||1968||Australian Trust Territory|
|Parliament||Unicameral||301||Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire)|
|Parliament, by majority||Bicameral||1961||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm )|
|Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1987||Military dictatorship|
|Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority||Bicameral||1848||Confederation|
|Country||Year became a parliamentary republic||Year status changed||Changed to||Status changed due to|
|1920||1939||One-party state||Munich agreement|
|1945||1948||One-party state||Coup d'état|
|1989||1992||Parliamentary Republics||Velvet Divorce|
|1920||1929||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|1948||1962||Military dictatorship||1962 Burmese coup d'état|
|1870||1940||Presidential system||World War II German Occupation|
|1946||1958||Semi-presidential system||Political instability|
|1970||1980||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|1946||1949||One-party state||Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary|
|1945||1959||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|1948||1996||Semi-parliamentary system||Constitutional amendment|
|1960||1961||Presidential system||May 16 coup|
|1920||1926||One-party state||1926 Lithuanian coup d'état|
|1963||1966|| Military dictatorship |
(which led in 1979
to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
|1956||1958||Military dictatorship||1958 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1973||1978||1977 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1988||1999||1999 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1919||1939||One-party state||Invasion of Poland|
|1911||1926|| Military dictatorship |
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
|May 28 coup|
|1899||1901|| Military dictatorship |
(De facto United States Colony)
|Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces|
|1960||1965|| Military dictatorship |
(De facto One-party state)
|1965 Congolese coup d'état|
|1970||1979||Parliamentary system||Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia|
|1931||1939||Fascist dictatorship||Loss of Spanish Civil War|
|1972||1978||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|1930||1958||One-party state||Creation of the United Arab Republic|
|1961||1963||One-party state||1963 Syrian coup d'état|
|1963||1966||One-party state||Suspension of the constitution|
|1979||1979||Parliamentary system||Reversion to Southern Rhodesia|
|1980||1987||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
The politics of Armenia take place in the framework of the parliamentary representative democratic republic of Armenia, whereby the President of Armenia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Armenia the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and Parliament.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the British Parliament. The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature. It is used, or was once used, in the national legislatures and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government, beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system or a hybrid system as their form of government.
A head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. Although often the executive branch of government, and often personified by a single elected person who holds the office of "president," in practice, the presidency includes a much larger collective of people, such as chiefs of staff, advisers and other bureaucrats. Although often led by a single person, presidencies can also be of a collective nature, such as the presidency of the European Union is held on a rotating basis by the various national governments of the member states. Alternatively, the term presidency can also be applied to the governing authority of some churches, and may even refer to the holder of a non-governmental office of president in a corporation, business, charity, university, etc. or the institutional arrangement around them. For example, "the presidency of the Red Cross refused to support his idea." Rules and support to discourage vicarious liability leading to unnecessary pressure and the early termination of term have not been clarified. These may not be as yet supported by state let initiatives. Contributory liability and fraud may be the two most common ways to become removed from term of office and/or to prevent re-election
The President of Georgia is the constitutional Head of State of Georgia as well as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Defense Forces. They represent Georgia in foreign relations. The constitution defines the presidential office as "the guarantor of the country’s unity and national independence."
The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania. It was approved in a referendum on 25 October 1992.
The President of the Republic of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.
The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide Armenian referendum on July 5, 1995. This constitution established Armenia as a democratic, sovereign, social, and constitutional state. Yerevan is defined as the state's capital. Power is vested in its citizens, who exercise it directly through the election of government representatives. Decisions related to changes in constitutional status or to an alteration of borders are subject to a vote of the citizens of Armenia exercised in a referendum. There are 117 articles in the 1995 constitution. On November 27, 2005, a nationwide constitutional referendum was held and an amended constitution was adopted. The constitution was amended again in a national referendum on December 6, 2015 that changed the political structure from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary republic.
The Government of Georgia is the supreme body of executive power in Georgia that implements the domestic and foreign policies of the country. It consists of Prime Minister—the head of the government—and ministers and is accountable and responsible to the Parliament of Georgia. The current powers and responsibilities of the Government are governed by the amendments of the Constitution of Georgia passed in 2017 and 2018. From 14 May 1991 to 9 November 1996, the executive government of Georgia was referred to as the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia.
The Republic of Niger has had seven constitutions, two substantial constitutional revisions, and two periods of rule by decree since its independence from French colonial rule in 1960. The current "Seventh Republic" operates under the Constitution of 2010.
The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia is the supreme law of Somalia. It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Federal Republic and source of legal authority. It sets out the rights and duties of its citizens, and defines the structure of government. The Provisional Constitution was adopted on August 1, 2012 by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu, Banaadir.
A unitary parliamentary republic refers to a unitary state with a republican form of government that is dependent upon the confidence of parliament.
A semi-parliamentary system is a classification of systems of government proposed by Maurice Duverger, in which citizens directly elect at the same time the legislature and the prime minister, possibly with an electoral law ensuring the existence of a parliamentary majority for the prime minister-elect. As in a parliamentary system, the prime minister is responsible to the legislature and can be dismissed by it: this however effectively causes a snap election for both the prime minister and the legislature.