Parliamentary republic

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Forms of government.svg
Systems of government
Republican forms of government:
   Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature
   Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature
   Semi-presidential republics with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the legislature, who is appointed by the president
   Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial/non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive

Monarchical forms of government:
   Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial/non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
   Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial monarch, but where royalty still hold significant executive and/or legislative power
   Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive

   One-party states where the dominant role of a political party is codified in the constitution
  Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorship)
  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. transitional government or unclear political situations)
Map of different parliamentary systems
Parliamentary republics where parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.
Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature.
Constitutional monarchies in which authority is vested in a parliament. Forms of government parliamentary.svg
Map of different parliamentary systems
  Parliamentary republics where parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.
  Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature.
   Constitutional monarchies in which authority is vested in a parliament.

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld). [1] [2] Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.

A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.

Parliamentary system form of government

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law.

Contents

For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other government and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.[ clarification needed ]

Semi-presidential system system of government

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of a state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial/non-executive, figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states.

Prime minister most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system

A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms.

Powers

In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister). [1] [2] [ clarification needed ]

Presidential system form of government

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

An executive president is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government. Executive presidents are active in day-to-day governance of a nation, and are usually popularly elected.

However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, South Africa and Suriname), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.

Botswana republic in southern Africa

Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, they maintain a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998. It is currently Africa's oldest continuous democracy.

Marshall Islands country in Oceania

The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands, are an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets.

Nauru Republic in Oceania

Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (190 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest state on the list of countries and dependencies by area behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest state in the South Pacific Ocean, the smallest island state, and the smallest republic. Its population is 11,347, making it the third smallest on the list of countries and dependencies by population, after the Vatican and Tuvalu.

In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.

Historical development

Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch. [3]

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Japan and Sweden where the monarch retains no formal authorities.

Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.

Napoleon III French emperor, president, and member of the House of Bonaparte

Napoleon III was the first elected President of France from 1848 to 1852. When he could not constitutionally be re-elected, he seized power in 1851 and became the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the war for Italian unification. After his defeat and downfall he went into exile and died in England in 1873.

Franco-Prussian War significant conflict pitting the Second French Empire against the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire and later the Third French Republic, and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. Lasting from 19 July 1870 to 28 January 1871, the conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded. Some historians argue that the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck deliberately provoked the French into declaring war on Prussia in order to draw the independent southern German states—Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt—into an alliance with the North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, while others contend that Bismarck did not plan anything and merely exploited the circumstances as they unfolded. None, however, dispute the fact that Bismarck must have recognized the potential for new German alliances, given the situation as a whole.

French Third Republic nation of France from 1870 to 1940

The French Third Republic was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a Presidential one.[ original research? ]

British Commonwealth of Nations

Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in with South Africa (which left the Commonwealth soon after becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.

List of modern parliamentary republics

Parliamentary republics
CountryHead of state elected byCameral structureParliamentary republic adoptedPrevious government form
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1991 One-party state
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Parliament, by absolute majorityUnicameral2018 [note 1] Semi-presidential republic
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Direct election, by second-round systemBicameral1945One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss )
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh ParliamentUnicameral1991 [note 2] Presidential republic
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post voteBicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral1991One-party state
Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral2000 Semi-presidential republic
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)Bicameral1993Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1978 Associated state of the United Kingdom
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Parliament, by two-thirds majorityUnicameral1991 [note 3] One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia Parliament, by two-thirds majorityBicameral1991One-party state
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji Parliament, by majorityUnicameral2014Military dictatorship
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral2000 [note 4] Semi-presidential republic
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Electoral college (parliament and region delegates), by absolute majorityUnicameral2018 [note 5] Semi-presidential republic
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majorityBicameral1949 [note 6] One-party state
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1975Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Parliament, by absolute majorityUnicameral1990One-party state
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Direct election, by first-past-the-post voteUnicameral1944Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark)
Flag of India.svg  India Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff voteBicameral1950Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Parliament, by two-thirds majorityUnicameral [note 7] 2005One-party state
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Direct election, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral1949 [note 8] To 1936: Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
1936–1949: ambiguous
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Parliament, by majorityUnicameral2001 Semi-parliamentary republic
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Parliament and region delegates, by absolute majorityBicameral1946Constitutional monarchy
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot,
if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots
Unicameral2008 UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral2010Presidential republic
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia ParliamentUnicameral1991 [note 9] One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon ParliamentUnicameral1941Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1974Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm [4] ) [5]
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1992Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm [6] [7] [8] ) [5]
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Direct election, by second-round system
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
Unicameral2001Semi-presidential republic
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral1992One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Parliament and state legislatorsBicameral [9] 2015 [note 10] Constitutional monarchy
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff voteBicameral2010 [10] [11] Semi-presidential republic
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa ParliamentUnicameral1960Trust Territory of New Zealand
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Direct election (since 1993)Unicameral1965 State of Malaysia
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament)Unicameral1993Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Direct election, by second-round systemBicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia ParliamentBicameral2012 [note 11] One-party state
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago ParliamentBicameral1976Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm [12] ) [5]
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu Parliament and regional council presidents, by majorityUnicameral1980British–French condominium (New Hebrides)
Parliamentary republics with a "mixed-republican" system
CountryHead of state elected byCameral structureParliamentary republic adoptedPrevious government form
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1966British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati Direct election, by first-past-the-post voteUnicameral1979Protectorate
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands ParliamentBicameral1979UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1986UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Parliament, by an electoral collegeBicameral2010Military dictatorship
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru ParliamentUnicameral1968Australian Trust Territory
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino ParliamentUnicameral301 Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire)
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Parliament, by majorityBicameral1961Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm [13] [14] [15] ) [5]
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1987Military dictatorship
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majorityBicameral1848Confederation

List of former parliamentary republics

CountryYear became a parliamentary republicYear status changedChanged toStatus changed due to
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg First Czechoslovak Republic 19201939 One-party state Munich agreement
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Third Czechoslovak Republic 19451948 One-party state Coup d'état
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Fifth Czechoslovak Republic 19891992Parliamentary Republics Velvet Divorce
Flag of Austria.svg First Austrian Republic 19201929 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 19611963 Presidential system Referendum
Flag of Burma (1948–1974).svg  Burma (present-day Myanmar)19481962 Military dictatorship 1962 Burmese coup d'état
Flag of France.svg French Third Republic 18701940 Presidential system World War II German Occupation
Flag of France.svg French Fourth Republic 19461958 Semi-presidential system Political instability
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 19701980 Presidential system Constitutional amendment
Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957; 1-2 aspect ratio).svg Hungary 19461949 One-party state Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 19451959 Presidential system Constitutional amendment
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 19481996 Semi-parliamentary system Constitutional amendment
Flag of South Korea.svg Second Republic of South Korea 19601961 Presidential system May 16 coup
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuanian First Republic 19201926 One-party state 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état [note 12]
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 19631966 Military dictatorship
(which led in 1979
to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
Coup d'état
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 19561958 Military dictatorship 1958 Pakistani coup d'état
19731978 1977 Pakistani coup d'état
19881999 1999 Pakistani coup d'état
Flag of Poland.svg Second Polish Republic 19191939 One-party state Invasion of Poland
Flag of Portugal.svg First Portuguese Republic 1911 1926 Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
May 28 coup
Flag of the Philippines.svg First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)18991901 Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces
Flag of Congo-Léopoldville (1960-1963).svg Republic of the Congo 19601965 Military dictatorship
(De facto One-party state)
1965 Congolese coup d'état
Flag of Russia (1991–1993).svg  Russia 1991 [note 13] 1993 Semi-presidential system Referendum [note 14]
Flag of Rhodesia (1968–1979).svg  Rhodesia 1970 1979 Parliamentary system Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
Flag of Spain 1931 1939.svg  Spanish Republic 1931 1939 Fascist dictatorship Loss of Spanish Civil War
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 19721978 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment
Flag of Syria (1932-1958; 1961-1963).svg Syrian Republic 19301958 One-party state Creation of the United Arab Republic
Flag of Syria (1932-1958; 1961-1963).svg Syrian Arab Republic 19611963 One-party state 1963 Syrian coup d'état
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1923 2018 Presidential system Referendum
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 19631966 One-party state Suspension of the constitution
Flag of Zimbabwe Rhodesia.svg  Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979 1979 Parliamentary system Reversion to Southern Rhodesia
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 19801987 Presidential system Constitutional amendment

See also

Notes

  1. Changed after the 2015 referendum.
  2. Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.
  3. Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  4. Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN   9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies . Wiley. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048. as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further.
  5. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/29/world/europe/georgia-president-salome-zurabishvili.html Georgia is transitioning to a parliamentary republic
  6. In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin, the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany. Please note that German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic of Germany as a whole, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.
  7. Officially bicameral, upper house never entered into functions, to present day.
  8. The head of state was ambiguous from 1936 until the Republic of Ireland Act came into force on 18 April 1949. A minority of Irish republicans assert that the Irish Republic proclaimed in 1919 is still extant.
  9. Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  10. Had a transitional government between 2008 and 2015.
  11. Had a transitional government between 1991 and 2012.
  12. In June 1940, Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  13. Post of President of Russia is created, and development of separation of powers is started, some of Supreme Soviet's executive powers is transferred to new post. Before that, Russia was a Soviet republic.
  14. Preceded by crisis and armed dissolving of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, then-parliament of the Russian Federation.

Related Research Articles

Politics of Armenia

The politics of Armenia take place in the framework of the parliamentary representative democratic republic of Armenia, whereby the President of Armenia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Armenia the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and Parliament.

Westminster system democratic parliamentary system of government

The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the British Parliament. The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature. It is used, or was once used, in the national legislatures and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government, beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system or a hybrid system as their form of government.

A head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. Although often the executive branch of government, and often personified by a single elected person who holds the office of "president," in practice, the presidency includes a much larger collective of people, such as chiefs of staff, advisers and other bureaucrats. Although often led by a single person, presidencies can also be of a collective nature, such as the presidency of the European Union is held on a rotating basis by the various national governments of the member states. Alternatively, the term presidency can also be applied to the governing authority of some churches, and may even refer to the holder of a non-governmental office of president in a corporation, business, charity, university, etc. or the institutional arrangement around them. For example, "the presidency of the Red Cross refused to support his idea." Rules and support to discourage vicarious liability leading to unnecessary pressure and the early termination of term have not been clarified. These may not be as yet supported by state let initiatives. Contributory liability and fraud may be the two most common ways to become removed from term of office and/or to prevent re-election

President of Georgia position

The President of Georgia is the constitutional Head of State of Georgia as well as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Defense Forces. They represent Georgia in foreign relations. The constitution defines the presidential office as "the guarantor of the country’s unity and national independence."

Constitution of Lithuania

The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania. It was approved in a referendum on 25 October 1992.

President of Estonia position

The President of the Republic of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.

Constitution of Armenia constitution of Armenia

The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide Armenian referendum on July 5, 1995. This constitution established Armenia as a democratic, sovereign, social, and constitutional state. Yerevan is defined as the state's capital. Power is vested in its citizens, who exercise it directly through the election of government representatives. Decisions related to changes in constitutional status or to an alteration of borders are subject to a vote of the citizens of Armenia exercised in a referendum. There are 117 articles in the 1995 constitution. On November 27, 2005, a nationwide constitutional referendum was held and an amended constitution was adopted. The constitution was amended again in a national referendum on December 6, 2015 that changed the political structure from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary republic.

Government of Georgia (country)

The Government of Georgia is the supreme body of executive power in Georgia that implements the domestic and foreign policies of the country. It consists of Prime Minister—the head of the government—and ministers and is accountable and responsible to the Parliament of Georgia. The current powers and responsibilities of the Government are governed by the amendments of the Constitution of Georgia passed in 2017 and 2018. From 14 May 1991 to 9 November 1996, the executive government of Georgia was referred to as the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia.

Constitution of Niger

The Republic of Niger has had seven constitutions, two substantial constitutional revisions, and two periods of rule by decree since its independence from French colonial rule in 1960. The current "Seventh Republic" operates under the Constitution of 2010.

Constitution of Somalia

The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia is the supreme law of Somalia. It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Federal Republic and source of legal authority. It sets out the rights and duties of its citizens, and defines the structure of government. The Provisional Constitution was adopted on August 1, 2012 by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu, Banaadir.

A unitary parliamentary republic refers to a unitary state with a republican form of government that is dependent upon the confidence of parliament.

Semi-parliamentary system

A semi-parliamentary system is a classification of systems of government proposed by Maurice Duverger, in which citizens directly elect at the same time the legislature and the prime minister, possibly with an electoral law ensuring the existence of a parliamentary majority for the prime minister-elect. As in a parliamentary system, the prime minister is responsible to the legislature and can be dismissed by it: this however effectively causes a snap election for both the prime minister and the legislature.

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