Nepalese Civil War

Last updated
Nepali Civil War
Communist mural in Kathmandu. It reads: "Long Live Marxism-Leninism-Maoism and Prachanda Path."
Date13 February 1996 – 21 November 2006
(10 years, 9 months, 1 week and 1 day)

Comprehensive Peace Accord


Flag of Nepal.svg Kingdom of Nepal
(Government of Nepal)

Supported by:
Flag of the United States.svg United States [1]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom [2]

Flag of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).svg Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)

Supported by:

CPI-M-flag.svg Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Nepal.svg King of Nepal :
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (1972-2001)
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (2001-08)
Flag of Nepal.svg Prime Minister of Nepal :
Sher Bahadur Deuba (1995-1997; 2001-02; 2004-05)
Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1997-1997; 2002-03)
Surya Bahadur Thapa (1997-1998; 2003-04)
Girija Prasad Koirala (1998-1999; 2000-01; 2006-08)
Krishna Prasad Bhattarai (1999-2000)
Flag of Nepal.svg COAS of the Nepalese Army:
Dharmapaal Barsingh Thapa (1995-1999)
Prajwalla Shumsher JBR (1999-2003)
Pyar Jung Thapa (2003-2006)
Rookmangud Katawal (2006-2009)
Flag of Nepal.svg IGP of Nepal Police:
Moti Lal Bohora (1992-1996)
Achyut Krishna Kharel (1996–1996; 1996-1999)
Dhruba Bahadur Pradhan (1996–1996)
Pradip Shumsher J.B.R. (1999–2002)
Shyam Bhakta Thapa (2002-2006)
Om Bikram Rana (2006-2008)

Flag of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).svg Prachanda
(Pushpa Kamal Dahal)
Flag of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).svg Baburam Bhattarai Laldhwaj
Flag of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).svg Mohan Baidya (Kiran)


Flag of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).svg Nanda Kishor Pun
Casualties and losses
4,500 killed [3] 8,200 killed (mostly civilians) [3]
17,800 killed overall [4]
1,300 missing [5]

The Nepalese Civil War, known popularly as the Maoist Conflict (Nepali : माओवादी जनयुद्ध; IAST:māovādī janayuddha), Maoist Insurgency or Maoist Revolution, was a ten-year-long armed conflict between the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (CPN-M) and the government of Nepal, fought from 1996 to 2006. The insurgency period was popularly known as Maovadi Dwandakaal (Nepali : द्वन्दकाल) in Nepal. The rebellion was launched by the CPN-M on 13 February 1996 with the main aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a People's Republic. It ended with the Comprehensive Peace Accord signed on 21 November 2006. The conflict was characterized by lynchings, massacres, purges, captures and autonomous rule, spread of communist teachings, conflicts against the authority and crimes against humanity. The revolution resulted in deaths of over 17,000 people involving civilians, insurgents, army and police personnels, and internally displaced hundreds of thousands of people (mostly in rural Nepal). This revolution succeeded in overthrowing the 240 years old Hindu Shah monarchy of Gorkha and established secular republican regime which resulted in political, social and cultural change in Nepal popularly termed Krambhanga (Breach of Continuity).

Nepali language Indo-Aryan (Pahari) and official language of Nepal

Nepali, known by the endonym Khas Kura also known as Gorkhali or Parbatiya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of Nepal and one of the official status-gained languages of India. It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan. In India, Nepali is listed in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution as an Indian language, with official status in the state of Sikkim, and spoken in Northeast Indian states such as Assam and in West Bengal's Darjeeling district. It is also spoken in Burma and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, and shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.

Government of Nepal

The Government of Nepal ,is an executive body and the central government of Nepal. Prior to the abolition of the monarchy, it was officially known as His Majesty's Government

Kingdom of Nepal Sovereign monarchy in South Asia, lasting from 1768-2008

The Kingdom of Nepal, also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha or Gorkhali Empire or the self designated Asal Hindustan, was a Hindu kingdom on the Indian subcontinent, formed in 1768, by the unification of Nepal. Founded by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India, it existed for 240 years until the abolition of the Nepalese monarchy in 2008. During this period, Nepal was formally under the rule of the Shah dynasty, which exercised varying degrees of power during the kingdom's existence.


More than 17,000 people (including both civilians and armed forces) were killed during the conflict, including over 4,000 Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996-2005, and over 8,200 Nepalis killed by government forces from 1996-2005. [3] In addition, an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. Furthermore, this conflict disrupted most rural development activities.

Rural development improving quality of life in rural areas

Rural development is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in rural areas, often relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas.

On 10 January 1990, the United Left Front (ULF) was formed, [6] :331 which, together with the Nepali Congress, was the backbone of the broad-based movement for democratic change. However, communist groups, uncomfortable with the alliance between the ULF and the Congress Party, formed a parallel front, the United National People's Movement (UNPM). The UNPM called for elections to a constituent assembly, and rejected compromises made by ULF and the Congress Party with the royal house. In November 1990, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre), or CPN(UC), was formed, and included key elements of the UNPM. On 21 January 1991, the CPN(UC) set up the United People's Front of Nepal (UPFN), with Baburam Bhattarai as its head, as an open front to contest elections. [7] :332 The CPN(UC) held its first convention on 25 November 1991, [7] :332 adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution", [8] and decided that the party would remain an underground party. In the 1991 election, the UPFN became the third-largest party in the Nepali parliament. However, disagreements within the UPFN surged, regarding which tactics were to be used by the party. One group, led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal (alias Prachanda), argued for immediate armed revolution, while the other group, led by Nirmal Lama, claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle. [7] :332

United Left Front (Nepal, 1990)

United Left Front, an alliance of communist parties who opposed the authocratic regime in Nepal. ULF was formed in 1990. It conducted joint movement together with the Nepali Congress. The uprising, called Jana Andolan brought to an end of monarchic dictatorship and led the way for multiparty elections.

Nepali Congress political party in Nepal

The Nepali Congress is a social-democratic political party in Nepal. It is the largest opposition party in the House of Representatives and the National Assembly.

United National Peoples Movement

United National People's Movement was a coalition of Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal), Communist Party of Nepal (Masal), Nepal Marxist-Leninist Party, Proletarian Labour Organisation, Nepal Communist League and the Nand Kumar Prasai faction during the popular uprising of 1990. UNPM was created in opposition to the United Left Front, arguing that the ULF-Nepali Congress had sold out the protest movement in making compromises with the regime. UNPM called for a Constituent Assembly.

On 22 May 1994, the CPN(UC)/UPFN was split in two. The militant faction later renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), or CPN(M). This faction described the government forces, mainstream political parties, and the monarchy, as "feudal forces". The armed struggle began on 13 February 1996, when the CPN(M) carried out 7 simultaneous attacks over 6 districts. [7] :333 Initially, the Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency. The Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for which the police would sustain control. Controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. On 19 July 2001, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigned over his inability to tackle the Maoist insurgency, and over the refusal of the army to take part in the conflict. [7] :335 On 25 July 2001, the government of Sher Bahadur Deuba and the Maoist insurgents declared a ceasefire, and held peace talks from August–November of that year. [7] :335 The failure of these peace talks resulted in the return to armed conflict, beginning when the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal, on 22 November. [7] :335 Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents, mobilizing both tanks and artillery. The insurgency situation changed dramatically in 2002, as the number of attacks by both sides increased greatly, and more people died than in any other year of the war. [7] :309

Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre)

Communist Party of Nepal , was a communist party in Nepal. CPN(UC) was formed on November 19–20, 1990, through the merger of Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal), Communist Party of Nepal, Proletarian Workers Organisation and Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi). Soon thereafter a group led by Dr. Baburam Bhattarai and Shital Kumar, that had left Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) joined the party. Samyukta Janamorcha Nepal was set up as the open mass front of the party.

United Peoples Front of Nepal

The United People's Front of Nepal, was the front of the Communist Party of Nepal, or CPN(UC).

Nepal Police Government Agency and Armed Civilian Persons

The police of Nepal is responsible for maintaining law and order and prevention of crime according to the constitution of Nepal and is under the authority of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Sarbendra Khanal is the current IGP of Nepal Police.

The government responded to the insurgency by banning anti-monarchy statements, [9] imprisoning journalists, and shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary ceasefires, were held between the insurgents and the government. The government categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for elections to a constituent assembly, for fear that it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy. In November 2004, the government rejected both the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with King Gyanendra rather than via Prime Minister Deuba, and the Maoists' request for discussions to be mediated by a third party such as the United Nations.

A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitutional-type document. The constituent assembly is a subset of a constitutional convention elected entirely by popular vote; that is, all constituent assemblies are constitutional conventions, but a constitutional convention is not necessarily a constituent assembly. As the fundamental document constituting a state, a constitution cannot normally be modified or amended by the state's normal legislative procedures; instead a constitutional convention or a constituent assembly, the rules for which are normally laid down in the constitution, must be set up. A constituent assembly is usually set up for its specific purpose, which it carries out in a relatively short time, after which the assembly is dissolved. A constituent assembly is a form of representative democracy.

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Japan and Sweden where the monarch retains no formal authorities.

Sher Bahadur Deuba Nepalese politician and the Prime Minister of Nepal, in office since 2017

Sher Bahadur Deubalisten (Nepali: शेर बहादुर देउवा) born 13 June 1946) is a Nepalese politician who served as Prime Minister from 1995 to 1997, from 2001 to 2002, and from 2004 to 2005, and from 2017 to 2018. He is also the President of Nepali Congress, elected with more than 60% of the votes at the party's 13th Convention in 2016. He has twice been elected as the leader of parliamentary party of the Nepali Congress, thus enabling him to be elected twice as the Prime Minister of Nepal.

Throughout the war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoists dominated the rural areas. This was a result of the fact that almost all government institutions were located in either the capital city Kathmandu, or the headquarters of a district. In August 2004, even Kathmandu came under rebel control, as the Maoists performed a week-long blockade of the city. [10]

Kathmandu Capital of Nepal

Kathmandu is the capital city and largest city of Nepal with a population of around 1 million. Kathmandu is also the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is widely understood.

Under the aegis of the global War on Terror and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, United Kingdom, and India, among other nations, provided extensive military and economic aid to the Nepali government. On 1 February 2005, in response to the inability of the relatively democratic government to restore order, King Gyanendra seized full control of Nepal in an attempt to definitively end the insurgency. He proclaimed, "democracy and progress contradict one another... in pursuit of liberalism, we should never overlook an important aspect of our conduct, namely discipline." [11] As a result of this takeover, the United Kingdom and India both suspended their material support for Nepal. [7] :337 On 5 May 2005, in response to the takeover by King Gyanendra, 7 political parties began talks to form a Seven Party Alliance (SPA). [7] :338 On 22 November 2005, with support from the Indian government, Maoist rebels and the SPA jointly issued a 12-point resolution, which described autocratic monarchy as the main obstacle to "democracy, peace, prosperity, social upliftment and an independent and sovereign Nepal", [12] and included a commitment to hold elections to a constituent assembly and for the Maoist rebels to renounce violence. [7] :339

In 2006, violent conflict decreased significantly, and instead, the year was dominated by pro-democracy demonstrations. [7] :339 Throughout April 2006, pro-democracy demonstrations were held across Nepal, and over 400 protesters in Kathmandu were arrested, while tens of others were injured. On 21 April, King Gyanendra announced that he would return the Prime Ministership to the SPA, but this offer was rejected by both the Maoist rebels and the SPA. [7] :339 On 24 April, King Gyanendra announced that he would also reinstate the House of Representatives, which satisfied the SPA, who formed the reinstated House of Representatives. [7] :339 However, the Maoist rebels vowed to continue the agitation, and on 2 June, in Kathmandu, the Maoists held the largest pro-democracy demonstration, which was attended by over 200,000 people. [7] :339–340 On 9 August, the government and the Maoist rebels agreed to accept the United Nations to monitor the peace process and to manage the arms of both sides. [7] :340 On 21 November, the government, the SPA, and the Maoist rebels signed the Comprehensive Peace Accord, which formally ended the Civil War. [7] :340

The Civil War forced young workers to seek work abroad, predominantly in the Persian Gulf and Southeast Asia. The regular flow of remittances from these labourers has allowed Nepal to avoid serious economic crisis or bankruptcy. The economy of Nepal is heavily dependent on the infusion of foreign income from these foreign workers (similar to the Lebanese economy during its civil war). As a result of the Civil War, Nepal's tourism industry, which is its greatest source of foreign currency, suffered considerably. According to the travel company iExplore, Nepal went from being the 10th most popular destination among adventure travellers to the 27th most popular.

According to INSEC, 1,665 out of the 15,026 deaths that occurred during the Civil War (approximately 11 percent) were female victims, with government forces being responsible for approximately 85 percent of the killings of females. [13]

Three Maoist rebels wait on top of a hill in the Rolpa district for orders to relocate Maoist rebels on a hill in Nepal.jpg
Three Maoist rebels wait on top of a hill in the Rolpa district for orders to relocate

Army integration

The Nepalese Army (NA) took final control over the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the armed wing of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), on 10 April 2012. [14] Prime Minister (PM) Baburam Bhattarai, who also heads the Army Integration Special Committee (AISC), told the committee on 10 April 2012, that the NA was going to move into all 15 PLA cantonments, take full control, and seize more than 3,000 weapons locked in containers lying there. [14] He added that the process would be completed by the evening of 12 April. [14] However, following reports of clashes in the cantonments, the PM met the NA chief, Chhattra Man Singh Gurung, in the evening of 10 April, and directed him to implement the decisions of the AISC. [14] NA troops took charge of the cantonments and the weapons' containers the same day. [14] This vitiated the environment in the cantonments. [14] Consequently, the process was halted on 10 April at the request of the Maoist leadership. [14] It was, however, restarted on 13 April, and, as of 19 April 2012, when it was finally concluded, there were 3,129 former PLA combatants left for integration into the NA. [14] A total of 6,576 combatants chose the Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS), that promises cheques in the range of NPR 500,000 to NPR 800,000, depending on their ranks. [14]

In the first phase (18 November - 1 December 2011) of regrouping, 9,705 former combatants had chosen integration into the NA. [14] In a landmark achievement, the AISC had initiated the process of integration following a 1 November 2011, seven-point deal signed by three major political parties – UCPN-M, Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) (CPN-UML) and Nepali Congress (NC) – and the umbrella formation of several Madheshi groups, the United Democratic Madhesi Front (UDMF). [14] The deal provided three options to former PLA combatants – integration, voluntary retirement and rehabilitation. [14] 9,705 combatants opted for integration, 7,286 chose voluntary discharge, and six combatants registered their names for rehabilitation packages. [14] The United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) had registered 19,602 combatants in the second verification conducted on 26 May 2007. [14]

On 14 April 2012, AISC decision laid down that the ranks of the integrated combatants would be determined according to the NA's, and not the PLA's, standards. [14] A Selection Committee would be headed by the Chairman of Nepal's Public Service Commission (PSC) or by a member appointed by him, and a General Directorate would be created under the NA, headed by a Lieutenant General, to absorb the integrated combatants. [14] The combatants will have to undergo between three and nine months of training, depending on their ranks. [14] The Directorate would only be deployed for disaster relief, industrial security, development, and forest and environment conservation. [14] On 17 April, the NA stated that it could not start the recruitment process of former Maoist combatants until the structure—leadership and size—of the General Directorate had been finalised at the political level. [14] On 19 April 2012, the three major political parties agreed to merge two separate proposed commissions on Truth and Reconciliation, and on Disappearances, into one. [14]







In the Offensive: DSP Hem Raj Regmi was shot dead by Maoists, 11 November 2004 DSP Hem Raj Regmi Shot dead by Maoist.jpg
In the Offensive: DSP Hem Raj Regmi was shot dead by Maoists, 11 November 2004



2006 democracy movement Jana andolan.jpg
2006 democracy movement


In July 2007, the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction proposed legislation that would establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Nepal. [52] The parliament is setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate wartime killings, torture and forced disappearances and is debating proposals to grant an amnesty for abuses by government and rebel forces. [53]

The revolution resulted in political, social and cultural change in Nepal popularly termed Krambhanga (Nepali : क्रमभङ्ग) which meant Breach of Continuity. [54] [55] [56]

See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Nepal

The politics of Nepal function within a framework of a republic with a multi-party system. Currently, the position of President of Nepal is occupied by Bidhya Devi Bhandari. The position of Prime Minister is held by Khadga Prasad Oli. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and his cabinet, while legislative power is vested in the Parliament.

Gyanendra of Nepal Latest King of Nepal

Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev reigned as the last King of Nepal from 2001 to 2008 and is also known as World's last Hindu king. As a child, he was also briefly king from 1950 to 1951, when his grandfather, Tribhuvan, went into exile in India with the rest of his family. His second reign had begun due to the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre.

Pushpa Kamal Dahal Nepalese politician and former Prime Minister of Nepal

Pushpa Kamal Dahal, also known as Prachanda, is a Nepalese politician, co-chair of the Nepal Communist Party and twice Prime Minister of Nepal, from 2008 to 2009 and from 2016 to 2017.

Baburam Bhattarai Nepalese politician

Baburam Bhattarai (Nepali: बाबुराम भट्टराई is a Nepalese politician who was Prime Minister of Nepal from August 2011 to March 2013. He was a long-time leading member of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal prior to founding a new party, Naya Shakti.

Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) Communist political party in Nepal founded in 1994

The Communist Party of Nepal was a communist political party in Nepal.

Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) political party in Nepal

The Communist Party of Nepal was one of the two major communist parties in Nepal. The party was formed in January 1991 with the unification of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist). It has led four governments: from 1994 to 1995 under Man Mohan Adhikari, from 2009 to 2011 under Madhav Kumar Nepal, in 2011 under Jhala Nath Khanal, and from 2015 to 2016 under KP Sharma Oli. The party was also a junior partner in five coalition governments: in 1997 under Lokendra Bahadur Chand, from 1998 to 1999 under Girija Prasad Koirala, from 2008 to 2009 under Pushpa Kamal Dahal, from 2011 to 2013 under Baburam Bhattarai, and from 2014 to 2015 under Sushil Koirala. It dissolved on 17 May 2018 to make way for the Nepal Communist Party in a merger with the Communist Party of Nepal.

Girija Prasad Koirala politician

Nepal Ratna Girija Prasad Koirala, affectionately known as Girija Babu, also known as G.P. Koirala, was a Nepalese politician. He headed the Nepali Congress and served as the Prime Minister of Nepal on four occasions, including from 1991 to 1994, 1998 to 1999, 2000 to 2001, and from 2006 to 2008. He was the Acting Head of State of Nepal between January 2007 and July 2008 as the country transitioned from a monarchy to a republic.

Madhav Kumar Nepal Nepalese politician

Madhav Kumar Nepal is a Nepalese politician who was Prime Minister of Nepal from May 25, 2009 to February 6, 2011. Nepal announced his resignation as prime minister on June 30, 2010. He was previously the General Secretary of Communist Party of Nepal for 15 years. He is also one of the only Prime Ministers in the world whose name features the name of his country, i.e., Nepal.

The 2006 Democracy Movement is a name given to the political agitations against the direct and undemocratic rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal. The movement is also sometimes referred to as Jan Andolan, implying it being a continuation of the 1990 Jan Andolan.

Bhutan Communist Party (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist)

The Bhutan Communist Party (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist) is a banned communist party in Bhutan.

2008 Nepalese Constituent Assembly election election

A general election for the Constituent Assembly was held in Nepal on 10 April 2008 after having been postponed from earlier dates of 7 June 2007 and 22 November 2007. The Nepalese Constituent Assembly will draft a new constitution; it will therefore decide, amongst other things, on the issue of federalism. The number of eligible voters was around 17.5 million. The Constituent Assembly will have a term of two years.

Armed Police Force (Nepal) ParaMilitary Land and Aerial Warfare force

The Armed Police Force of Nepal is a paramilitary land force tasked with counter-insurgency operations in Nepal. It functions as a semi-military wing, and occupies a sort of dual role as both military and law enforcement. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Initially founded with a roster of 15,000 police and military personnel, the Armed Police Force is projected to have a corps of 40,000 at the close of 2015.

Young Communist League, Nepal is the youth wing of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (CPN-Maoist). The president of YCL is Ganeshman Pun and the general secretary of YCL is Dilip Kumar Prajapati. The Young Communist League (YCL) was formed by the CPN–Maoist at some point during the ‘people’s war’ to support the revolution. Ganeshman Pun, chairman of the YCL, has stated that the League was reactivated in November 2006. According to him, the YCL "is a fusion of the Party’s military and political character, and it is composed of PLA members who have an interest in politics." As the party’s youth wing, its role is to "organise youth, be involved in events, conduct political awareness, and take part in development work as volunteers." Once the CPN-Maoist was proscribed, the YCL was also forced underground. After the April 2006 Jana Andolan and the subsequent over-ground role of the insurgents, the CPN-Maoist revived the YCL.

1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly

The 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly was a unicameral body of 601 members that served from May 28, 2008 to May 28, 2012. It was formed as a result of the first Constituent Assembly election held on April 10, 2008. The Constituent Assembly was tasked with writing a new constitution, and acting as the interim legislature for a term of two years. 240 members were elected in single seat constituencies, 335 were elected through proportional representation, and the remaining 26 seats were reserved for nominated members.

Dev Gurung is a Nepalese politician, belonging to the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). Gurung became Minister of Law and Justice on August 22, 2008. In 2002, B.S., Gurung became the president of the All Nepal National Free Students Union.

General Rookmangud Katawal is a former Nepalese Army General, who served as the Chief of Army Staff of the Nepal Army from September 10, 2006 to August, 2009. General Katawal had come into controversy after the then Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda) had unilaterally decided to "relieve" Katawal of his duties on May 3, 2009

Peoples Liberation Army, Nepal

People's Liberation Army, Nepal was the armed wing of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). The PLA was founded in 2002, in the midst of the Nepal Civil War initiated by the Maoists in 1996. The chief commander of the PLA during the war was Prachanda. On September 12, 2008, Nanda Kishor Pun was appointed new chief commander of the PLA, as Prachanda had become Prime Minister of Nepal. This move was in line with a pledge issued by the CPN(M), issued prior to the 2008 Constituent Assembly election, that their members elected to the Assembly would leave their PLA positions.

Second Dahal cabinet

On 4 August 2016, Pushpa Kamal Dahal of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist-Centre) was elected as the Prime Minister of Nepal. His candidacy was supported by the Nepali Congress, and several small parties represented in the Nepalese Parliament after a power-sharing deal with the Nepali Congress. Due to this, Dahal would become Prime Minister until the 2017 Nepalese local elections, after which he would step down in favour of the Nepali Congress.


  1. 1 2 3 Miglani, Sanjeev (18 August 2003). "Nepal's Maoist cauldron draws foreign powers closer". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 May 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 Ed Douglas. "Inside Nepal's Revolution". National Geographic Magazine , p. 54, November 2005.
  3. 17,800 people died during conflict period, says Ministry of Peace
  4. or empty |title= (help)
  5. Mahendra Lawoti and Anup K. Pahadi, editors (2010). The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the twenty-first century. Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-77717-9.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Mahendra Lawoti and Anup K. Pahari, editors (2010). The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the twenty-first century. Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-77717-9.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  7. Manesh Sreshtha and Bishnu Adhikari (2005). Internal Displacement in South Asia: The Relevance of the UN's Guiding Principles. Sage. ISBN   0-7619-3313-1.
  8. "Anti-king remarks intolerable: Lohani". NepalNews: The Kathmandu Post. 20 December 2003. Archived from the original on 14 November 2004. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  9. "Maoist rebels call off Kathmandu blockade". The Guardian. 24 August 2004. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  10. "Royal Proclamation of February 1, 2005". Nepal Monarchy. 4 May 2012. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  11. "12-point Maoist MoU". Nepali Times. 25 November 2005. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  12. "Conflict Victim's Profile". INSEC. Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 "Nepal: Consolidating The Peace – Analysis". Eurasia Review. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  14. "However tortuous the road may be, the victory of the world proletarian revolution is certain". Human Rights Server. 28 May 2001. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016.
  15. Greenwald, Jeff (13 June 2001). "Murder and intrigue in Katmandu". World Tibet Network News. Archived from the original on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pokharel, Tilak P (27 August 2003). "Nepali Rebels Walk Away from Peace Talks". World Press. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  17. Adhikari, Bipin (19 March 2003). "Code of conduct as a point of departure". The Kathmandu Post. Archived from the original on 27 March 2013.
  20. "More die in Nepal Maoist insurgency despite truce call". ABC News Online. 28 September 2003. Archived from the original on 3 October 2003.
  21. "37 killed as Maoist army attacks camp". The Telegraph. 14 October 2003.
  22. Sharma, Sushil (27 October 2003). "Maoists 'sorry' UK officer held". BBC News.
  23. "How anti-monarchy movement took shape". The Independent.
  24. "China arrests four Nepali Maoists for arms smuggling". Daily News. 20 November 2003. Archived from the original on 6 December 2003.
  25. "Nepal: Extra-judicial killings inquiry urgent". Scoop. 18 February 2004. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  26. "India hands over two Maoist leaders to Nepal". The Times of India. 10 February 2004.
  27. 1 2 "Nepal anti-rebel leader shot dead". BBC News. 15 February 2004.
  28. 1 2 "48 Maoist rebels killed in Nepal army attacks". KuraKani. 17 February 2004.
  29. "Chronology of decade-long conflict". ReliefWeb. 22 November 2006.
  30. Sharma, Gopal (9 April 2004). "Nepal parties plan anti-monarchy rally". Independent Online.
  31. 1 2 "140 Injured As Clashes Rock Nepal's Capital". INDOlink. 5 April 2004. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  32. 1 2 3 4 "Maoist rebels storm police post in Nepal, kill 9". Utusan Online. 5 April 2004.
  33. "9 policemen dead as Maoists storm post in Nepal". INQ7. 5 April 2004.
  34. "Rebels storm police post, kill nine officers". Gulfnews. 6 April 2004. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008.
  35. "Maoists kill 9 policemen". The Telegraph. 5 April 2004.
  36. Singh, Kedar Man (3 April 2004). "Anti-monarchy protesters pack streets of Kathmandu". INQ7.
  37. "Major parties take to the streets in Nepal". The Hindu. 14 March 2004.
  38. "Police want 'shopping trip' slowdown in Nepal". The Statesman. India. 5 April 2004. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008.
  40. "2005-01-29 - incident - Lamjung district | २०६१-१०-१६ - घटना - लमजुङ जिल्ला". Retrieved 2017-07-07.
  41. "Nepal rebels ready to surrender under UN supervision". The Times of India. 20 November 2005. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  42. Sharma, Nagendar (18 November 2005). "Nepal opposition in Maoist talks". BBC News. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  43. Pasricha, Anjana (2 January 2006). "Nepal Rebels Call Off Four-Month Truce". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 7 February 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  44. "Nepal rebels call for indefinite strike against king". The Boston Globe. 18 February 2006. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012.
  45. Gurubacharya, Binaj (8 April 2006). "Anti-monarchy rallies spread in Nepal". The Boston Globe.[ dead link ]
  46. "Violent clashes amid Nepal curfew". BBC News. 10 April 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  47. "Nepal Maoist rebels declare truce". BBC News. 27 April 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  48. "Nepal's Maoists Declare Ceasefire". Voice of America. 27 April 2006. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  49. "Nepal calls ceasefire with rebels". BBC News. 3 May 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  50. "Peace deal ends Nepal's civil war". BBC News. 21 November 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  51. Selecting Commissioners for Nepal's Truth and Reconciliation Commission International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)
  52. This investigation was caused due to the increasing Maoist insurgencies within the Northern Kathmandu area, which has been plaguing the area of late. It is well known that the rebels have an inclination for targeting white, Westerners who they see as the "cause of the food and poverty crisis" within the state.Nepal urged to drop plan for war crimes amnesty Archived 1 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine NY Daily News
  55. "नेपाली संस्कृतिमा क्रमभङ्ग". 12 August 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2019.

Further reading