Federal republic

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A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. [1] At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".

Federation A union of partially self-governing states or territories united by a central government that exercises power over them

A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.

A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation. Such states differ from fully sovereign states, in that they do not have full sovereign powers, as the sovereign powers have been divided between the federated states and the central or federal government. Importantly, federated states do not have standing as entities of international law. Instead, the federal union as a single entity is the sovereign state for purposes of international law. Depending on the constitutional structure of a particular federation, a federated state can hold various degrees of legislative, judicial and administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and is a form of regional government.

A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch.

Contents

In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics. [2] Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.

Constitution Set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed

A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.

A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation.

Parliamentary system form of government

A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

United Arab Emirates Country in Western Asia

The United Arab Emirates, sometimes simply called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. Their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.

Contemporary

Federal stateOfficial name and style Subdivisions Head of state
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Argentine Republic Provinces and one autonomous city President
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria [3] Republic of Austria States President
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina [4] Bosnia and Herzegovina Entities, cantons and one federal district Collective presidency
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil [5] Federative Republic of Brazil Municipalities, states and one federal district [6] President
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros Union of the Comoros Islands President
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia [7] Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Regions President
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany [8] Federal Republic of Germany States President
Flag of India.svg  India [9] Republic of India States and union territories President
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Republic of Iraq Governorates President
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico [10] United Mexican States States and one autonomous entity President
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia States President
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal [11] Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Provinces President
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria [12] Federal Republic of Nigeria States and one federal territory President
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan [13] Islamic Republic of Pakistan Provinces, autonomous territories and federal territory President
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia [14] Russian Federation Federal subjects President
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia Federal member states President
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan Republic of South Sudan States President
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Republic of the Sudan States President
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland [15] Swiss Confederation Cantons Federal council
Flag of the United States.svg  United States [16] United States of America50 states, one federal district and several territories President
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela [17] Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela States, one capital district and federal dependencies President

Historic

FederationOfficial name and style PeriodSubdivisions
Statenvlag.svg  Dutch Republic Republic of the Seven United Netherlands 1581–1795 Provinces
Flag of the Gran Colombia.svg  Great Colombia Republic of Colombia
United States of Colombia
1819–1831
1863–1886
States
Flag of the Federal Republic of Central America.svg Federal Republic of Central America United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
1823–1838
Bandera Historica de la Republica Mexicana (1824-1918).svg Mexico United Mexican States 1824–1835
Flag of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation.svg Peru-Bolivian Confederation Peru–Bolivian Confederation 1836–1839
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  China Republic of China 1912–1949 [18] Provinces
Flag of the Mountain Republic.svg Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus 1917–1921
1989–2000
Republics
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany German Reich 1919–1933 States
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany German Democratic Republic 1949–1952 States
Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg  Russian SFSR Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(Russian Federation from 25 December 1991)
19171993 Federal subjects
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922–1991 Republics
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia [19] Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1945–1992 Republics
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  Serbia and Montenegro Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
1992–2006 Constituent republics
Flag of Burma (1948-1974).svg  Burma Union of Burma 1948–1962 States
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Republic of the United States of Indonesia 1949–1950 [20] States
Flag of Cameroon (1961-1975).svg  Cameroon Federal Republic of Cameroon 1961–1972
Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg  South Africa Republic of South Africa 1961–1994
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia [19] Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
1969–1990
1990–1992
Republics
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Turkish Cyprus Turkish Federated State of Cyprus 1975–1983 Districts

See also

Notes and references

  1. "republic".
  2. Forum of Federations: , Schram, Sanford. Handbook of Federal Countries: United States, pg 373–391, 2005.
  3. CIA World Factbook: Austria, 14 May 2009
  4. CIA World Factbook: Bosnia and Herzegovina, 14 May 2009
  5. CIA World Factbook: Brazil, 14 May 2009
  6. "http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constitui%C3%A7ao.htm". planalto.gov.br. Retrieved 2018-05-04.External link in |title= (help)
  7. CIA World Factbook: Ethiopia, 14 May 2009
  8. CIA World Factbook: Germany, 14 May 2009
  9. CIA World Factbook: India, 14 May 2009
  10. CIA World Factbook: Mexico, 14 May 2009
  11. CIA World Factbook: Nepal, 14 May 2009
  12. CIA World Factbook: Nigeria, 14 May 2009
  13. CIA World Factbook: Pakistan, 14 May 2009
  14. "Text of the Russian constitution in English". Constituteproject.org.
  15. CIA World Factbook: Switzerland, 14 May 2009
  16. CIA World Factbook: United States, 14 May 2009
  17. CIA World Factbook: Venezuela, 14 May 2009
  18. Government continued as a unitary state on sovereignty undetermined Taiwan.
  19. 1 2 "The CIA World Factbook officially dated October 15, 1991". Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
  20. The states lived on until a final treaty in 1956 in which Republic of South Maluku and the State of Eastern Sumatra agreed to devolve into the Republic of Indonesia.[ citation needed ]

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