|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of government|
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".
A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.
A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation. Such states differ from fully sovereign states, in that they do not have full sovereign powers, as the sovereign powers have been divided between the federated states and the central or federal government. Importantly, federated states do not have standing as entities of international law. Instead, the federal union as a single entity is the sovereign state for purposes of international law. Depending on the constitutional structure of a particular federation, a federated state can hold various degrees of legislative, judicial and administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and is a form of regional government.
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch.
In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics.Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.
A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation.
A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes simply called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. Their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.
|Federal state||Official name and style||Subdivisions||Head of state|
|Argentine Republic||Provinces and one autonomous city||President|
|Republic of Austria||States||President|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Entities, cantons and one federal district||Collective presidency|
|Federative Republic of Brazil||Municipalities, states and one federal district||President|
|Union of the Comoros||Islands||President|
|Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||Regions||President|
|Federal Republic of Germany||States||President|
|Republic of India||States and union territories||President|
|Republic of Iraq||Governorates||President|
|United Mexican States||States and one autonomous entity||President|
|Federated States of Micronesia||States||President|
|Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal||Provinces||President|
|Federal Republic of Nigeria||States and one federal territory||President|
|Islamic Republic of Pakistan||Provinces, autonomous territories and federal territory||President|
|Russian Federation||Federal subjects||President|
|Federal Republic of Somalia||Federal member states||President|
|Republic of South Sudan||States||President|
|Republic of the Sudan||States||President|
|Swiss Confederation||Cantons||Federal council|
|United States of America||50 states, one federal district and several territories||President|
|Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela||States, one capital district and federal dependencies||President|
|Federation||Official name and style||Period||Subdivisions|
|Republic of the Seven United Netherlands||1581–1795||Provinces|
| Republic of Colombia |
United States of Colombia
| United Provinces of Central America |
Federal Republic of Central America
|United Mexican States||1824–1835|
|Republic of China||1912–1949||Provinces|
|Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus||1917–1921|
|German Democratic Republic||1949–1952||States|
| Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic |
(Russian Federation from 25 December 1991)
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||1922–1991||Republics|
| Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia |
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
| Federal Republic of Yugoslavia |
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
|Union of Burma||1948–1962||States|
|Republic of the United States of Indonesia||1949–1950||States|
|Federal Republic of Cameroon||1961–1972|
|Republic of South Africa||1961–1994|
| Czechoslovak Socialist Republic |
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
|Turkish Federated State of Cyprus||1975–1983||Districts|
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition. The Factbook is available in the form of a website that is partially updated every week. It is also available for download for use off-line. It provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, geography, communications, government, economy, and military of each of 267 international entities including U.S.-recognized countries, dependencies, and other areas in the world.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct entity in political geography.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both. The meanings of "state" and "very small" are not well-defined in international law. Recent attempts, since 2010, to define microstates have focused on identifying political entities with unique qualitative features linked to their geographic or demographic limitations. According to a qualitative definition, microstates are: "modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints." In line with this and most other definitions, examples of microstates include Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Andorra, the Cook Islands, Niue, and the Federated States of Micronesia.
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. Brazil currently has 5,570 municipalities, with an average municipality population of 34,361 inhabitants. The average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853.
A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.
The FIPS 10-4 standard, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, was a list of two-letter country codes that were used by the U.S. Government for geographical data processing in many publications, such as the CIA World Factbook. The standard was also known as DAFIF 0413 ed 7 Amdt. No. 3 and as DIA 65-18.
A state government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government. A state government may have some level of political autonomy, or be subject to the direct control of the federal government. This relationship may be defined by a constitution.
A constituent state is a state entity that constitutes a part of a sovereign state. A constituent state holds regional jurisdiction over a defined administrative territory, within a sovereign state. Government of a constituent state is a form of regional government. Throughout history, and also in modern political practice, most constituents states are parts of complex states, like federations or confederations. Constituent state can have republican or monarchical form of government. Those of republican form are usually called states or autonomous states, republics or autonomous republics, and also cantons. Those that have monarchical form of government are often defined by traditional hierarchical rank of their ruler.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy. Rather than being a cross between two entirely separate systems, democratic republics may function on principles shared by both republics and democracies.
The Federal government of Mexico is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial and functions per the Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, and as amended. == The executive power is exercised by the executive branch, which is headed by the president and his Cabinet, which, together, are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral legislature comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary, and the collegiate, unitary, and district courts.
The Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) was established immediately after the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) seized power from the Communist-led People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) in 1991 and it continued until 1995, when it transitioned into the reconstituted Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, which continues to this time. Meles Zenawi was the president and Tamrat Layne the prime minister of the Transitional Government.