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Republicanism in Spain is a political position that holds that Spain's system of government should be changed from a constitutional monarchy to a republic.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
The monarchy of Spain, constitutionally referred to as The Crown, is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain. The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch, his or her family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his duties and prerogatives. The Spanish monarchy is currently represented by King Felipe VI, Queen Letizia, and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias, and Infanta Sofía.
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch.
There has existed in the Kingdom of Spain a persistent trend of republican thought, especially throughout the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, that has manifested itself in diverse political parties and movements over the entire course of the history of Spain. While these movements have shared the objective of establishing a republic in Spain, during these three centuries there have surged distinct schools of thought on the form republicans would want to give to the Spanish State: unitary (centralized) or federal.
Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach.
The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages. In 1516, Habsburg Spain unified a number of disparate predecessor kingdoms; its modern form of a constitutional monarchy was introduced in 1813, and the current democratic constitution dates to 1978.
In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.
Despite the country's long-lasting schools of republican movements, the government of Spain has been organized as a republic during only two very short periods in its history, which totaled less than 10 years of republican government in the entirety of Spanish history. The First Spanish Republic lasted from February 1873 to December 1874, and the Second Spanish Republic lasted from April 1931 to April 1939.
The Spanish Republic, commonly known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez Campos's pronunciamiento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I, following the Hidalgo Affair, when he had been required by the radical government to sign a decree against the artillery officers. The next day, 11 February, the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority made up of radicals, republicans and democrats.
The Spanish Republic, commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic, was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, and it lost the Spanish Civil War on 1 April 1939 to the rebel faction, that would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco.
Currently there are movements and political parties throughout the entire political spectrum that advocate for a Third Spanish Republic, including some sectors of the Spanish left, as well as liberal, right-winged, and nationalist parties.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. It typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others (prioritarianism) as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished. The term left-wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system".
The roots of Spanish republicanism arose out of liberal thought in the wake of the French Revolution. The first manifestations of republicanism occurred during the Peninsular War, in which Spain and nearby regions fought for independence from Napoleon, 1808–1814. During the reign of Ferdinand VII (1813–1833) there were several liberalist military pronunciamientos, but it was not until the reign of Isabella II (1833–1868) that the first clearly republican and anti-monarchist movements appeared.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and Bourbon Spain, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when the French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, previously its ally. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare.
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader of Italian descent who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.
The Glorious Revolution of 1868 overthrew Isabella II, but the Cortes (Spanish parliament) elected in 1869, voted in favor of a liberal constitutional monarchy. A search for a new king was made from amongst several European royal courts and the Italian prince Amadeo I of Savoy was chosen. But Spain was in a period of profound instability: absolute monarchists of the Carlist movement had launched a war against the country's progressive direction; there was colonial unrest in Spanish Cuba via the Ten Years' War; and the moderate-liberal monarchy was opposed from all sides, by republicans to its left, and from its right by a large part of the aristocracy, the Catholic Church, and the Spanish people, King Amadeo abdicated on 11 February 1873.
The Glorious Revolution took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. The success of the revolution marked the beginning of the Sexenio Democrático with the installment of a provisional government.
Amadeo I, was an Italian prince who reigned as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873. The only King of Spain from the House of Savoy, he was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but was appointed King of Spain briefly, from 1870 to 1873.
Savoy is a cultural-historical region between Western and Central Europe. It comprises roughly the territory of the Western Alps between Lake Geneva in the north and Dauphiné in the south.
On that same day in 1873, the Cortes proclaimed the First Spanish Republic.
However, the Republic fell victim to the same instabilities provoked by the ongoing wars and the division amongst republicans. The majority of republicans were Federalists, and they therefore supported the formation of a federal democratic republic, but there was also a unitary republican current. Moreover, within the Federalists there was an intransigent pro-confederation sector that was infuriated and later quashed by the Cantonal Revolution of 1873. The complicated political situation is demonstrated by the fact that in just eleven months there were four presidents of the Republic: Francesc Pi i Margall, Estanislao Figueras, Nicolás Salmerón, and Emilio Castelar (the only non-Federalist president).
On 3 January 1874, General Manuel Pavía led a coup d'état that established a conservative unitary republican dictatorship under the command of General Francisco Serrano y Domínguez. The dictatorship was in turn ousted by pronunciamiento on 29 December 1874, in which Brigadier General Arsenio Martínez Campos declared the Bourbon Restoration and Alfonso XII ascended to the throne.
Following the Restoration, diverse republican parties appeared once again, for example Castelar's Partido Demócrata—later the Partido Demócrata Posibilista (PDP) – and Cristino Martos's Partido Progresista Demócrata. Nonetheless, these parties, immersed in a system of inequal censitary suffrage between 1878 and 1890, were unable to compete with the large dynastic parties: the Liberal-Conservative Party of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Merged Liberal Party of Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. Later Francisco Pi formed the Partido Republicano Democrático Federal (PRDF), Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla and José María Esquerdo created Partido Republicano Progresista (PRP), and Nicolás Salmerón established the Partido Republicano Centralista (PRC). These parties contributed a diverse set of independent republican deputies to the Spanish parliament. Factions of the PDP and the PRP branched off and fused to form the Partido Republicano Nacional. In 1898 the Fusión Republicana was formed, and in 1903 the creation of the Republican Union Party attempted to represent and fuse all streams of republican thought. However, two parties split from the Republican Union: Alejandro Lerroux's Partido Republicano Radical and Vicente Blasco's Partido de Unión Republicana Autonomista. In that time the Catalan Centre Nacionalista Republicà (CNR) appeared. Following the acts of "Tragic Week" in Barcelona in 1909, republican parties and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party ("PSOE" in Spanish) joined together to form the Conjunción Republicano-Socialista, at the same time as the Catalan sectors of the Republican Union, the CNR, and the PRDF formed the Republican Nationalist Federal Union. Later Melquiades Álvarez split from the Conjunción Republicano-Socialista to form the Reformist Party.
After 1917, the Restoration regime entered a state of crisis, which finally resulted in the coup d'état of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Captain-General of Catalonia. Primo de Rivera established a dictatorship with the approval of the King Alfonso XIII. But the crisis of this dictatorship lead to the resignation of Primo de Rivera in 1930 and made the fall of the monarchy inevitable. On 14 April 1931, two days after a round of municipal elections in which republicans won a landslide victory, Alfonso XIII was sent into exile and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed.
The Second Republic adopted the form of a unitary republic, allowing a group of provinces to form self-governing regions, a provision availed of to form the regions of Catalonia and the Basque Country. Its first President of the Republic (head of state) was Niceto Alcalá Zamora, of the liberal-Catholic Liberal Republican Right party.
After the victory of the socialist and left-republican coalition in the June 1931 elections, Manuel Azaña, of Republican Action (later the Republican Left) was elected president of government (premier). Azaña's government attempted to pass many reforms, such as the Agrarian Reform Law, and is consequently known as the Bienio Reformista ("Two Reformist Years"). 1931 also saw the introduction of truly universal suffrage, for the first time in Spanish history: previously restricted to men, the right to vote was now extended to women.
The Republic soon had to confront the political polarization of the era, at the same time that totalitarian dictatorships were rising in power in Europe. The political instability of the time can be seen by the fact that, in 1932, there had already been a failed coup led by General José Sanjurjo.
The general elections of 1933 saw the emergence of José María Gil-Robles's Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, an umbrella organisation of various conservative and Catholic-nationalist parties. The CEDA emerged as the largest single parliamentary group, but lacked a majority of its own. As a result, Alcalá Zamora opted to appoint a cabinet made up of various centre-right radical and liberal parties led by Alejandro Lerroux. This cabinet too suffered from too narrow a majority, and Lerroux was eventually obliged to extend its support by including several CEDA ministers.
The inclusion of the CEDA, considered to be insincere in its support for the existing regime, was the trigger for the incidents of October 1934. Various initiatives were launched, ranging from a declaration of federal autonomy by Lluís Companys, head of the government of the Catalan region, designed to limit the CEDA's ability to intervene in the region; a general strike by the socialist movement, designed to dissuade Alcala and Lerroux from including the CEDA ministers; and a worker uprising in the northern region of Asturias that united the local branches of the socialist movement to those of the Communist Party of Spain and the syndicalist National Confederation of Labour.
The violent repression of the Rising, especially in Asturias, the suppression of Catalan home rule, and the arrest of numerous prominent political figures who had been uninvolved in the unrest, motived the formation of the Spanish Popular Front. This included the socialist movement (the PSOE and UGT), the communist PCE and POUM parties, and the left-republican parties Republican Left, the Republican Union and Catalan Republican Left, as well as several minor political parties.
The Popular Front emerged victorious in the legislative elections of 1936, forming a government of republican parties and elevating Manuel Azaña as head of state.
On 17 July 1936, there was a military uprising that failed to seize control of government but which, by taking control of much of Spanish Morocco, provoked the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. While the republican regime was abandoned by the other European democracies and only received military support from the Soviet Union, the nationalist rebels were supported by Nazi Germany and fascist Italy, whose support was pivotal in the final victory of the nationalist uprising. The triumphant Nationalist faction established the Spanish State that lasted until his death in and the subsequent Spanish transition to democracy. As well, Emilio Mola, leader of the uprising against the Second Republic, attempted to establish a "republican dictatorship,"but in 1947 Franco established his authoritarian reign as a regency for the monarchy, and in 1969 he named Juan Carlos de Borbón, grandson of the ousted Alfonso XIII, as his successor and the next king. Juan Carlos ascended to the throne upon the Caudillo'sdeath in 1975.
A Spanish Republican government in exile was established in Paris in April 1939. Thousands of Republicans fled the country to France as well. Many of them were captured after France was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1940; some 7,000 died in concentration camps, especially Mauthausen-Gusen, during the Holocaust.The Republican government in exile moved to Mexico City in 1940, returning to Paris in 1946.
The anti-Francoist opposition failed in their attempts to bring about Francoist Spain's downfall, and after his death they started a process of negotiation with the government that led to the Spanish transition to democracy. In 1977, after the first democratic general elections since the 1930's, the Spanish Republican government-in-exile, maintained since their defeat in the Civil War, dissolved itself and officially recognized the post-Francoist democracy.Spain established a constitution with democratic parliamentary monarchy as the form of government. The constitution was supported by UCD, PSOE, PCE, AP, PDPC and UDC-CCC. During the drafting of the constitution, UCD, AP and PCE supported the monarchy as the form of government. PSOE abstained on that point and supported an amendment to establish a republic. However, in the 80s, the Communist Party (PCE) and its coalition the United Left resumed advocating for a Third Spanish Republic. There are also other regional parties advocating republicanism.
In 2018, Catalan parliament passed a motion condemning king Felipe VI for his role in the Catalan crisis and demanding the abolition of the monarchy.
Spain's government-run Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas ("CIS," in English: Sociological Research Centre) has not conducted any surveys in which respondents were asked their preference of the system of government, monarchy or republic. However, the CIS has published surveys on the "value" respondents place on the monarchy, and the agency has occasionally published questions regarding the current monarch, observing a progressive decline in support for the monarchy.In fact, although the monarchy has normally been one of the most valued institutions, studies have shown that the monarchy has experienced serious loss in public confidence, more than any other government institution, especially among youths aged 18 to 24, who have expressed negative opinions about it repeatedly in CIS studies since 2006. For the first time ever in 2011, a majority of the population said they did not support the current monarchy. However, the CIS ceased surveying views of the monarchy after April 2015, when poll respondents gave it an average rating of 4.34 out of 10. A study published on 24 June 2004, even yield a result of 55% of Spaniards agreeing ("más bien de acuerdo") with the statement that "the Monarchy has overstayed its welcome." Spanish newspapers also sporadically publish surveys and opinion polls with questions related to the monarchy and of the survey respondents political affiliation as monarchists or republican, among other options, with results generably in favor of the monarchy until the year 2013:
|Date||Survey||Republican (%)||More republican than monarchist (%)||Indifferent, "Don't know," & "No response" (%)||Juancarlist (%)||More monarchist than republican (%)||Monarchist (%)|
|7 October 1996||Instituto Opina para La Vanguardia||9.7%||6.2%||37.2%||-||11.2%||35.7%|
|20 November 2000||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||15.9%||-||41.1%||-||-||43%|
|20 November 2005||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||23.5%||-||More than 38%||-||-||38%|
|28 September 2006||Instituto Opina para Cadena Ser||25%||-||10%||-||-||65%|
|6 October 2007||Gabinete de Estudios Sociales y Opinión Pública (Gesop) para Época||24.8%||-||-||-||-||50.6%|
|11 October 2007||Metroscopia para la Fundación Toledo||22%||-||9%||-||-||69%|
|5 January 2008||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||12.8%||-||39.9%||14.6%||-||28.5%|
|15 August 2008||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||16.2%||-||57.9%||7%||-||15.7%|
|6 December 2009||Metroscopia para El País||25%||-||-||-||-||66%|
|31 October 2010||Análisis Sociológicos Económicos y Políticos (ASEP)||26%||-||-||-||-||57%|
|7 November 2010||Metroscopia para El País||35%||-||8%||-||-||57%|
|14 April 2011||Metroscopia [ permanent dead link ] para El País||39%||-||10%||-||-||48%|
|20 June 2011||Invymark para La Sexta||36.8%||-||21.1%||-||-||42.1%|
|12 December 2011||Invymark para La Sexta||37%||-||3.7%||-||-||59.3%|
|18 December 2011||Metroscopia para El País||37%||-||14%||-||-||49%|
|2 January 2012||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||33%||-||-||-||-||60%|
|22 April 2012||NC Report para La Razón||35.5%||-||15.9%||-||-||48.5%|
|23 April 2012||Invymark para La Sexta||34%||-||8.1%||-||-||57.9%|
|3 January 2013||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||41%||-||5.2%||-||-||53.8%|
|14 April 2013||para La Razón||-||-||-||-||-||63.5%|
|5 January 2014||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||43.3%||-||6.8%||-||-||49.9%|
|6 June 2014||Invymark para La Sexta||36.3%||-||10.6%||-||-||53.1%|
|6 June 2014||Metroscopia para El País||36%||-||-||-||-||49%|
|7 June 2014||para antena 3||35.5%||-||-||-||-||60.03%|
|7 June 2014||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||35.6%||-||8.6%||-||-||55.7%|
|23 June 2014||para La Razón||28.3%||-||14%||-||-||57.6%|
|14 June 2015||Sigma Dos para El Mundo||33.7%||-||4.8%||-||-||61.5%|
|25 July 2018||Electomania and CTXT||47.4%||-||2.7%||-||-||49.9%|
|10 October 2018||Electomania||45.6%||-||6.3%||-||-||48.1%|
|June 2019||IMOP Insights para El Confidencial||46.1%||-||3.1%||-||-||50.8%|
After 2005, surveys have measured a larger support for republicanism amongst Spanish youth, with more 18- to 29-year-olds identifying themselves as republicans than those identifying as monarchists, according to El Mundo.Despite this, some surveys show the public in favour of the monarchy, and according to an August 2008 El Mundo poll, 47.9% of Spaniards would have liked to democratically elect King Juan Carlos, and 42.3% of respondents thought that the succession of his heir Prince Felipe should be put to a plebiscite. According to the newspaper Público's "Publicscopio" section in December 2009, 61% survey respondents were in favour of amending the Spanish Constitution to allow the Spanish people to decide between a monarchy and a republic, a number that increased by 3% compared to the data collected the year before by the same newspaper. According to a 2012 survey by Gallup, 54% of Spaniards were in favor of a referendum to choose the form of government (monarchy or republic), and support was always found to be even higher when surveying younger age groups (support was 73.1% amongst 18- to 24-year-olds, but only 34.5% for those above 65 years). Support for such a referendum is also higher amongst the more educated groups of the population, voters in left-wing political parties, and between members of the upper and upper-middle classes. In 2013, as a result of the accusation of Princess Cristina in the Nóos scandal, republican support has begun to increase greater than ever before.
When Juan Carlos announced his abdication on 2 June 2014, thousands of protesters took to the squares of several Spanish towns and cities demanding a referendum on whether the monarchy should continue.Subsequent surveys showed that the abdication improved the image of the Crown thanks to a positive image of the new king, Felipe VI.
Title X of the Spanish Constitution establishes that the approval of a new constitution or the approval of any constitutional amendment affecting the Preliminary Title, or Section I of Chapter II of Title I (on Fundamental Rights and Public Liberties) or Title II (on the Crown), the so-called "protected provisions", are subject to a special processthat requires:
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party is a social-democratic political party in Spain. The PSOE has been in government for a longer time than any other political party in modern democratic Spain, namely from 1982 to 1996 under Felipe González; from 2004 to 2011 under José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero; and currently since 2018 under Pedro Sánchez.
Manuel Azaña Díaz was a Spanish intellectual and politician who was Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic and the last President of the Republic (1936–1939).
The Communist Party of Spain is a Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, has been part of the United Left coalition.
Santiago José Carrillo Solares was a Spanish politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1960 to 1982. He was a key figure in Spanish communism since from the era of the Second Spanish Republic to the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. He fought in the Spanish Civil War, his role in the Paracuellos massacres being particularly controversial. He would later be exiled, and during the military dictatorship of Francisco Franco he was a leader of the democratic opposition to the regime. His role as leader of the PCE would later make him a key figure in the transition to democracy. He later embraced Eurocommunism and democratic socialism, and was a deputy in the Congress of Deputies from 1977 to 1986.
The Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia was a communist political party active in Catalonia between 1936 and 1997. It was the Catalan referent of the Communist Party of Spain and the only party not from a sovereign state to be a full member of the Third International.
For all intents and purposes, the history of contemporary Spain began with the death of caudillo Francisco Franco on the 20 November 1975, the accession of King Juan Carlos I to the throne and the establishment of the parliamentary monarchy. In 1978, the current Spanish Constitution of 1978 was signed and the status of Spain's autonomous entities (autonomías) was defined.
Communist Party of Spain (international), was a communist political party in Spain.
Radical Socialist Republican Party, sometimes shortened to Radical Socialist Party, was a Spanish radical political party, created in 1929 after the split of the left-wing in Alejandro Lerroux's Radical Republican Party. Its main leaders were Marcelino Domingo, Álvaro de Albornoz, and Félix Gordón Ordás.
The People's Socialist Party was a Spanish political party.
The Radical Republican Party, sometimes shortened to the Radical Party, was a Spanish Radical party in existence between 1908 and 1936. Beginning as a splinter from earlier Radical parties, it initially played a minor role in Spanish parliamentary life, before coming to prominence as one of the leading political forces of the Second Republic.
Elections to Spain’s legislature, the Cortes Generales, were held on 19 November 1933 for all 473 seats in the unicameral Cortes of the Second Spanish Republic. Since the previous elections of 1931, a new constitution had been ratified, and the franchise extended to more than six million women. The governing Republican-Socialist coalition had fallen apart, with the Radical Republican Party beginning to support a newly united political right.
The Socialist Party of Majorca, officially PSM–Entesa after the incorporation of Entesa per Mallorca (ExM) in February 2013, is a political party in Majorca, Spain. The PSM defines itself as socialist, environmentalist, and Catalan nationalist, from a Majorcan point of view.
The Spanish Democratic Socialist Party was a political party in Spain, active during the transition to democracy. The party was founded in 1975. The party sought to establish a democratic constitution in Spain. Antonio García López was the general secretary of the party.
Federico Melchor Fernández was a Spanish journalist and communist politician. He was one of the leaders of the Communist Youth Union of Spain. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) he was general director of Propaganda in the government of Juan Negrín. He became a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Spain.
Óscar Pérez Solís was a Spanish artillery officer, engineer, journalist and politician. He became attracted to left-wing causes, and left the army in 1912. He joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party and was its candidate in several general elections. In 1921 he was one of the founders of the Communist Party of Spain, and became secretary-general of the party. He converted to Catholicism during a period in prison in 1925–27. After being released he disavowed his left-wing beliefs and became associated with the right-wing Falangists.
Rafael Vidiella Franch was a trade unionist and communist politician from Catalonia. He served as a minister in the government of Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39).
The Federal Democratic Republican Party was a Spanish political party founded in 1868 during the Glorious Revolution that was active until 1912. Its ideology was federal republicanism and progressivism.
Movement for People's Unity–Republicans" is a Spanish left-wing republican political party in Spain. The party is a member of Republicans, a federation of political parties in Spain.
Women in the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in the Spanish Civil War were few in number, mainly as a result of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)'s resistance to women's rights. The party had opposed the women's rights movement, seeing it as a bourgeois endeavor that interfered with their ability to work for labor rights. Despite warnings from prominent women about the problems related to this position, they re-affirmed it several times in the period prior to the Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera.
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