Federal parliamentary republic

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A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and sub-national levels. It is a combination of the government republic and the parliamentary republic.

Federation A union of partially self-governing states or territories, united by a central (federal) government that exercizes directly on them its sovereign power

A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.

A jurisdiction is an area with a set of laws under the control of a system of courts or government entity which are different from neighbouring areas.

Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach.

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Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the sub-national entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be depending upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.

An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the Australian Senate, Brazil's Senado Federal, the Canadian Senate, France's Sénat, Germany's Bundesrat, India's Rajya Sabha, Ireland's Seanad, Malaysia's Dewan Negara, the Netherlands' Eerste Kamer, Pakistan's Senate of Pakistan, Russia's Federation Council, Switzerland's Council of States, United Kingdom's House of Lords and the United States Senate.

List of federal parliamentary republics

FederationStyleFormerly

entary republic adopted!!Head of state elected by

Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Republic One-party state
(as part of Nazi Germany)
States of Austria President of Austria Chancellor of Austria 1945Direct, by second-round system
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic One-party state Regions of Ethiopia President of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia 1991Parliament, by two-thirds majority
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Federal RepublicOne-party state States of Germany President of Germany Chancellor of Germany 1949Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority
Flag of India.svg  India Republic Constitutional monarchy
(Dominion)
States of India President of India Prime Minister of India 1950 Electoral College, parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Republic One-party state Regions of Iraq President of Iraq Prime Minister 2005Parliament, by two-thirds majority
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia Federated States UN Trust Territory (part of
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Subdivisions of Micronesia 1986Parliament, by majority
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Federal Democratic RepublicConstitutional monarchy Subdivisions of Nepal President of Nepal Prime Minister of Nepal 2015Parliament and state legislators
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Islamic Republic Semi-presidential republic Subdivisions of Pakistan President of Pakistan Prime Minister of Pakistan 2010 Electoral College, by two-thirds majority
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Federal RepublicOne-party state Subdivisions of Somalia President of Somalia Prime Minister of Somalia 2012Parliament
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Confederation Confederation Cantons of Switzerland 1848Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority

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