Federal parliamentary republic

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A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels. It is a combination of the federal republic and the parliamentary republic.


Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the subnational entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be dependent upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.

List of federal parliamentary republics

FederationStyleFormerlySubdivisionsHead of stateHead of governmentParliamentary republic adoptedHead of state elected by
  Austria Republic One-party state
(as part of Nazi Germany)
States of Austria President of Austria Chancellor of Austria 1945Direct, by second-round system
  Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic One-party state Regions of Ethiopia President of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia 1991Parliament, by two-thirds majority
  Germany Federal RepublicOne-party state States of Germany President of Germany Chancellor of Germany 1949Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority
  India Republic Constitutional monarchy
States of India President of India Prime Minister of India 1950 Electoral College, parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote
  Iraq Republic One-party state Regions of Iraq President of Iraq Prime Minister 2005Parliament, by two-thirds majority
  Micronesia Federated States UN Trust Territory (part of
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Subdivisions of Micronesia 1986Parliament, by majority
    Nepal Federal Democratic RepublicConstitutional monarchy Subdivisions of Nepal President of Nepal Prime Minister of Nepal 2015Parliament and state legislators
  Pakistan Islamic Republic Semi-presidential republic Subdivisions of Pakistan President of Pakistan Prime Minister of Pakistan 2010 Electoral College, by two-thirds majority
  Somalia Federal RepublicOne-party state Subdivisions of Somalia President of Somalia Prime Minister of Somalia 2012Parliament
   Switzerland Confederation Confederation Cantons of Switzerland 1848Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority

See also