Presidential system

Last updated

A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state. In a presidential system, the head of government is directly or indirectly elected by the people and is not responsible to the legislature, and the legislature cannot dismiss the president except in extraordinary cases. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government comes to power by gaining the confidence of an elected legislature.

Contents

World's states colored by form of government
Map legend
Full presidential republics
Semi-presidential republics
Republics with an executive president elected by or nominated by the legislature that may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence
Parliamentary republics
Parliamentary constitutional monarchies where royalty does not hold significant power
Parliamentary constitutional monarchies which have a separate head of government but where royalty holds significant executive and/or legislative power
Absolute monarchies
One-party states
Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military juntas)
Countries that do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. provisional governments/unclear political situations)
No government
This map was compiled according to the Wikipedia list of countries by system of government. See there for sources.
This map presents only the de jure form of government, and not the de facto degree of democracy. Some countries which are de jure republics are de facto authoritarian regimes. For a measure of the degree of democracy in countries around the world, see the Democracy Index.
.mw-parser-output .navbar{display:inline;font-size:88%;font-weight:normal}.mw-parser-output .navbar-collapse{float:left;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .navbar-boxtext{word-spacing:0}.mw-parser-output .navbar ul{display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::before{margin-right:-0.125em;content:"[ "}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::after{margin-left:-0.125em;content:" ]"}.mw-parser-output .navbar li{word-spacing:-0.125em}.mw-parser-output .navbar a>span,.mw-parser-output .navbar a>abbr{text-decoration:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-mini abbr{font-variant:small-caps;border-bottom:none;text-decoration:none;cursor:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-full{font-size:114%;margin:0 7em}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-mini{font-size:114%;margin:0 4em}
v
t
e Forms of government.svg
World's states colored by form of government

Not all presidential systems use the title of president. Likewise, the title is sometimes used by other systems. It originated from a time when such a person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. It may also be used by presidents in semi-presidential systems. Heads of state of parliamentary republics, largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents. Dictators or leaders of one-party states, whether popularly elected or not, are also often called presidents.

The presidential system is the dominant form of government in the mainland Americas, with 18 of its 22 sovereign states being presidential republics, the exceptions being Canada, Belize, Guyana and Suriname. It is also prevalent in Central and southern West Africa and in Central Asia. By contrast, there are very few presidential republics in Europe, with Belarus, Cyprus, and Turkey being the only examples.

History

Development in the Americas

The presidential system has its roots in the governance of the British colonies of the 17th century in what is now the United States. The Pilgrims, permitted to govern themselves in Plymouth Colony, established a system that utilized an independent executive branch. Each year, a governor was chosen by the colonial legislature, as well as several assistants, analogous to modern day cabinets. Additional executive officials such as constables and messengers were then appointed. [1] At the same time, the British Isles underwent a brief period of republicanism as The Protectorate, during which the Lord Protector served as an executive leader similar to a president. [2]

The first true presidential system was developed during the United States Constitutional Convention in 1787. [3] Drawing inspiration from the previous colonial governments, from English Common Law, and from philosophers such as John Locke and Montesquieu, the delegates developed what is now known as the presidential system.[ citation needed ] Most notably, James Wilson advocated for a unitary executive figure that would become the role of the president. [4] The United States became the first presidential republic when the Constitution of the United States came into force in 1789, and George Washington became the first president under a presidential system.

During the 1810s and 1820s, Spanish colonies in the Americas sought independence, and several new Spanish-speaking governments emerged in Latin America. These countries modeled their constitutions after that of the United States, and the presidential system became the dominant political system in the Americas. [3] Following several decades of monarchy, Brazil also adopted the presidential system in 1889.[ citation needed ] Latin American presidential systems have experienced varying levels of stability, with many experiencing periods of dictatorial rule. [5] [6] [7]

As a global system

Following the pattern of other Spanish colonies, the Philippines established the first presidential system in Asia in 1898, but it fell under American control due to the Spanish–American War. The presidential system was restored after the United States granted the Philippines independence in 1946. [3]

The end of World War II established presidential systems in two countries. After the United States ended the Japanese occupation of Korea, it assisted South Korea in the formation of a presidential government. However, the early years of the South Korean presidency were marked by dictatorial control.[ citation needed ] At the same time, Indonesia declared independence from the Netherlands in 1945. While it nominally used a presidential system, it was in effect a dictatorship where the president controlled all branches of government. A true presidential system was established in 1998.[ citation needed ]

Decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s brought with it significant expansion of the presidential system. During this time, several new presidential republics were formed in Africa. [3] Cyprus, [8] the Maldives, [9] and South Vietnam [ citation needed ] also adopted the presidential system following decolonization. Pakistan and Bangladesh did so as well, but they changed their governmental systems shortly afterward.[ citation needed ]

Several more countries adopted the presidential system in the final decades of the 20th century. A modified version of the presidential system was implemented in Iran following constitutional reform in 1989 in which the Supreme Leader serves as the head of state and is the absolute power in this country. [10] In 1981, Palau achieved independence and adopted a presidential system. [11] When the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the presidential system was adopted by the new states that were created, though most of them adopted other governmental systems over the following decades. [12] Belarus nominally maintains a presidential system, but critics allege that it has been transformed into a dictatorship. [13] [14] [15] The countries of Central Asia are also described as using the presidential system.[ citation needed ]

The presidential system continues to be adopted in the 21st century. Following its independence in 2011, South Sudan adopted a presidential system. [16] In 2018, Turkey abolished its parliamentary system in favor of a presidential system, which was criticized as an attempt by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to consolidate power. [17] [18] [19]

Characteristics

There are several characteristics that are unique to presidential systems or prominent in countries that use presidential systems. The defining aspect of presidential systems is the separation of powers that divides the executive and the legislature. Advocates of presidential systems cite the democratic nature of presidential elections, the advantages of separation of powers, the efficiency of a unitary executive, and the stability provided by fixed-terms. Opponents of presidential systems cite the potential for gridlock, the difficulty of changing leadership, and concerns that a unitary executive can give way to a dictatorship.

Separation of powers

The presidential system is defined by the separation of the executive branch from other aspects of government. The head of government is elected to work alongside, but not as a part of, the legislature. [20] There are several types of powers that are traditionally delegated to the president. Under a presidential system, the president may have the power to challenge legislation through a veto, [21] the power to pardon crimes, authority over foreign policy, authority to command the military as the Commander-in-chief, and authority over advisors and employees of the executive branch.[ citation needed ]

Checks and balances

Separation of powers is sometimes held up as an advantage, in that each branch may scrutinize the actions of the other. This is in contrast with a parliamentary system, where legislature that also serves as the executive won't scrutinize its own actions. Writing about the Watergate scandal, former British MP Woodrow Wyatt said "don't think a Watergate couldn't happen here, you just wouldn't hear about it." [22] The extent of this effect is debated. Some commentators argue that the effect is mitigated when the president's party is in power, while others note that party discipline is not as strictly enforced in presidential systems. [23]

Another stated benefit of the separation of powers is the ability of the legislature to enforce limits on the powers of the executive. In a parliamentary system, if important legislation proposed by the incumbent prime minister and his cabinet is "voted down" by a majority of the members of parliament then it is considered a vote of no confidence. Given the severe consequences of a no confidence vote, the executive has wide latitude to act without restraint and exercise control over the legislature. The presidential system has no such mechanism, and the legislature has little incentive to appease the president beyond saving face.[ citation needed ]

Efficiencies and inefficiencies

When an action is within the scope of a president's power, a presidential system can respond more rapidly to emerging situations than parliamentary ones. A prime minister, when taking action, needs to retain the support of the legislature, but a president is often less constrained. In Why England Slept , future U.S. president John F. Kennedy argued that British prime ministers Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain were constrained by the need to maintain the confidence of the Commons. [24]

Conversely, a presidential system can produce gridlock when the president and the legislature are in opposition. This is rarely a problem in a parliamentary system, as the prime minister is always a member of the party in power. This gridlock is common occurrence, as the electorate often expects more rapid results than are possible from new policies and switches to a different party at the next election. [25] Critics such as Juan Linz, argue that in such cases of gridlock, presidential systems don't offer voters the kind of accountability seen in parliamentary systems, and that this inherent political instability can cause democracies to fail, as seen in such cases as Brazil and Allende's Chile. [26]

It is easy for either the president or the legislature to escape blame by shifting it to the other. Describing the United States, former Treasury Secretary C. Douglas Dillon said "the president blames Congress, the Congress blames the president, and the public remains confused and disgusted with government in Washington". [27] Years before becoming president, Woodrow Wilson famously wrote "how is the schoolmaster, the nation, to know which boy needs the whipping?" [28] Walter Bagehot said of the American system, "the executive is crippled by not getting the law it needs, and the legislature is spoiled by having to act without responsibility: the executive becomes unfit for its name, since it cannot execute what it decides on; the legislature is demoralized by liberty, by taking decisions of others [and not itself] will suffer the effects". [29]

However, this gridlock is also sometimes touted as a benefit. Divided government, where the presidency and the legislature are controlled by different parties, is said to restrain the excesses of both the coalition and opposition, and guarantee cross-partisan input into legislation. In the United States, Republican Congressman Bill Frenzel wrote in 1995:[ citation needed ]

"There are some of us who think gridlock is the best thing since indoor plumbing. Gridlock is the natural gift the Framers of the Constitution gave us so that the country would not be subjected to policy swings resulting from the whimsy of the public. And the competition—whether multi-branch, multi-level, or multi-house—is important to those checks and balances and to our ongoing kind of centrist government. Thank heaven we do not have a government that nationalizes one year and privatizes next year, and so on ad infinitum".

Presidential elections

In a presidential system, the president is elected independently of the legislature. This may done directly through a popular vote or indirectly such as through the electoral college used in the United States. This aspect of presidential systems is sometimes touted as more democratic, as it provides a broader mandate for the president. Once elected, a president typically remains in office until the conclusion of a term. [30]

Fixed-terms

Presidential systems are typically understood as having a head of government elected by the people to serve one or more fixed-terms. Fixed-terms are praised for providing a level of stability that other systems lack. Although most parliamentary governments go long periods of time without a no confidence vote, Italy, Israel, and the French Fourth Republic have all experienced difficulties maintaining stability.[ citation needed ] When parliamentary systems have multiple parties, and governments are forced to rely on coalitions, as they often do in nations that use a system of proportional representation, extremist parties can theoretically use the threat of leaving a coalition to further their agendas.[ citation needed ]

Proponents of the presidential system also argue that stability extends to the cabinets chosen under the system. In most parliamentary systems, cabinets must be drawn from within the legislative branch. Under the presidential system, cabinet members can be selected from a much larger pool of potential candidates. This allows presidents the ability to select cabinet members based as much or more on their ability and competency to lead a particular department as on their loyalty to the president, as opposed to parliamentary cabinets, which might be filled by legislators chosen for no better reason than their perceived loyalty to the prime minister. Supporters of the presidential system note that parliamentary systems are prone to disruptive "cabinet shuffles" where legislators are moved between portfolios, whereas in presidential system cabinets (such as the United States Cabinet), cabinet shuffles are unusual.[ citation needed ]

Some political scientists dispute this concept of stability, arguing that presidential systems have difficulty sustaining democratic practices and that they have slipped into authoritarianism in many of the countries in which they have been implemented. According to political scientist Fred Riggs, presidential systems have fallen into authoritarianism in nearly every country they've been attempted. [31] [32] The list of the world's 22 older democracies includes only two countries (Costa Rica and the United States) with presidential systems. [33] Yale political scientist Juan Linz argues that: [26]

The danger that zero-sum presidential elections pose is compounded by the rigidity of the president's fixed term in office. Winners and losers are sharply defined for the entire period of the presidential mandate ... losers must wait four or five years without any access to executive power and patronage. The zero-sum game in presidential regimes raises the stakes of presidential elections and inevitably exacerbates their attendant tension and polarization.

Fixed-terms in a presidential system may also be considered a check on the powers of the executive, contrasting parliamentary systems, which may allow the prime minister to call elections whenever they see fit or orchestrate their own vote of no confidence to trigger an election when they cannot get a legislative item passed. The presidential model is said to discourage this sort of opportunism, and instead forces the executive to operate within the confines of a term they cannot alter to suit their own needs.[ citation needed ]

Limited mechanisms of removal

Unlike in parliamentary systems, the legislature does not have the power to recall a president under the presidential system. [30] However, presidential systems may have methods to remove presidents under extraordinary circumstances, such as a president committing a crime or becoming incapacitated. In some countries, presidents are subject to term limits.[ citation needed ]

The inability to remove a president early is also the subject of criticism. Even if a president is "proved to be inefficient, even if he becomes unpopular, even if his policy is unacceptable to the majority of his countrymen, he and his methods must be endured until the moment comes for a new election". [34]

The consistency of a presidency may be seen as beneficial during times of crisis. When in a time of crisis, countries may be better off being led by a president with a fixed term than rotating premierships.[ citation needed ] Some critics, however, argue that the presidential system is weaker because it does not allow a transfer of power in the event of an emergency. Walter Bagehot argues that the ideal ruler in times of calm is different from the ideal ruler in times of crisis, criticizing the presidential system for having no mechanism to make such a change. [29]

Head of government as head of state

In many cases, the president is elected as both the head of government and the head of state. This is in contrast to some parliamentary governments where the head of state separate from the head of government and plays a largely symbolic role.[ citation needed ]

The president's status is sometimes the subject of criticism. Dana D. Nelson criticizes the office of the President of the United States as essentially undemocratic and characterizes presidentialism as worship of the president by citizens, which she believes undermines civic participation. [35] [36] British-Irish philosopher and MP Edmund Burke stated that an official should be elected based on "his unbiased opinion, his mature judgment, his enlightened conscience", and therefore should reflect on the arguments for and against certain policies and then do what he believes is best for his constituents and country as a whole, even if it means short-term backlash. Thus defenders of presidential systems hold that sometimes what is wisest may not always be the most popular decision and vice versa.[ citation needed ]

Comparative politics

The separation of the executive and the legislative is the key difference between a presidential system and a parliamentary system. The presidential system elects a head of government independently of the legislature, while in contrast, the head of government in a parliamentary system answers directly to the legislature. Presidential systems necessarily operate under the principle of separation of powers, while parliamentary systems do not. [20] Heads of government under the presidential system don't depend on the approval of the legislature as they do in a parliamentary system (with the exception of mechanisms such as impeachment). [30]

The presidential system and the parliamentary system can also be blended into a semi-presidential system. Under such a system, executive power is shared by an elected head of state (a president) and a legislature-appointed head of government (a prime minister or premier). The amount of power each figure holds may vary, and a semi-presidential system may lean closer to one system over the other. [30] The president typically retains authority over foreign policy in a semi-presidential system.[ citation needed ] A pure presidential system may also have mechanisms that resemble those of a parliamentary system as part of checks and balances. The legislature may have oversight of some of the president's decisions through advice and consent, and mechanisms such as impeachment may allow the legislature to remove the president under drastic circumstances.[ citation needed ]

Subnational governments

Subnational governments, usually states, may be structured as presidential systems. All of the state governments in the United States use the presidential system, even though this is not constitutionally required. On a local level, many cities use council-manager government, which is equivalent to a parliamentary system, although the post of a city manager is normally a non-political position.[ citation needed ] Some countries without a presidential system at the national level use a form of this system at a subnational or local level. One example is Japan, where the national government uses the parliamentary system.

States with a presidential system of government

Italics indicate states with limited recognition.

Presidential systems without a prime minister

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Presidential systems with a prime minister

The following countries have presidential systems where a post of prime minister (official title may vary) exists alongside that of the president. The president is still both the head of state and government and the prime minister's roles are mostly to assist the president. Belarus, Gabon and Kazakhstan, where the prime minister is effectively the head of government and the president the head of state, are exceptions. In the case of the United Arab Emirates, the president functions as an ruler of seven absolute monarchies.

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Countries with a Supreme Leader

The following country has a Supreme Leader with absolute power.

Presidential system in administrative divisions

Dependencies of United States

Special administrative regions of China

Former presidential republics

See also

Notes

  1. Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage, and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
  2. as the Armenian SSR parliamentary in 1990-1991, Soviet age and after independence, it was a semi-presidential republic in 1991-1998, a presidential republic in 1998-2013, a semi-presidential republic in 2013-2018 and a parliamentary republic in 2018.
  3. as the Azerbaijan SSR, it was a presidential republic in 1990-1991, a semi-presidential republic after independence in 1991-1992, a presidential republic in 1992-2016 and a semi-presidential republic in 2016.
  4. Semi-presidential in 1971-1975, presidential in 1975-1991, semi-presidential in 1991-2009 and parliamentary republic since 2009.
  5. De facto Presidential system in 1948-1991 under a de jure parliamentary republic and semi-presidential since 1991.
  6. as the Georgian SSR and after independence, parliamentary in 1990-1991, semi-presidential in 1991-1995, presidential in 1995-2004, semi-presidential in 2004-2005 and presidential 2005-2011. Semi-presidential in 2011-2019 and parliamentary since 2019.
  7. A semi-presidential republic as the Weimar Republic in 1918-1930, a presidential republic in 1930-1933, a totalitarian dictatorship under a parliamentary system in 1933-1949 as a Nazi Germany, and a parliamentary republic in 1949.
  8. A presidential republic (1960-1991), military dictatorship (1968-1991,1991-1992, 2012, 2020-present) single-party state (1960-1968, 1974-1991) semi-presidential republic since 1991.
  9. A one-party presidential republic (1960-1978), military dictatorship (1978-1992, 2005-2007, 2008-2009) semi-presidential republic since 1992.
  10. A single-party presidential republic (1960-1974, 1989-1993), a military dictatorship (1974-1989, 1996-1999, 1999, 2010-2011), a semi-presidential republic (1993-1996, 1999-2010, 2011-present)
  11. All South Korean constitutions since 1963 provided for a strong executive Presidency; in addition, the formally-authoritarian Yushin Constitution of the Fourth Republic established a presidential power to dissolve the National Assembly, nominally counterbalanced by a vote of no confidence. Both of these provisions were retained by the Fifth Republic's constitution but repealed upon the transition to democracy and the establishment of the Sixth Republic
  12. An interim constitution passed in 1995 removed the President's ability to dissolve the Verkhovna Rada and the Rada's ability to dismiss the government by a vote of no confidence. Both of these provisions were restored upon the passage of a permanent constitution in 1996.

Related Research Articles

A head of state is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prime minister</span> Top minister of cabinet and government

A prime minister,premier or chief of cabinet is the head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. Under those systems, a prime minister is not the head of state, but rather the head of government, serving under either a monarch in a democratic constitutional monarchy or under a president in a republican form of government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">President (government title)</span> Title of the head of state in various governments

President is a common title for the head of state in most republics. The president of a nation is, generally speaking, the head of the government and the fundamental leader of the country or the ceremonial head of state.

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is sometimes called the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in parliamentary and semi-presidential systems where there can be overlap in membership and functions between different branches, especially the executive and legislative, although in most non-authoritarian jurisdictions, the judiciary almost never overlaps with the other branches, whether powers in the jurisdiction are separated or fused.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Westminster system</span> Parliamentary system of government

The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature. This concept was first developed in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Veto</span> Legal power to stop an official action, usually enactment of legislation

A veto is a legal power to unilaterally stop an official action. In the most typical case, a president or monarch vetoes a bill to stop it from becoming law. In many countries, veto powers are established in the country's constitution. Veto powers are also found at other levels of government, such as in state, provincial or local government, and in international bodies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parliamentary system</span> Form of government

A parliamentary system, or parliamentarian democracy, is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of the legislature, typically a parliament, to which it is accountable. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, where the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. Although often the executive branch of government, and often personified by a single elected person who holds the office of "president", in practice, the presidency includes a much larger collective of people, such as chiefs of staff, advisers and other bureaucrats. Although often led by a single person, presidencies can also be of a collective nature, such as the presidency of the European Union is held on a rotating basis by the various national governments of the member states. Alternatively, the term presidency can also be applied to the governing authority of some churches, and may even refer to the holder of a non-governmental office of president in a corporation, business, charity, university, etc. or the institutional arrangement around them. For example, "the presidency of the Red Cross refused to support his idea." Rules and support to discourage vicarious liability leading to unnecessary pressure and the early termination of term have not been clarified. These may not be as yet supported by state let initiatives. Contributory liability and fraud may be the two most common ways to become removed from term of office and/or to prevent re-election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Semi-presidential republic</span> System of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet

A semi-presidential republic, or dual executive republic, is a republic in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of the state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state who is more than a ceremonial figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of the Republic of China</span> Supreme law of the East Asian country

The Constitution of the Republic of China is the fifth and current constitution of the Republic of China (ROC), ratified by the Kuomintang during the Constituent National Assembly session on 25 December 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on 25 December 1947. The constitution, along with its Additional Articles, remains effective in ROC-controlled territories.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Lithuania</span>

The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania. It was approved in a referendum on 25 October 1992.

In the United States, divided government describes a situation in which one party controls the White House, while another party controls one or both houses of the United States Congress. Divided government is seen by different groups as a benefit or as an undesirable product of the model of governance used in the U.S. political system. Under said model, known as the separation of powers, the state is divided into different branches. Each branch has separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the others. The degree to which the president of the United States has control of Congress often determines their political strength, such as the ability to pass sponsored legislation, ratify treaties, and have Cabinet members and judges approved. Early in the 19th century, divided government was rare but since the 1970s it has become increasingly common.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parliamentary republic</span> Form of government

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature. There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.

Fusion of powers is a feature of some parliamentary forms of government where different branches of government are intermingled, typically the executive and legislative branches. It is contrasted with the separation of powers found in presidential, semi-presidential and dualistic parliamentary forms of government, where the membership of the legislative and executive powers cannot overlap. Fusion of powers exists in many, if not a majority of, parliamentary democracies, and does so by design. However, in all modern democratic polities the judiciary does not possess legislative or executive powers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Armenia</span> Supreme law of Armenia

The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide Armenian referendum on July 5, 1995. This constitution established Armenia as a democratic, sovereign, social, and constitutional state. Yerevan is defined as the state's capital. Power is vested in its citizens, who exercise it directly through the election of government representatives. Decisions related to changes in constitutional status or to an alteration of borders are subject to a vote of the citizens of Armenia exercised in a referendum. There are 117 articles in the 1995 constitution. On November 27, 2005, a nationwide constitutional referendum was held and an amended constitution was adopted. The constitution was amended again in a national referendum on December 6, 2015 that changed the political structure from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Separation of powers in Singapore</span>

The Separation of powers in Singapore is governed by Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, which splits the power to govern the country between three branches of government – the parliament, which makes laws; the executive, which executes them; and the judiciary, which enforces them. Each branch, while wielding legitimate power and being protected from external influences, is subject to a system of checks and balances by the other branches to prevent abuse of power. This Westminster constitutional model was inherited from the British during Singapore's colonial years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Somalia</span>

The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia is the supreme law of Somalia. It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Federal Republic and source of legal authority. It sets out the rights and duties of its citizens, and defines the structure of government. The Provisional Constitution was adopted on August 1, 2012 by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu, Banaadir.

A divided government is a type of government in presidential systems, when control of the executive branch and the legislative branch is split between two political parties, respectively, and in semi-presidential systems, when the executive branch itself is split between two parties. The former can also occur in parliamentary systems but is often not relevant since if the executive does not satisfy or comply with the demands of parliament, parliament can force the executive to resign via a motion of no confidence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Semi-parliamentary system</span> System where voters vote simultaneously for both prime minister and members of legislature

Semi-parliamentary system can refer to either a prime-ministerial system, in which voters simultaneously vote for both members of legislature and the prime minister, or to a system of government in which the legislature is split into two parts that are both directly elected – one that has the power to remove the members of the executive by a vote of no confidence and another that does not. The former was first proposed by Maurice Duverger, who used it to refer to Israel from 1996-2001. The second was identified by German academic Steffen Ganghof.

References

  1. Fennell, Christopher. "Plymouth Colony Legal Structure". Histarch.uiuc.edu.
  2. Vile, M. J. (1967). The separation of powers. In: Greene, J. P., & Pole, J. R. (Eds.). (2008). A companion to the American Revolution, Ch. 87. John Wiley & Sons..
  3. 1 2 3 4 Sundquist, James L. (1997). "The U.S. Presidential System as a Model for the World". In Baaklini, Abdo I.; Desfosses, Helen (eds.). Designs for Democratic Stability: Studies in Viable Constitutionalism. Routledge. pp. 53–72. ISBN   0765600528.
  4. McCarthy, Daniel J. (1987). "James Wilson and the Creation of the Presidency". Presidential Studies Quarterly . 17 (4): 689–696.
  5. Sondrol, Paul (2005). "The Presidentialist Tradition in Latin America". International Journal of Public Administration . 28 (5): 517–530. doi:10.1081/PAD-200055210. S2CID   153822718.
  6. Mainwaring, Scott (1990). "Presidentialism in Latin America". Latin American Research Review . 25: 157–179.
  7. Valenzuela, Arturo (2004). "Latin American Presidencies Interrupted". Journal of Democracy . 15 (4): 5–19. doi:10.1353/jod.2004.0075. S2CID   51825804.
  8. Ker-Lindsay, James (2006). "Presidential Power and Authority in the Republic of Cyprus". Mediterranean Politics . 11: 21–37. doi:10.1080/13629390500490379. S2CID   145444372.
  9. Heath-Brown, Nick (2015). "Maldives". The Statesman's Yearbook 2016.
  10. Buchta, Wilfried (2000). Who Rules Iran? The Structure of Power in the Islamic Republic. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy and the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. p. 22. ISBN   0944029361.
  11. Shuster, Donald R. (1983). "Elections in the Republic of Palau". Political Science . 35: 117–132. doi:10.1177/003231878303500108.
  12. Hale, Henry E. (2012). "Two Decades of Post-Soviet Regime Dynamics". Demokratizatsiya . 20 (2): 71–77.
  13. Shipunov, G.V. (2014). "Authoritarian regime in Belarus: history of formation". Granì . 9: 92–99.
  14. Sannikov, Andrei (2005). "The Accidental Dictatorship of Alexander Lukashenko". The SAIS Review of International Affairs . 25: 75–88. doi:10.1353/sais.2005.0017. S2CID   154701435.
  15. "Why Belarus is called Europe's last dictatorship". The Economist. 2021. ISSN   0013-0613 . Retrieved 2022-03-01.
  16. Diehl, Katharina; van der Horst, Judith (2013). "The New Electoral Law in South Sudan". Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America . 46 (2): 215–233.
  17. Kirişci, Kemal; Toygür, Ilke (2019). "Turkey's new presidential system and a changing west". Brookings .
  18. Adar, Sinem; Seufert, Günter (2021). "Turkey's Presidential System after Two and a Half Years". Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.
  19. "Turkey elections: How powerful will the next Turkish president be?". BBC News. 2018-06-25. Retrieved 2022-03-01.
  20. 1 2 von Mettenheim, Kurt (1997). Presidential Institutions and Democratic Politics. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 2–15. ISBN   0801853133.
  21. Tsebelis, George (1995). "Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism". British Journal of Political Science . 25 (3): 289–325. doi:10.1017/S0007123400007225. S2CID   18060081.
  22. Schlesinger, Arthur (1974). "No Way to Curb the Executive". The New Republic .
  23. Depauw, Sam; Martin, Shane (2008). "Legislative party discipline and cohesion in comparative perspective". In Giannetti, Daniela; Benoit, Kenneth (eds.). Intra-Party Politics and Coalition Governments. Routledge.
  24. Kennedy, John F. (1940). Why England Slept. Wilfred Funk, Inc.
  25. George, Edwards; Warrenberg, Martin (2016). Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy, AP* Edition – 2016 Presidential Election, 17th Edition. Pearson Higher Education. p. 16. ISBN   9780134586571.
  26. 1 2 Linz, Juan (1990). "The perils of presidentialism". The Journal of Democracy . 1: 51–69.
  27. Sundquist, James (1992). Constitutional Reform and Effective Government . Brookings Institution Press. p.  11.
  28. Wilson, Congressional Government (1885), pp. 186–187.
  29. 1 2 Balfour. "The Cabinet". The English Constitution.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Sargentich, Thomas O. (1993). "The Presidential and Parliamentary Models of National Government". American University International Law Review . 8 (2): 579–592.
  31. Riggs, Fred W. (1997). "Presidentialism versus Parliamentarism: Implications for Representativeness and Legitimacy". International Political Science Review. 18 (3): 258. doi:10.1177/019251297018003003. JSTOR   1601343. S2CID   145450791.
  32. "Conceptual homogenization of a heterogeneous field: Presidentialism in comparative perspective". Comparing Nations: Concepts, Strategies, Substance: 72–152. 1994.
  33. Dahl, Robert A. (2001). How Democratic Is the American Constitution?. ISBN   0-300-09218-0.
  34. Balfour. "Introduction". The English Constitution.
  35. Nelson, Dana D. (2008). Bad for Democracy: How the Presidency Undermines the Power of the People. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. p. 248. ISBN   978-0-8166-5677-6.
  36. Sirota, David (August 22, 2008). "Why cult of presidency is bad for democracy". San Francisco Chronicle . Retrieved 2009-09-20.
  37. Chen, Albert Hung Yee (n.d.). "The Executive Authorities and the Legislature in the Political Structure of the Hong Kong SAR" (PDF).