One-party state

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Forms of government 2021.svg
Systems of government
Republican forms of government:
   Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature
   Semi-presidential system with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the rest of the executive, who is appointed by the president and accountable to the legislature
   Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial and non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive and is dependent on the confidence of the legislature
  Republics in which a combined head of state and government is elected by, or nominated by, the legislature and may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence

Monarchical forms of government:
   Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial and non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
   Semi-constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial monarch, but where royalty still hold significant executive or legislative power
   Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive

   One-party states (in principle republics)
  Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended
  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. provisional government or unclear political situations)

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. [1] All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term "de facto one-party state" is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.

Contents

Although it is predated by the 1714 to 1783 "age of the Whig oligarchy" in Great Britain, [2] the rule of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) over the Ottoman Empire following the 1913 coup d'etat is often considered the first one-party state. [3]

Concept

One-party states justify themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, being its most politically aware members, and therefore the party's right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that the existence of multiple political parties would perpetuate class struggle, so only a single party could lead a classless proletariat; it therefore made the Communist Party of the Soviet Union the only authorised political party.

Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition (such as a popular front). However, these allied parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Other states outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as independents, as was the case with Taiwan's Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Still others have only a single legal party, membership of which is a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in Turkmenistan under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov or Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko.

Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.

Most one-party states have been ruled by one of the following:

  1. A party which supports the ideology of Marxism–Leninism and vanguardism (sometimes described as "communist states", such as the Soviet Union)
  2. A party which supports a nationalist or fascist ideology (such as the Kingdom of Italy under the National Fascist Party or Germany under the Nazi Party)
  3. A party that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles.

One-party states are usually considered [ by whom? ] to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.

Current one-party states

As of 2023 the following countries are legally constituted[ citation needed ] as one-party states:

CountryHead of partyLeader titlePartyIdeologyDate of establishmentDurationNotes
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
Xi Jinping 2016.jpg
Xi Jinping
General Secretary Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Chinese Communist Party Socialism with Chinese characteristics 20 September 1954 [4] [5] 68 years, 127 days
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
Miguel Diaz-Canel (cropped).jpg
Miguel Díaz-Canel
First Secretary Red flag.svg Communist Party of Cuba Marxism–Leninism, Castroism, Guevarism, left-wing nationalism 16 April 196161 years, 284 days
Flag of Eritrea.svg Eritrea
Isaias Afwerki in 2002.jpg
Isaias Afwerki
Chairperson Flag of the EPLF.svg People's Front for Democracy and Justice Eritrean nationalism, statism 24 May 199329 years, 246 days
Flag of Laos.svg Laos
Mr. Thongloun Sisoulith.jpg
Thongloun Sisoulith
General Secretary Flag of LPRP.svg Lao People's Revolutionary Party Kaysone Phomvihane Thought 2 December 197547 years, 54 days
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea
Kim Jong-un April 2019 (cropped).jpg
Kim Jong-un
General Secretary Flag of the Workers' Party of Korea.svg Workers' Party of Korea Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism 10 October 194577 years, 107 daysLeads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea
Flag of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Brahim Ghali.jpg
Brahim Ghali
Secretary General Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Polisario Front Sahrawi nationalism, social democracy 27 February 197646 years, 332 days
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam
Mr. Nguyen Phu Trong.jpg
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
General Secretary Flag of the Communist Party of Vietnam.svg Communist Party of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Thought 2 July 1976 46 years,

180 days

Former one-party states

CountryPartyIdeologyDate of establishmentDate of dissolutionContinent
Flag of Afghanistan (1978).svg Republic of Afghanistan National Revolutionary Party Pashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Secularism February 14, 1977 [6] [7] April 28, 1978Asia
Flag of Afghanistan (1978-1980).svgFlag of Afghanistan (1980-1987).svg Afghanistan Flag of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.svg People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (National Fatherland Front) Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialism December 24, 1980July 27, 1990Asia
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Kingdom Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Fascist Party Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, Hellenophobia June 2, 1939July 27, 1943Europe
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Kingdom Guard of Greater Albania Albanian nationalism, Fascism July 27, 1943September 8, 1943Europe
Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom National Front Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialism September 14, 1943November 29, 1943Europe
Flag of Albania (1944-1946).svgFlag of Albania (1946-1992).svg Democratic Government of Albania Flag of Party of Labour of Albania.svg Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism October 20, 1944August 5, 1945Europe
Flag of Albania (1944-1946).svgFlag of Albania (1946-1992).svg Democratic Government of Albania Flag of Party of Labour of Albania.svg Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front)August 5, 1945January 11, 1946Europe
Flag of Albania (1946-1992).svg Albania January 11, 1946December 11, 1990Europe
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Variant flag of the GPRA (1958-1962).svg National Liberation Front Arab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism 19621989Africa
Flag of Angola.svg People's Republic of Angola Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (bandeira).svg People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–Leninism November 11, 1975May 30, 1991Africa
Flag of SSRA.svg Armenia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 2, 1920December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR (1925-1936).svg Transcaucasia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Austria.svg Federal State of Austria Flag of the Fatherland Front of Austria.svg Fatherland Front Clerical fascism May 1, 1934March 13, 1938Europe
Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1920).svgFlag of Azerbaijan SSR (1920-1921).svgFlag of Azerbaijan SSR (1921-1922).svg Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism April 30, 1920December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR (1925-1936).svg Transcaucasia Azerbaijan Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League Mujibism, Bengali nationalism, Socialism January 24, 1975August 15, 1975Asia
Flag of Benin.svg Dahomey Dahomeyan Democratic Party African nationalism 19631965Africa
Flag of Benin (1975-1990).svg Benin Flag of PRPB.svg People's Revolutionary Party of Benin Communism, Marxism–Leninism (nominally)November 30, 1975March 1, 1990Africa
Flag of Bohmen und Mahren.svg Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia National Partnership flag.png National Partnership Nazism March 21, 1939May 9, 1945Europe
Flag of Bulgaria (1946-1948).svgFlag of Bulgaria (1948-1967).svgFlag of Bulgaria (1967-1971).svgFlag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg Bulgaria FlagBKP.svg Bulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism September 15, 1946January 15, 1990Europe
Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg Burma Burma Socialist Programme Party flag.svg Burma Socialist Programme Party Burmese Way to Socialism 19621988Asia
Flag of Burundi (1967-1982).svgFlag of Burundi.svg Republic of Burundi Flag of the UPRONA.svg Union for National Progress Burundian nationalism, Tutsi interestsJuly 11, 1974March 13, 1992Africa
Flag of Byelorussian SSR (1919-1927).svg Byelorussia Communist Party of Byelorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 31, 1920December 30, 1922Europe
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia (Sangkum era) Sangkum Khmer nationalism, National conservatism, Royalism, Statism, Buddhist socialism, Economic nationalism 19551970Asia
Flag of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.svgFlag of the State of Cambodia.svg Kampuchea Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Revisionism, Left-wing nationalism January 7, 1979October 23, 1991Asia
Flag of Cameroon (1961-1975).svgFlag of Cameroon.svg Republic of Cameroon Cameroonian National Union Big tent September 1, 1966 [8] March 24, 1985Africa
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Cameroon People's Democratic Movement Big tent, Nationalism, Francophilia 19751990Africa
Flag of Cape Verde (1975-1992).svg  Cape Verde Flag of PAIGC.svg African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19751980Africa
Flag of Cape Verde (1975-1992).svg  Cape Verde Flag of PAICV.svg African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19801990Africa
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa African nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism 19621980Africa
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Union African nationalism, Republicanism March 1, 1980September 2, 1981Africa
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, Republicanism February 6, 1987April 22, 1991 [9] Africa
Flag of Chad.svg Chad Chadian Progressive Party African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism April 16, 1962April 6, 1973Africa
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism April 6, 1973April 13, 1975Africa
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad National Union for Independence and Revolution Nationalism 19841990Africa
Guangzhou Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19271927Asia
Hunan Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19271927Asia
Jinggang Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19271928Asia
Southwest Jiangxi Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19301931Asia
National Flag of Chinese Soviet Republic.svg Chinese Soviet Republic Flag of the Chinese Communist Party (Pre-1996).svg Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19301937Asia
Flag of Xinjiang-Shicai 2.svg Xinjiang People's Anti-Imperialist Association Six Great Policies 19351942Asia
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China [note 1] /Taiwan Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Kuomintang Tridemism 1 July 192515 July 1987Asia
Yan'an Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19371949Asia
Flag of the Comoros (1978-1992).svg  Comoros Comorian Union for Progress Nationalism 19821990Africa
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Flag of the People's Republic of the Congo.svg People's Republic of the Congo Congolese Party of Labour Communism, Marxism–Leninism January 31, 19691991Africa
State Flag of Costa Rica (1906-1964).svg Tinoquista Costa Rica Peliquista Party Nationalism 19171919North America
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovakia Flag of the KSC.svg Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Husakism February 25, 1948November 30, 1989Europe
Flag of Benin.svg Dahomey Dahomeyan Unity Party African nationalism, Republicanism 19611963Africa
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti People's Rally for Progress Issa interests 19771992Africa
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic Dominican Party Trujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism 19311961Central America
Flag of Germany.svg East Germany Flagge der SED.svg Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism October 7, 1949March 30, 1950Europe
Flag of East Germany.svg East Germany Flagge der SED.svg Socialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 30, 1950December 1, 1989Europe
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent 19561958Africa
Flag of the United Arab Republic.svg  Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent 19611962Africa
Flag of Egypt (1972-1984).svg  Egypt Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 19621976Africa
Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador Propatria.png National Pro Patria Party Fascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy 19311944Central America
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea United National Workers' Party African nationalism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism 19701979Africa
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea African nationalism, Militarism 19871991Africa
Flag of Eritrea (1993-1995).svg  Eritrea Flag of the EPLF.svg Eritrean People's Liberation Front Left-wing nationalism 1991 (Provisional government)

1993 (Recognized state)

1994Africa
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution) Estonian nationalism, PersonalismMarch 9, 1935July 21, 1940Europe
Flag of Estonian SSR (1940-1953).svg Estonia Communist Party of Estonia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940August 9, 1940Europe
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987) (02).svg Ethiopia Commission for Organizing the Party of the Working People of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism September 12, 1984February 22, 1987Africa
Flag of Ethiopia (1987-1991).svg Ethiopia Workers-Party-of-Ethiopia-flag.png Workers' Party of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism February 22, 1987April 28, 1991Africa
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon Gabonese Democratic Party Conservatism 19681990Africa
Flag of Georgian SSR (1921-1922).svg Georgia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 25, 1921December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR (1925-1936).svg Transcaucasia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Nazi Germany Flag of the NSDAP (1920-1945).svg National Socialist German Workers' Party Nazism July 14, 1933May 23, 1945Europe
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories Flag of National Socialist Movement.svg National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands Nazism, collaborationism December 14, 1941May 6, 1945Europe
Ghana flag 1964.svg  Ghana Convention People's Party Nkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19641966Africa
Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada New Jewel Movement Communism, Marxism–Leninism March 13, 1979October 25, 1983Central America
Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala Progressive Liberal Party Ubicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism 19311944Central America
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism 19581984Africa
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19741991Africa
Flag of Haiti (1964-1986).svg Haiti Flag of Haiti (1964-1986, civil).svg National Unity Party Black nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism 19571985Central America
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Reform Party Americanisation, Annexationism 18941898North America
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Government of National Unity Flag of the Arrow Cross Party 1942 to 1945.svg Arrow Cross Party Hungarism, Fascism, Collaborationism, Agrarianism October 16, 1944May 7, 1945Europe
Flag of Hungary (1949-1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of the Hungarian Revolution (1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957; 1-2 aspect ratio).svg Hungary Flag of the Hungarian Working People's Party.svg Hungarian Working People's Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism August 20, 1949October 30, 1956Europe
Flag of the Hungarian Revolution (1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of Hungary.svg Hungary Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Kádárism November 4, 1956October 7, 1989Europe
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Indonesian National Party Nationalism, Marhaenism August 17, 1945November 3, 1945Asia
State Flag of Iran (1964).svg Imperial State of Iran Rastakhiz Party Monarchism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position 19751978Asia
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Islamic Republican Party Velyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment 19811987Asia
Flag of Iraq (1959-1963).svgFlag of Iraq (1963-1991).svg Iraq Iraqi Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 19641968Asia
Flag of Iraq (1963-1991).svgFlag of Iraq (1991-2004).svg Iraq Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Saddamist Ba'athism 19682003Asia
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Kingdom of Italy Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg National Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism May 17, 1928 [10]
  • January 9, 1939
July 27, 1943Europe
  • Africa
Flag of Italy.svg Italian Social Republic Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg Republican Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism, Antisemitism, Collaborationism September 13, 1943April 28, 1945Europe
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast Democratic Party of Ivory Coast – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism 19601990Africa
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Empire of Japan Imperial Rule Assistance Association Shōwa statism 19401945Asia
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Philippine Executive Commission Flag of Kalibapi.svg Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism December 8, 1942October 14, 1943Asia
Flag of Democratic Kampuchea.svg Kampuchea Banner of the Communist Party of Kampuchea.svg Communist Party of Kampuchea Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, Ultranationalism April 17, 1975June 22, 1982Asia
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Kenya African National Union Kenyan nationalism, Conservatism 19821991Africa
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement Croatian irredentism, Croatian ultranationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communism April 10, 1941May 8, 1945Europe
Flag of Latvian SSR (1918-1920).svg Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 17, 1918January 13, 1920Europe
Flag of Latvian SSR (1940-1953).svg Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940August 5, 1940Europe
Flag of Libya (1969-1972).svg Libya Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism 19711977Africa
Flag of the Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR.svg Lithuania–Byelorussia Communist Party of Lithuania and Belorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 17, 1919July 17, 1919Europe
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania Flag of Lithuanian National Union.svg Lithuanian Nationalist Union Lithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Antisemitism 19271940Europe
Flag of Lithuanian SSR (1940-1953).svg Lithuania Communist Party of Lithuania Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940August 3, 1940Europe
Flag of Madagascar.svg Democratic Republic of Madagascar National Front for the Defense of the Revolution Left-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism 19761989Africa
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi Malawi Congress Party Ubuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism 19641993Africa
Flag of Mali (1959-1961).svgFlag of Mali.svg  Mali Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism 19601968Africa
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Democratic Union of the Malian People African socialism, Democratic centralism 19761991Africa
Flag of Manchukuo.svg Manchukuo Flag of Concordia Association.svg Concordia Association Fascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, Personalism, collaborationism April 1, 1932 [11] May 1, 1945 [11] Asia
Flag of Mauritania (1959-2017).svg  Mauritania Mauritanian People's Party Nationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism 19611978Africa
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1924-1930).svgFlag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1930-1940).svgFlag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1945).svgFlag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1992).svg Mongolia Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1921July 29, 1990Asia
Flag of Mozambique (1974-1975).svgFlag of Mozambique (1975-1983).svgFlag of Mozambique (1983).svgFlag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique Flag of FRELIMO (1997-2004).svg FRELIMO Marxism–Leninism June 25, 1975December 1, 1990Africa
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19601974Africa
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger National Movement for the Development of Society Conservatism 19891991Africa
Flag of North Vietnam 1945-1955.svg  Vietnam (partially)Flag of the Communist Party of Vietnam.svg Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought September 2, 19451946[ citation needed ]Asia
Flag of North Vietnam (1955-1975).svg  North Vietnam Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought 1955July 2, 1976Asia
Flag of North Yemen.svg  North Yemen General People's Congress flag.svg General People's Congress Yemeni nationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent 19821988Asia
Flag of Norway.svg National Government Flag of Nasjonal Samling.svg National Rally Fascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, Collaborationism September 25, 1940May 8, 1945Europe
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844-1922).svg  Ottoman Empire Union and Progress Party [12] İttihadism 11 June 19131918Asia/Europe
Flag of Paraguay.svg Paraguay Bandera Partido Colorado de Paraguay.svg Colorado Party Conservatism, national conservatism 19471962South America
Flag of Persian Socialist Soviet Republic.svg Persia Communist Party of Persia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19201921Asia
Flag of the Philippines (1943-1945).svg Republic of the Philippines Flag of Kalibapi.svg Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism October 14, 1943August 17, 1945Asia
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svgFlag of Poland (with coat of arms, 1980-1990).svg Poland Polish United Workers' Party flag.svg Polish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 5, 1947July 1982Europe
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svgFlag of Poland (with coat of arms, 1980-1990).svg Poland Polish United Workers' Party flag.svg Polish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 1982August 24, 1989Europe
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Uniao Nacional Flag.svg National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano July 30, 1930 [13] October 8, 1945 [13] Europe
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Uniao Nacional Flag.svg National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano January 31, 1948 [14] September 1969 [note 2] Europe
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Uniao Nacional Flag.svg People's National Action (formerly National Union) Corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 1970April 25, 1974Europe
Flag of Romania.svg Romania Flag of the National Renaissance Front.svg Party of the Nation Big tent, Romanian nationalism, Monarchism December 16, 1938September 6, 1940Europe
Flag of Romania.svg Flag of the Legionary Movement.png National Legionary State Flag of the Iron Guard (Legion of the Archangel Michael or Legionary Movement).svg Iron Guard Legionarism, clerical fascism, Christian nationalism September 6, 1940January 23, 1941Europe
Flag of Romania.svgFlag of Romania (1948-1952).svgFlag of Romania (1952-1965).svgFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Romania Flag of PCR.svg Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism February 5, 19481968Europe
Flag of Romania (1948-1952).svgFlag of Romania (1952-1965).svgFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Romania Flag of PCR.svg Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 19681980Europe
Flag of Romania.svgFlag of Romania (1948-1952).svgFlag of Romania (1952-1965).svgFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Romania Flag of PCR.svg Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1980December 29, 1989Europe
Flag of Rwanda (1962-2001).svg  Rwanda Parmehutu Hutu Power 19651973Africa
Flag of Rwanda (1962-2001).svg  Rwanda Flag of the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND).png National Revolutionary Movement for Development Hutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism 19781991Africa
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino Sammarinese Fascist Party Italian fascism, Corporatism 19261943Europe
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino Republican Fascist Party of San Marino Italian fascism 19431944Europe
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Socialist Party of Senegal African nationalism, African socialism 19661974Africa
Flag of Seychelles (1977-1996).svg  Seychelles Seychelles People's Progressive Front Communism, Marxism-Leninism 19771991Africa
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone All People's Congress African nationalism, Democratic socialism 19781991Africa
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic Flag of the Hlinka party (1938-1945) variant 2.svg Hlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National Unity Clerical fascism, Slovak nationalism March 14, 1939May 8, 1945Europe
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Islamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism

Scientific socialism, Somali nationalism

July 1976January 26, 1991Africa
Flag of South Yemen.svg  South Yemen Flag of the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf.svg National Liberation Front Arab nationalism, Arab socialism November 30, 1967October 31, 1978Asia
Flag of South Yemen.svg  South Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party Flag.svg Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism October 31, 1978May 22, 1990Asia
Flag of South Yemen.svg Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party Flag.svg Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism May 21, 1994July 7, 1994Asia
Flag of the Commune of the Working People of Estonia.svg Estonia Russian Communist Party (Central Committee of the Estonian Sections) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism November 29, 1918June 5, 1919Europe
Flag the Russian SFSR (1918).svgFlag of the Russian SFSR (1918-1920).svg Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 8, 1918 [15] December 30, 1922Europe/Asia
Flag the Russian SFSR (1918).svgFlag of the Russian SFSR (1918-1920).svg Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism January 19, 1918March 8, 1918 [15] Europe/Asia
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1924).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1924-1936).svgFlag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 30, 1922December 31, 1925 [15] Europe/Asia
Flag of the Soviet Union (1924).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1924-1936).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svgFlag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics All-Union Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Stalinism December 31, 1925 [15] October 13, 1952 [15] Europe/Asia
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svgFlag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Communist Party of the Soviet Union Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism October 13, 1952 [15] October 9, 1990 [16] Europe/Asia
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Kingdom of Spain Patriotic Union Spanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism 19241930Europe
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg Spanish State Bandera FE JONS.svg FET y de las JONS Francoism, Falangism, Spanish nationalism, traditionalism, National Catholicism, anti-liberalism, corporatism April 19, 1937July 6, 1976 [17] Europe
Flag of Sudan.svg Democratic Republic of the Sudan Flag of the Sudanese Socialist Union.svg Sudanese Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism 19711985Africa
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan National Congress Party Islamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism 19892005Africa
Flag of Syria (1932-1958; 1961-1963).svg Syrian Republic Arab Liberation Movement Pan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western 19531954Asia
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Neo-Ba'athism 1963February 27, 2012 [18] [19] Asia
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe – Social Democratic Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19751990Africa
Flag of Tanganyika (1961-1964).svg  Tanganyika Flag of TANU.svg Tanganyika African National Union African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa 19611977Africa
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Chama Cha Mapinduzi Ujamaa, African socialism 19771992Africa
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Party of Togolese Unity African nationalism 19621963Africa
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Rally of the Togolese People African nationalism, Right-wing populism 19691991Africa
Flag of Tunisia (1959-1999).svg  Tunisia Neo Destour Tunisian nationalism, Bourguibism 19631964Africa
Flag of Tunisia (1959-1999).svg  Tunisia Socialist Destourian Party Tunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism 19641981Africa
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey (one-party period)Flag of the Republican People's Party (Turkey).svg Republican People's Party Kemalism 19231945Asia/Europe
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan Turkmen nationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party 19922008Asia
Flag of the Tuvinian Peoples Revolutionary Party.svgFlag of Tannu Tuva (1921-1926).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1926-1930).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1930-1933).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1933-1939).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1941-1943).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1943-1944).svg Tuva Flag of the Tuvinian Peoples Revolutionary Party.svg Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism August 14, 1921October 11, 1944Asia
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Flag of Uganda People's Congress (UPC).png Uganda People's Congress Social democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19691971Africa
Flag of Ukrainian SSR (1919-1929).svg Ukraine Communist Party of Ukraine Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 10, 1919December 30, 1922Europe
Flag of the United Arab Republic.svg  United Arab Republic National Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism 19581961Africa
Flag of Upper Volta.svg Upper Volta Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19601966Africa
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy Royalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism 19291931Europe
Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.svgFlag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia Flag.svg League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia) Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, Yugoslavism November 29, 1945January 22, 1990Europe
Flag of Zaire (1971-1997).svg Zaire Popular Movement of the Revolution Mobutism, Zairean nationalism, Authenticité 19701990Africa
Flag of Zambia (1964-1996).svg  Zambia Unip Zambia Flag.png United National Independence Party African socialism, African nationalism 19721990Africa
Flag of Zanzibar.svg  Zanzibar Flag of Afro-Shirazi party.svg Afro-Shirazi Party African nationalism, Marxism–Leninism 19641977Africa

See also

Notes

  1. The Republic of China controlled the mainland from 1912 to 1949 and the island of Taiwan since 1945, in which the ROC currently administers the Free area. This government served China in the United Nations from 1945 to 1971. See Political status of Taiwan and the One-China policy for various viewpoints.
  2. Following the appointment of Marcelo Caetano as Prime Minister in 1968, the opposition was allowed to run to the 1969 Portuguese legislative election, before being banned.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese Communist Party</span> Founding and sole ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the CCP emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang, and, in 1949, Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since then, the CCP has governed China with eight smaller parties within its united front and has sole control over the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Each successive leader of the CCP has added their own theories to the party's constitution, which outlines the ideological beliefs of the party, collectively referred to as socialism with Chinese characteristics. As of 2022, the CCP has more than 96 million members, making it the second largest political party by party membership in the world after India's Bharatiya Janata Party. The Chinese public generally refers to the CCP as simply "the Party".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leninism</span> Communist ideology and state ideology of socialist states

Leninism is a political ideology developed by Russian Marxist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin that proposes the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat led by a revolutionary vanguard party as the political prelude to the establishment of communism. The function of the Leninist vanguard party is to provide the working classes with the political consciousness and revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in the Russian Empire (1721–1917). Leninist revolutionary leadership is based upon The Communist Manifesto (1848), identifying the communist party as "the most advanced and resolute section of the working class parties of every country; that section which pushes forward all others." As the vanguard party, the Bolsheviks viewed history through the theoretical framework of dialectical materialism, which sanctioned political commitment to the successful overthrow of capitalism, and then to instituting socialism; and, as the revolutionary national government, to realise the socio-economic transition by all means.

Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology that was the main communist movement throughout the 20th century. Developed by the Bolsheviks, it was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, Soviet satellite states in the Eastern Bloc, and various countries in the Non-Aligned Movement and Third World during the Cold War, as well as the Communist International after Bolshevisation. Today, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam, as well as many other Communist parties, while the state ideology of North Korea is derived from Marxism–Leninism. Marxist–Leninist states are commonly referred to as "communist states" by Western academics. Marxist–Leninists reject anarchism and left communism, as well as reformist socialism and social democracy. They oppose fascism, imperialism, and liberal democracy. Marxism–Leninism holds that a two-stage communist revolution is needed to replace capitalism. A vanguard party, organized through democratic centralism, would seize power on behalf of the proletariat and establish a one-party socialist state, called the dictatorship of the proletariat. The state would control the means of production, suppress opposition, counter-revolution, and the bourgeoisie, and promote Soviet collectivism, to pave the way for an eventual communist society that would be classless and stateless.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Totalitarianism</span> Extreme form of authoritarianism

Totalitarianism is a form of government and a political system that prohibits all opposition parties, outlaws individual and group opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high if not complete degree of control and regulation over public and private life. It is regarded as the most extreme and complete form of authoritarianism. In totalitarian states, political power is often held by autocrats, such as dictators and absolute monarchs, who employ all-encompassing campaigns in which propaganda is broadcast by state-controlled mass media in order to control the citizenry. By 1950, the term and concept of totalitarianism entered mainstream Western political discourse. Furthermore this era also saw anti-communist and McCarthyist political movements intensify and use the concept of totalitarianism as a tool to convert pre-World War II anti-fascism into Cold War anti-communism.

A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the socio-economic goals of communism. The term communist party was popularized by the title of The Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. As a vanguard party, the communist party guides the political education and development of the working class (proletariat). As a ruling party, the communist party exercises power through the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin developed the idea of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when the socialist movement in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction and the Menshevik faction. To be politically effective, Lenin proposed a small vanguard party managed with democratic centralism which allowed centralized command of a disciplined cadre of professional revolutionaries. Once a policy was agreed upon, realizing political goals required every Bolshevik's total commitment to the agreed-upon policy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Autocracy</span> Form of government

Autocracy is a system of government in which absolute power over a state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject neither to external legal restraints nor to regularized mechanisms of popular control.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Armenian genocide</span> 1915–1917 mass murder in the Ottoman Empire

The Armenian genocide was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Communist state</span> State that is administered and governed by a single communist party

A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern after Bolshevisation and the communist states within the Comecon, the Eastern Bloc, and the Warsaw Pact. Marxism–Leninism currently still remains the ideology of a few parties around the world. After its peak when many communist states were established, the Revolutions of 1989 brought down most of the communist states, however, it is still the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam. During most of the 20th century, before the Revolutions of 1989, around one-third of the world's population lived under communist states.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Revolutions of 1989</span> The global wave of revolutions that overthrew most of the communist states

The Revolutions of 1989, also known as the Fall of Communism, was a revolutionary wave that resulted in the end of most communist states in the world. Sometimes this revolutionary wave is also called the Fall of Nations or the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations that is sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848 in Europe. It also led to the eventual dissolution of the Soviet Union—the world's largest communist state—and the abandonment of communist regimes in many parts of the world, some of which were violently overthrown. The events, especially the fall of the Soviet Union, drastically altered the world's balance of power, marking the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the post-Cold War era.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Communist propaganda</span> Promotion of the ideology of communism

Communist propaganda is the artistic and social promotion of the ideology of communism, communist worldview, communist society, and interests of the communist movement. While it tends to carry a negative connotation in the Western world, the term propaganda broadly refers to any publication or campaign aimed at promoting a cause and is/was used for official purposes by most communist-oriented governments. The term may also refer to political parties' opponents' campaign. Rooted in Marxist thought, the propaganda of communism is viewed by its proponents as the vehicle for spreading their idea of enlightenment of working class people and pulling them away from the propaganda of who they view to be their oppressors, that they claim reinforces exploitation, such as religion or consumerism. Communist propaganda therefore stands in opposition to bourgeois or capitalist propaganda.

The actions by governments of communist states have been subject to criticism across the political spectrum. Rule by communist parties has often led to totalitarianism, political repression, restrictions of human rights, poor economic performance, and cultural and artistic censorship. Communist party rule has been especially criticized by anti-communists and right-wing critics, but also by other socialists such as anarchists, communists, democratic socialists, libertarian socialists and Marxists. Ruling communist parties have also been challenged by domestic dissent.

The history of the Chinese Communist Party began with its establishment in July 1921. A study group led by Peking University professors Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao to discuss Marxism, led to intellectuals officially founding the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in July 1921. In 1923, Sun Yat-sen invited the CCP to form a United Front, and to join his Nationalist Party (GMD) in Canton for training under representatives of the Comintern, the Soviet Union's international organization. The Soviet representatives reorganized both parties into Leninist parties. Rather than the loose organization that characterized the two parties until then, the Leninist party operated on the principle of democratic centralism, in which the collective leadership set standards for membership and an all powerful Central Committee determined the Party line, which all members must follow.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union</span>

The ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was Bolshevist Marxism–Leninism, an ideology of a centralised command economy with a vanguardist one-party state to realise the dictatorship of the proletariat. The Soviet Union's ideological commitment to achieving communism included the development of socialism in one country and peaceful coexistence with capitalist countries while engaging in anti-imperialism to defend the international proletariat, combat capitalism and promote the goals of communism. The state ideology of the Soviet Union—and thus Marxism–Leninism—derived and developed from the theories, policies and political praxis of Lenin and Stalin.

A bloc party in politics may refer to a political party that is a constituent member of an electoral bloc. However, this term also has a more specific meaning, referring to non-ruling but legal political parties in a one-party state as auxiliary parties and members of a ruling coalition, differing such governments from pure one-party states such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, although such minor parties rarely if ever constitute opposition parties or alternative sources of power. Other authoritarian regimes may also have multiple political parties which are nominally independent in order to give the appearance of political pluralism, but support or act in de facto cooperation with the government or ruling party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Popular front</span> Coalition of different political groupings

A popular front is "any coalition of working-class and middle-class parties", including liberal and social democratic ones, "united for the defense of democratic forms" against "a presumed Fascist assault". More generally, it is "a coalition especially of leftist political parties against a common opponent".

People's democracy is a theoretical concept within Marxism–Leninism and a form of government which developed after World War II and allows in theory for a multi-class and multi-party democracy on the pathway to socialism. People's democracy was established in a number of European and Asian countries as a result of the people's democratic revolutions of the 1940s.

Anti-revisionism is a position within Marxism–Leninism which emerged in the 1950s in opposition to the reforms of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. Where Khrushchev pursued an interpretation that differed from his predecessor Joseph Stalin, the anti-revisionists within the international communist movement remained dedicated to Stalin's ideological legacy and criticized the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and his successors as state capitalist and social imperialist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Real socialism</span> Soviet-type economic planning enforced by the ruling communist parties

Real socialism, better known as actually existing socialism or developed socialism, was an ideological catchphrase popularized during the Brezhnev era in the Eastern Bloc countries and the Soviet Union.

A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. The term communist state is often used synonymously in the West specifically when referring to one-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist communist parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism and progressing toward a communist society. These countries never describe themselves as communist nor as having implemented a communist society. Additionally, a number of countries that are multi-party capitalist states make references to socialism in their constitutions, in most cases alluding to the building of a socialist society, naming socialism, claiming to be a socialist state, or including the term people's republic or socialist republic in their country's full name, although this does not necessarily reflect the structure and development paths of these countries' political and economic systems. Currently, these countries include Algeria, Bangladesh, Guyana, India, Nepal, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.

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