One-party state

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One-party states
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Several states constitutionally deemed to be multiparty republics are broadly described by outsiders as authoritarian states. This map presents only the de jure form of government, and not the de facto degree of democracy.
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World's states coloured by form of government
     Full presidential republics       Semi-presidential republics
     Republics with an executive president elected by or nominated by the legislature that may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence.       Parliamentary republics
      Parliamentary constitutional monarchies      Constitutional monarchies which have a separate head of government but where royalty holds significant executive and/or legislative power
      Absolute monarchies       One-party states
     Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorships)      Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. provisional governments).
This map was compiled according to the Wikipedia list of countries by system of government . See there for sources.
Several states constitutionally deemed to be multiparty republics are broadly described by outsiders as authoritarian states. This map presents only the de jure form of government, and not the de facto degree of democracy.

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. [1] All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.

Contents

The rule of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) in the Ottoman Empire following the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état is considered the first one-party state. [2]

Concept

One-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle and because of this the Soviet Union legally authorized and recognized a single party leading the proletariat, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition such as a popular front. However, these parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the People's Republic of China under the United Front, the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Others may outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as independent, as was the case with Taiwan's Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Still others may both outlaw all other parties and include party membership as a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in Turkmenistan under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov or Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko.

Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.

Most one-party states have been ruled by parties forming in one of the following three circumstances:

  1. An ideology of Marxism–Leninism and international solidarity (such as the Soviet Union for most of its existence);
  2. Some type of nationalist or fascist ideology (such as the Kingdom of Italy under the National Fascist Party or Germany under the Nazi Party);
  3. Parties that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles.

One-party states are usually considered to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.

The term "communist state" is sometimes used in the West to describe states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism. However, such states may not use that term themselves, seeing communism as a phase to develop after the full maturation of socialism, and instead use descriptions such as "people's republic", "socialist republic", or "democratic republic". One peculiar example is Cuba where, despite the role of the Communist Party being enshrined in the constitution, no party, including the Communist Party, is permitted to campaign or run candidates for elections. Candidates are elected on an individual referendum basis without formal party involvement, although elected assemblies predominantly consist of members of the Communist Party alongside non-affiliated candidates. [3]

Current one-party states

As of 2021 the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:

CountryHead of partyLeader titlePartyIdeologyDate of establishmentDuration
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
Xi Jinping 2016.jpg
Xi Jinping
General Secretary Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Socialism with Chinese characteristics, Xi Jinping Thought October 1, 194972 years, 48 days
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
Miguel Diaz-Canel (cropped).jpg
Miguel Díaz-Canel
First Secretary Flag of the Communist Party of Cuba.jpg Communist Party of Cuba Marxism–Leninism, Castroism, Guevarism, left-wing nationalism January 1, 195962 years, 321 days
Flag of Eritrea.svg Eritrea
Isaias Afwerki in 2002.jpg
Isaias Afwerki
Chairperson Flag of the EPLF.svg People's Front for Democracy and Justice Eritrean nationalism, socialism May 24, 199328 years, 178 days
Flag of Laos.svg Laos
Thongloun Sisoulith with Obamas cropped.jpg
Thongloun Sisoulith
General Secretary Flag of LPRP.svg Lao People's Revolutionary Party Kaysone Phomvihane Thought December 2, 197545 years, 351 days
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea
Kim Jong-un April 2019 (cropped).jpg
Kim Jong-un
General Secretary Flag of the Workers' Party of Korea.svg Workers' Party of Korea Juche October 10, 194576 years, 39 days
Flag of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Brahim Ghali.jpg
Brahim Ghali
Secretary General Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Polisario Front Sahrawi nationalism, social democracy February 27, 197645 years, 264 days
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam
Mr. Nguyen Phu Trong.jpg
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
General Secretary Flag of the Communist Party of Vietnam.svg Communist Party of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Thought, socialist-oriented market economy September 2, 194576 years, 77 days

Former one-party states

CountryPartyIdeologyDate of establishmentDate of dissolutionContinent
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Union and Progress Party [4] İttihadism June 11, 19131918Asia/Europe
State Flag of Costa Rica (1906-1964).svg Tinoquista Costa Rica Peliquista Party Liberalism 19171919North America
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey (one-party period)Flag of the Republican People's Party (Turkey).svg Republican People's Party Kemalism 19231945Asia/Europe
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia (Sangkum Era) Sangkum Khmer nationalism, National conservatism, Royalism, Statism, Buddhist socialism, Economic nationalism 19551970Asia
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Cameroon People's Democratic Movement Big tent, Nationalism, Francophilia 19751990Africa
Flag of Tunisia (1959-1999).svg  Tunisia Neo Destour Tunisian nationalism, Bourguibism 19631964Africa
Flag of Tunisia (1959-1999).svg  Tunisia Socialist Destourian Party Tunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism 19641981Africa
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan Turkmen nationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party 19922008Asia
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China [Note 1] /Taiwan Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Kuomintang Tridemism July 1, 1925July 15, 1987Asia
Flag of Syria (1932-1958; 1961-1963).svg Syrian Republic Arab Liberation Movement Pan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western 19531954Asia
Flag of Afghanistan (1974-1978).svg Republic of Afghanistan National Revolutionary Party Pashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Secularism February 14, 1977 [5] [6] April 28, 1978Asia
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria National Liberation Front Arab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism 19621989Africa
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League Bengali nationalism, Socialism 19751975Asia
Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg Burma Burma Socialist Programme Party flag.svg Burma Socialist Programme Party Burmese Way to Socialism 19621988Asia
Flag of Cape Verde (1975-1992).svg  Cape Verde Flag of PAIGC.svg African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19751980Africa
Flag of Cape Verde (1975-1992).svg  Cape Verde African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19801990Africa
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa African nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism 19621980Africa
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti People's Rally for Progress Afar interests, Third Way, Liberal socialism 19771992Africa
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea United National Workers' Party African nationalism, Socialism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism 19701979Africa
Flag of Egypt (1972-1984).svg  Egypt Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 19621976Africa
Flag of Eritrea (1993-1995).svg  Eritrea Flag of the EPLF.svg Eritrean People's Liberation Front Left-wing nationalism 1991 (Provisional government)

1993 (Recognized state)

1994Africa
Ghana flag 1964.svg  Ghana Convention People's Party Nkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19641966Africa
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism 19581984Africa
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19741991Africa
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Indonesian National Party Nationalism, Marhaenism August 17, 1945November 3, 1945Asia
Flag of Iraq (1959-1963).svgFlag of Iraq (1963-1991).svg Iraq Iraqi Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 19641968Asia
Flag of Iraq (1963-1991).svgFlag of Iraq (1991-2004).svg Iraq Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Saddamist Ba'athism 19682003Asia
Flag of Libya (1969-1972).svg Libya Libyan Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism 19711977Africa
Flag of Madagascar.svg Democratic Republic of Madagascar National Front for the Defense of the Revolution Left-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism 19761989Africa
Flag of Mali (1959-1961).svgFlag of Mali.svg  Mali Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism 19601968Africa
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Democratic Union of the Malian People Socialism, Democratic centralism 19761991Africa
Flag of Mauritania (1959-2017).svg  Mauritania Mauritanian People's Party Nationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism 19611978Africa
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19751990Africa
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Socialist Party of Senegal African nationalism, African socialism 19661974Africa
Flag of Seychelles (1977-1996).svg  Seychelles Seychelles People's Progressive Front Communism, Marxism-Leninism 19771991Africa
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone All People's Congress African nationalism, Democratic socialism 19781991Africa
Flag of Sudan.svg Democratic Republic of the Sudan Flag of the Sudanese Socialist Union.svg Sudanese Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism 19711985Africa
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Neo-Ba'athism 1963February 27, 2012 [7] [8] Asia
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Chama Cha Mapinduzi Ujamaa, African socialism 19771992Africa
Flag of Tanganyika (1961-1964).svg  Tanganyika Flag of TANU.svg Tanganyika African National Union African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa 19611977Africa
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Flag of Uganda People's Congress (UPC).png Uganda People's Congress Social democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19691971Africa
Flag of the United Arab Republic.svg  United Arab Republic National Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism 19581961Africa
Flag of Xinjiang-Shicai 2.svg Xinjiang People's Anti-Imperialist Association Six Great Policies 19351942Asia
Flag of Zambia (1964-1996).svg  Zambia United National Independence Party African socialism, African nationalism 19721990Africa
Flag of Zanzibar.svg  Zanzibar Afro-Shirazi Party African nationalism, Marxism–Leninism 19641977Africa
Flag of Afghanistan (1978-1980).svgFlag of Afghanistan (1980-1987).svgFlag of Afghanistan (1987-1992).svg Afghanistan Flag of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.svg People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (National Fatherland Front) Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialism December 24, 1980July 27, 1990Asia
Flag of Albania (1944-1946).svgFlag of Albania (1946-1992).svg Democratic Government of Albania Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement) Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism October 20, 1944August 5, 1945Europe
Flag of Albania (1944-1946).svgFlag of Albania (1946-1992).svg Democratic Government of Albania Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front)August 5, 1945January 11, 1946Europe
Flag of Albania (1946-1992).svg Albania January 11, 1946December 11, 1990Europe
Flag of Angola.svg People's Republic of Angola Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (bandeira).svg People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–Leninism November 11, 1975May 30, 1991Africa
Flag of SSRA.svg Armenia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 2, 1920December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1920).svgFlag of Azerbaijan SSR (1920-1921).svgFlag of Azerbaijan SSR (1921-1922).svg Azerbaijan Communist Party of Azerbaijan Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism April 30, 1920December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Benin (1975-1990).svg Benin Flag of PRPB.svg People's Revolutionary Party of Benin Communism, Marxism–Leninism November 30, 1975March 1, 1990Africa
Flag of Bulgaria (1946-1948).svgFlag of Bulgaria (1948-1967).svgFlag of Bulgaria (1967-1971).svgFlag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg Bulgaria FlagBKP.svg Bulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism September 15, 1946January 15, 1990Europe
Flag of Byelorussian SSR (1919-1927).svg Byelorussia Communist Party of Byelorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 31, 1920December 30, 1922Europe
National Flag of Chinese Soviet Republic.svg Chinese Soviet Republic Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19301937Asia
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovakia Flag of the KSC.svg Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Husakism February 25, 1948November 30, 1989Europe
Flag of Germany.svg East Germany Flagge der SED.svg Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism October 7, 1949March 30, 1950Europe
Flag of East Germany.svg East Germany Flagge der SED.svg Socialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 30, 1950December 1, 1989Europe
Flag of the Commune of the Working People of Estonia.svg Estonia Russian Communist Party (Central Committee of the Estonian Sections) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism November 29, 1918June 5, 1919Europe
Flag of Estonian SSR (1940-1953).svg Estonia Communist Party of Estonia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940August 9, 1940Europe
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987) (02).svg Ethiopia Workers' Party of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism September 12, 1984February 22, 1987Africa
Flag of Ethiopia (1987-1991).svg Ethiopia Workers' Party of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism February 22, 1987April 28, 1991Africa
Flag of Georgian SSR (1921-1922).svg Georgia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 25, 1921December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada New Jewel Movement Communism, Marxism–Leninism March 13, 1979October 25, 1983Central America
Guangzhou Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19271927Asia
Hunan Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19271927Asia
Flag of Hungary (1949-1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of the Hungarian Revolution (1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957; 1-2 aspect ratio).svg Hungary Flag of the Hungarian Working People's Party.svg Hungarian Working People's Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism August 20, 1949October 30, 1956Europe
Flag of the Hungarian Revolution (1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957; 1-2 aspect ratio).svgFlag of Hungary.svg Hungary Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism November 4, 1956October 7, 1989Europe
Jinggang Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19271928Asia
Flag of Democratic Kampuchea.svg Kampuchea Banner of the Communist Party of Kampuchea.svg Communist Party of Kampuchea Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, Ultranationalism April 17, 1975June 22, 1982Asia
Flag of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.svgFlag of the State of Cambodia.svg Kampuchea Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Revisionism, Left-wing nationalism January 7, 1979October 23, 1991Asia
Flag of Latvian SSR (1918-1920).svg Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 17, 1918January 13, 1920Europe
Flag of Latvian SSR (1940-1953).svg Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940August 5, 1940Europe
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1924-1930).svgFlag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1930-1940).svgFlag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1945).svgFlag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1992).svg Mongolia Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1921July 29, 1990Asia
Flag of Mozambique (1974-1975).svgFlag of Mozambique (1975-1983).svgFlag of Mozambique (1983).svgFlag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique Flag of FRELIMO (1997-2004).svg FRELIMO Marxism–Leninism June 25, 1975December 1, 1990Africa
Flag of North Vietnam 1945-1955.svg  Vietnam (partially) Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought September 2, 19451946[ citation needed ]Asia
Flag of North Vietnam (1955-1975).svg  North Vietnam Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought 1955July 2, 1976Asia
Flag of Lithuanian SSR (1940-1953).svg Lithuania Communist Party of Lithuania Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940August 3, 1940Europe
Flag of the Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR.svg Lithuania–Byelorussia Communist Party of Lithuania and Belorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 17, 1919July 17, 1919Europe
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Flag of the People's Republic of the Congo.svg People's Republic of the Congo Congolese Party of Labour Communism, Marxism–Leninism January 31, 19691991Africa
Flag of Persian Socialist Soviet Republic.svg Persia Communist Party of Persia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 19201921Asia
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svgFlag of Poland (with coat of arms, 1980-1990).svg Poland Polish United Workers' Party flag.svg Polish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 5, 1947July 1982Europe
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svgFlag of Poland (with coat of arms, 1980-1990).svg Poland Polish United Workers' Party flag.svg Polish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 1982August 24, 1989Europe
Flag of Romania.svgFlag of Romania (1948-1952).svgFlag of Romania (1952-1965).svgFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Romania Flag of PCR.svg Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism February 5, 19481968Europe
Flag of Romania (1948-1952).svgFlag of Romania (1952-1965).svgFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Romania Flag of PCR.svg Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 19681980Europe
Flag of Romania.svgFlag of Romania (1948-1952).svgFlag of Romania (1952-1965).svgFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Romania Flag of PCR.svg Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1980December 29, 1989Europe
Flag the Russian SFSR (1918).svgFlag of the Russian SFSR (1918-1920).svg Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism January 19, 1918March 8, 1918 [9] Europe/Asia
Flag the Russian SFSR (1918).svgFlag of the Russian SFSR (1918-1920).svg Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 8, 1918 [9] December 30, 1922Europe/Asia
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Islamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism

Scientific socialism, Somali nationalism

July 1976January 26, 1991Africa
Flag of South Yemen.svg  South Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party Flag.svg Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism October 31, 1978May 22, 1990Asia
Flag of South Yemen.svg  South Yemen Flag of the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf.svg National Liberation Front Arab nationalism, Arab socialism November 30, 1967October 31, 1978Asia
Southwest Jiangxi Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19301931Asia
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1924).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1924-1936).svgFlag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 30, 1922December 31, 1925 [9] Europe/Asia
Flag of the Soviet Union (1924).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1924-1936).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svgFlag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics All-Union Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Stalinism December 31, 1925 [9] October 13, 1952 [9] Europe/Asia
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svgFlag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svgFlag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Communist Party of the Soviet Union Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism October 13, 1952 [9] October 9, 1990 [10] Europe/Asia
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR (1925-1936).svg Transcaucasia Communist Part of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR (1925-1936).svg Transcaucasia Communist Party of Azerbaijan Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR (1925-1936).svg Transcaucasia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
Flag of the Tuvinian Peoples Revolutionary Party.svgFlag of Tannu Tuva (1921-1926).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1926-1930).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1930-1933).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1933-1939).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1941-1943).svgFlag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1943-1944).svg Tuva Flag of the Tuvinian Peoples Revolutionary Party.svg Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism August 14, 1921October 11, 1944Asia
Flag of Ukrainian SSR (1919-1929).svg Ukraine Communist Party of Ukraine Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 10, 1919December 30, 1922Europe
Yan'an Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 19371949Asia
Flag of South Yemen.svg Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party Flag.svg Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism May 21, 1994July 7, 1994Asia
Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.svgFlag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia Flag.svg League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia) Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, Yugoslavism November 29, 1945January 22, 1990Europe
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Reform Party Americanisation, Annexationism 18941898North America
Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg Brazilian military regime Bandera Arena.png ARENA [Note 2] Militarism, Social conservatism, National conservatism, Brazilian nationalism, Anti-communism, National security 19641979South America
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon Gabonese Democratic Party Conservatism 19681990Africa
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism 19601990Africa
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Kingdom of Spain Spanish Patriotic Union Spanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism 19241930Europe
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi Malawi Congress Party Ubuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism 19641993Africa
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Islamic Republican Party Velyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment 19811987Asia
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger National Movement for the Development of Society Conservatism 19891991Africa
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Kingdom Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Fascist Party Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, Hellenophobia June 2, 1939July 27, 1943Europe
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Kingdom Guard of Greater Albania Albanian nationalism, Fascism July 27, 1943September 8, 1943Europe
Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom National Front Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialism September 14, 1943November 29, 1943Europe
Flag of Austria.svg Federal State of Austria Flag of the Fatherland Front of Austria.svg Fatherland Front Clerical fascism May 1, 1934March 13, 1938Europe
Flag of Burundi (1967-1982).svgFlag of Burundi.svg Republic of Burundi Flag of the UPRONA.svg Union for National Progress Burundian nationalism, Tutsi interestsJuly 11, 1974March 13, 1992Africa
Flag of Cameroon (1961-1975).svgFlag of Cameroon.svg Republic of Cameroon Cameroonian National Union Big tent September 1, 1966 [11] March 24, 1985Africa
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Union African nationalism, Republicanism March 1, 1980September 2, 1981Africa
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, Republicanism February 6, 1987April 22, 1991 [12] Africa
Flag of Chad.svg Chad Chadian Progressive Party African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism April 16, 1962April 6, 1973Africa
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism April 6, 1973April 13, 1975Africa
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad National Union for Independence and Revolution Nationalism 19841990Africa
Flag of the Comoros (1978-1992).svg  Comoros Comorian Union for Progress Nationalism 19821990Africa
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement Croatian irredentism, Croatian ultranationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communism April 10, 1941May 8, 1945Europe
Flag of Benin.svg Dahomey Dahomeyan Unity Party African nationalism, Republicanism 19611963Africa
Flag of Benin.svg Dahomey Dahomeyan Democratic Party African nationalism 19631965Africa
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic Dominican Party Trujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism 19311961Central America
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent 19561958Africa
Flag of the United Arab Republic.svg  Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent 19611962Africa
Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador National Pro Patria Party Fascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy 19311944South America
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Empire of Japan Imperial Rule Assistance Association Shōwa statism 19401945Asia
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea African nationalism, Militarism 19871991Africa
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution) Estonian nationalism, Personalism March 9, 1935July 21, 1940Europe
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Nazi Germany Flag of the NSDAP (1920-1945).svg National Socialist German Workers' Party Nazism July 14, 1933May 23, 1945Europe
Flag of Bohmen und Mahren.svg Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia National Partnership Nazism March 21, 1939May 9, 1945Europe
Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala Progressive Liberal Party Ubicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism 19311944South America
Flag of Haiti (1964-1986).svg Haiti National Unity Party Black nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism 19571985Central America
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Government of National Unity Flag of the Arrow Cross Party 1942 to 1945.svg Arrow Cross Party Hungarism, Fascism, Collaborationism, Agrarianism October 16, 1944May 7, 1945Europe
State Flag of Iran (1964).svg Imperial State of Iran Rastakhiz Party Monarchism, Fascism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position 19751978Asia
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Kingdom of Italy Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg National Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism May 17, 1928 [13]
  • January 9, 1939
July 27, 1943Europe
  • Africa
Flag of Italy.svg Italian Social Republic Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg Republican Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism, Antisemitism, Collaborationism September 13, 1943April 28, 1945Europe
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Kenya African National Union Kenyan nationalism, Conservatism 19821991Africa
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania Lithuanian Nationalist Union Lithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Antisemitism 19271940Europe
Flag of Manchukuo.svg Manchukuo Flag of Concordia Association.svg Concordia Association Fascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, Personalism, collaborationism April 1, 1932 [14] May 1, 1945 [14] Asia
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories Flag of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands.png National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands Nazism, collaborationism December 14, 1941May 6, 1945Europe
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19601974Africa
Flag of North Yemen.svg  North Yemen General People's Congress flag.svg General People's Congress Yemeni nationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent 19821988Asia
Flag of Norway.svg National Government Flag of Nasjonal Samling.svg National Rally Fascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, Collaborationism September 25, 1940May 8, 1945Europe
Flag of Paraguay.svg Paraguay Bandera Partido Colorado de Paraguay.svg Colorado Party Conservatism, national conservatism 19471962South America
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Philippine Executive Commission Flag of Kalibapi.svg Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism December 8, 1942October 14, 1943Asia
Flag of the Philippines (1943-1945).svg Republic of the Philippines Flag of Kalibapi.svg Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism October 14, 1943August 17, 1945Asia
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Uniao Nacional Flag.svg National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano July 30, 1930 [15] October 8, 1945 [15] Europe
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Uniao Nacional Flag.svg National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano January 31, 1948 [16] September 1969 [17] Europe
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Uniao Nacional Flag.svg People's National Action (formerly National Union) Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 1970April 25, 1974Europe
Flag of Romania.svg Romania Flag of the National Renaissance Front.svg Party of the Nation Big tent, Romanian nationalism, Monarchism December 16, 1938September 6, 1940Europe
Flag of Romania.svg Flag of the Legionary Movement.png National Legionary State Flag of the Iron Guard (Legion of the Archangel Michael or Legionary Movement).svg Iron Guard Legionarism, clerical fascism, Christian nationalism September 6, 1940January 23, 1941Europe
Flag of Rwanda (1962-2001).svg  Rwanda Parmehutu Hutu Power 19651973Africa
Flag of Rwanda (1962-2001).svg  Rwanda Flag of the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND).png National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development Hutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism 19781991Africa
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino Sammarinese Fascist Party Italian Fascism, Corporatism 19261943Europe
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino Republican Fascist Party of San Marino Italian Fascism 19431944Europe
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic Flag of the Hlinka party (1938-1945) variant 2.svg Hlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National Unity Clerical fascism, Slovak nationalism,March 14, 1939May 8, 1945Europe
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg Spanish State Bandera FE JONS.svg FET y de las JONS Francoism, Falangism, Spanish nationalism, traditionalism, National Catholicism, anti-liberalism, corporatism April 19, 1937July 6, 1976 [18] Europe
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan National Congress Party Islamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism 19892005Africa
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Party of Togolese Unity African nationalism 19621963Africa
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Rally of the Togolese People African nationalism, Right-wing populism 19691991Africa
Flag of Upper Volta.svg Upper Volta Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 19601966Africa
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy Royalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism,19291931Europe
Flag of Zaire (1971-1997).svg Zaire Popular Movement of the Revolution Mobutism, Zairean nationalism, Authenticité,19701990Africa

See also

Notes

  1. The Republic of China controlled the mainland from 1912 to 1949 and the island of Taiwan since 1945, in which the ROC currently administers the Free area. This government served China in the United Nations from 1945 to 1971. See Political status of Taiwan and the One-China policy for various viewpoints.
  2. Although there was an official democratic opposition, the MDB, ARENA was de facto the only governing party.

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  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Constitution of the Russian Federation: A Contextual Analysis By Jane Henderson
  10. Ideology And Political System By Kundan Kumar
  11. The Search for a Cameroonian Model of Democracy or the Search for the Domination of the State Party: 1966-2006
  12. Central African Republic Unions Strike for Democracy 1990-1993
  13. Mediterranean Fascism 1919–1945
  14. 1 2 China at War: Regions of China, 1937-1945
  15. 1 2 12th Period - Second Republic of Portugal
  16. Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals and Military
  17. Following the appointment of Marcelo Caetano as Prime Minister in 1968, the opposition was allowed to run to the 1969 Portuguese legislative election, before being banned
  18. Law 21/1976, of June 14, on the Right of Political Association.