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A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.
The rule of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) in the Ottoman Empire following the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état is considered the first one-party state.
One-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle and because of this the Soviet Union legally authorized and recognized a single party leading the proletariat, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition such as a popular front. However, these parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the People's Republic of China under the United Front, the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Others may outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as independent, as was the case with Taiwan's Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Still others may both outlaw all other parties and include party membership as a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in Turkmenistan under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov or Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko.
Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.
Most one-party states have been ruled by parties forming in one of the following three circumstances:
One-party states are usually considered to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.
The term "communist state" is sometimes used in the West to describe states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism. However, such states may not use that term themselves, seeing communism as a phase to develop after the full maturation of socialism, and instead use descriptions such as "people's republic", "socialist republic", or "democratic republic". One peculiar example is Cuba where, despite the role of the Communist Party being enshrined in the constitution, no party, including the Communist Party, is permitted to campaign or run candidates for elections. Candidates are elected on an individual referendum basis without formal party involvement, although elected assemblies predominantly consist of members of the Communist Party alongside non-affiliated candidates.
|Part of the Politics series|
As of 2021 [update] the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:
|Country||Head of party||Leader title||Party||Ideology||Date of establishment||Duration|
|China||Xi Jinping||General Secretary||Communist Party of China||Marxism–Leninism, Socialism with Chinese characteristics, Xi Jinping Thought||October 1, 1949||72 years, 48 days|
|Cuba||Miguel Díaz-Canel||First Secretary||Communist Party of Cuba||Marxism–Leninism, Castroism, Guevarism, left-wing nationalism||January 1, 1959||62 years, 321 days|
|Eritrea||Isaias Afwerki||Chairperson||People's Front for Democracy and Justice||Eritrean nationalism, socialism||May 24, 1993||28 years, 178 days|
|Laos||Thongloun Sisoulith||General Secretary||Lao People's Revolutionary Party||Kaysone Phomvihane Thought||December 2, 1975||45 years, 351 days|
|North Korea||Kim Jong-un||General Secretary||Workers' Party of Korea||Juche||October 10, 1945||76 years, 39 days|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||Brahim Ghali||Secretary General||Polisario Front||Sahrawi nationalism, social democracy||February 27, 1976||45 years, 264 days|
|Vietnam||Nguyễn Phú Trọng||General Secretary||Communist Party of Vietnam||Ho Chi Minh Thought, socialist-oriented market economy||September 2, 1945||76 years, 77 days|
|Country||Party||Ideology||Date of establishment||Date of dissolution||Continent|
|Ottoman Empire||Union and Progress Party||İttihadism||June 11, 1913||1918||Asia/Europe|
|Tinoquista Costa Rica||Peliquista Party||Liberalism||1917||1919||North America|
|Turkey (one-party period)||Republican People's Party||Kemalism||1923||1945||Asia/Europe|
|Cambodia (Sangkum Era)||Sangkum||Khmer nationalism, National conservatism, Royalism, Statism, Buddhist socialism, Economic nationalism||1955||1970||Asia|
|Cameroon||Cameroon People's Democratic Movement||Big tent, Nationalism, Francophilia||1975||1990||Africa|
|Tunisia||Neo Destour||Tunisian nationalism, Bourguibism||1963||1964||Africa|
|Tunisia||Socialist Destourian Party||Tunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism||1964||1981||Africa|
|Turkmenistan||Democratic Party of Turkmenistan||Turkmen nationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party||1992||2008||Asia|
|Republic of China /Taiwan||Kuomintang||Tridemism||July 1, 1925||July 15, 1987||Asia|
|Syrian Republic||Arab Liberation Movement||Pan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western||1953||1954||Asia|
|Republic of Afghanistan||National Revolutionary Party||Pashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Secularism||February 14, 1977||April 28, 1978||Asia|
|Algeria||National Liberation Front||Arab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism||1962||1989||Africa|
|Bangladesh||Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League||Bengali nationalism, Socialism||1975||1975||Asia|
|Burma||Burma Socialist Programme Party||Burmese Way to Socialism||1962||1988||Asia|
|Cape Verde||African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1975||1980||Africa|
|Cape Verde||African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1980||1990||Africa|
|Central African Republic||Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa||African nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism||1962||1980||Africa|
|Djibouti||People's Rally for Progress||Afar interests, Third Way, Liberal socialism||1977||1992||Africa|
|Equatorial Guinea||United National Workers' Party||African nationalism, Socialism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism||1970||1979||Africa|
|Egypt||Arab Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism||1962||1976||Africa|
|Eritrea||Eritrean People's Liberation Front||Left-wing nationalism||1991 (Provisional government)|
1993 (Recognized state)
|Ghana||Convention People's Party||Nkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1964||1966||Africa|
|Guinea||Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism||1958||1984||Africa|
|Guinea-Bissau||African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1974||1991||Africa|
|Indonesia||Indonesian National Party||Nationalism, Marhaenism||August 17, 1945||November 3, 1945||Asia|
|Iraq||Iraqi Arab Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism||1964||1968||Asia|
|Iraq||Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front)||Saddamist Ba'athism||1968||2003||Asia|
|Libya||Libyan Arab Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism||1971||1977||Africa|
|Democratic Republic of Madagascar||National Front for the Defense of the Revolution||Left-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism||1976||1989||Africa|
|Mali||Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism||1960||1968||Africa|
|Mali||Democratic Union of the Malian People||Socialism, Democratic centralism||1976||1991||Africa|
|Mauritania||Mauritanian People's Party||Nationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism||1961||1978||Africa|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1975||1990||Africa|
|Senegal||Socialist Party of Senegal||African nationalism, African socialism||1966||1974||Africa|
|Seychelles||Seychelles People's Progressive Front||Communism, Marxism-Leninism||1977||1991||Africa|
|Sierra Leone||All People's Congress||African nationalism, Democratic socialism||1978||1991||Africa|
|Democratic Republic of the Sudan||Sudanese Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism||1971||1985||Africa|
|Syria||Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front)||Neo-Ba'athism||1963||February 27, 2012||Asia|
|Tanzania||Chama Cha Mapinduzi||Ujamaa, African socialism||1977||1992||Africa|
|Tanganyika||Tanganyika African National Union||African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa||1961||1977||Africa|
|Uganda||Uganda People's Congress||Social democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1969||1971||Africa|
|United Arab Republic||National Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism||1958||1961||Africa|
|Xinjiang||People's Anti-Imperialist Association||Six Great Policies||1935||1942||Asia|
|Zambia||United National Independence Party||African socialism, African nationalism||1972||1990||Africa|
|Zanzibar||Afro-Shirazi Party||African nationalism, Marxism–Leninism||1964||1977||Africa|
|Afghanistan||People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (National Fatherland Front)||Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialism||December 24, 1980||July 27, 1990||Asia|
|Democratic Government of Albania||Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement)||Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism||October 20, 1944||August 5, 1945||Europe|
|Democratic Government of Albania||Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front)||August 5, 1945||January 11, 1946||Europe|
|Albania||January 11, 1946||December 11, 1990||Europe|
|People's Republic of Angola||People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola||Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–Leninism||November 11, 1975||May 30, 1991||Africa|
|Armenia||Communist Party of Armenia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||December 2, 1920||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Azerbaijan||Communist Party of Azerbaijan||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||April 30, 1920||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Benin||People's Revolutionary Party of Benin||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||November 30, 1975||March 1, 1990||Africa|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||September 15, 1946||January 15, 1990||Europe|
|Byelorussia||Communist Party of Byelorussia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 31, 1920||December 30, 1922||Europe|
|Chinese Soviet Republic||Communist Party of China||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1930||1937||Asia|
|Czechoslovakia||Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front)||Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Husakism||February 25, 1948||November 30, 1989||Europe|
|East Germany||Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||October 7, 1949||March 30, 1950||Europe|
|East Germany||Socialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 30, 1950||December 1, 1989||Europe|
|Estonia||Russian Communist Party (Central Committee of the Estonian Sections)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||November 29, 1918||June 5, 1919||Europe|
|Estonia||Communist Party of Estonia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 21, 1940||August 9, 1940||Europe|
|Ethiopia||Workers' Party of Ethiopia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||September 12, 1984||February 22, 1987||Africa|
|Ethiopia||Workers' Party of Ethiopia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||February 22, 1987||April 28, 1991||Africa|
|Georgia||Communist Party of Georgia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||February 25, 1921||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Grenada||New Jewel Movement||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||March 13, 1979||October 25, 1983||Central America|
|Guangzhou||Communist Party of China||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1927||1927||Asia|
|Hunan||Communist Party of China||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1927||1927||Asia|
|Hungary||Hungarian Working People's Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism||August 20, 1949||October 30, 1956||Europe|
|Hungary||Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||November 4, 1956||October 7, 1989||Europe|
|Jinggang||Communist Party of China||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1927||1928||Asia|
|Kampuchea||Communist Party of Kampuchea||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, Ultranationalism||April 17, 1975||June 22, 1982||Asia|
|Kampuchea||Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party||Communism, Socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Revisionism, Left-wing nationalism||January 7, 1979||October 23, 1991||Asia|
|Latvia||Communist Party of Latvia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||December 17, 1918||January 13, 1920||Europe|
|Latvia||Communist Party of Latvia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 21, 1940||August 5, 1940||Europe|
|Mongolia||Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1921||July 29, 1990||Asia|
|Mozambique||FRELIMO||Marxism–Leninism||June 25, 1975||December 1, 1990||Africa|
|Vietnam (partially)||Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought||September 2, 1945||1946[ citation needed ]||Asia|
|North Vietnam||Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought||1955||July 2, 1976||Asia|
|Lithuania||Communist Party of Lithuania||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 21, 1940||August 3, 1940||Europe|
|Lithuania–Byelorussia||Communist Party of Lithuania and Belorussia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||February 17, 1919||July 17, 1919||Europe|
|People's Republic of the Congo||Congolese Party of Labour||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||January 31, 1969||1991||Africa|
|Persia||Communist Party of Persia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1920||1921||Asia|
|Poland||Polish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity)||Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||February 5, 1947||July 1982||Europe|
|Poland||Polish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth)||Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 1982||August 24, 1989||Europe|
|Romania||Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||February 5, 1948||1968||Europe|
|Romania||Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism||1968||1980||Europe|
|Romania||Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism||1980||December 29, 1989||Europe|
|Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic||Russian Social Democratic Labour Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||January 19, 1918||March 8, 1918||Europe/Asia|
|Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic||Russian Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 8, 1918||December 30, 1922||Europe/Asia|
|Somalia||Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party||Islamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism||July 1976||January 26, 1991||Africa|
|South Yemen||Yemeni Socialist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||October 31, 1978||May 22, 1990||Asia|
|South Yemen||National Liberation Front||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism||November 30, 1967||October 31, 1978||Asia|
|Southwest Jiangxi||Communist Party of China||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1930||1931||Asia|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||Russian Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||December 30, 1922||December 31, 1925||Europe/Asia|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||All-Union Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Stalinism||December 31, 1925||October 13, 1952||Europe/Asia|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||Communist Party of the Soviet Union||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||October 13, 1952||October 9, 1990||Europe/Asia|
|Transcaucasia||Communist Part of Armenia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 12, 1922||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Transcaucasia||Communist Party of Azerbaijan||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 12, 1922||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Transcaucasia||Communist Party of Georgia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 12, 1922||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Tuva||Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||August 14, 1921||October 11, 1944||Asia|
|Ukraine||Communist Party of Ukraine||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 10, 1919||December 30, 1922||Europe|
|Yan'an||Communist Party of China||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1937||1949||Asia|
|Yemen||Yemeni Socialist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||May 21, 1994||July 7, 1994||Asia|
|Yugoslavia||League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia)||Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, Yugoslavism||November 29, 1945||January 22, 1990||Europe|
|Hawaii||Reform Party||Americanisation, Annexationism||1894||1898||North America|
|Brazilian military regime||ARENA||Militarism, Social conservatism, National conservatism, Brazilian nationalism, Anti-communism, National security||1964||1979||South America|
|Gabon||Gabonese Democratic Party||Conservatism||1968||1990||Africa|
|Ivory Coast||Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism||1960||1990||Africa|
|Kingdom of Spain||Spanish Patriotic Union||Spanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism||1924||1930||Europe|
|Malawi||Malawi Congress Party||Ubuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism||1964||1993||Africa|
|Iran||Islamic Republican Party||Velyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment||1981||1987||Asia|
|Niger||National Movement for the Development of Society||Conservatism||1989||1991||Africa|
|Albanian Kingdom||Albanian Fascist Party||Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, Hellenophobia||June 2, 1939||July 27, 1943||Europe|
|Albanian Kingdom||Guard of Greater Albania||Albanian nationalism, Fascism||July 27, 1943||September 8, 1943||Europe|
|Albanian Kingdom||National Front||Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialism||September 14, 1943||November 29, 1943||Europe|
|Federal State of Austria||Fatherland Front||Clerical fascism||May 1, 1934||March 13, 1938||Europe|
|Republic of Burundi||Union for National Progress||Burundian nationalism, Tutsi interests||July 11, 1974||March 13, 1992||Africa|
|Republic of Cameroon||Cameroonian National Union||Big tent||September 1, 1966||March 24, 1985||Africa|
|Central African Republic||Central African Democratic Union||African nationalism, Republicanism||March 1, 1980||September 2, 1981||Africa|
|Central African Republic||Central African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, Republicanism||February 6, 1987||April 22, 1991||Africa|
|Chad||Chadian Progressive Party||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism||April 16, 1962||April 6, 1973||Africa|
|Chad||National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism||April 6, 1973||April 13, 1975||Africa|
|Chad||National Union for Independence and Revolution||Nationalism||1984||1990||Africa|
|Comoros||Comorian Union for Progress||Nationalism||1982||1990||Africa|
|Independent State of Croatia||Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement||Croatian irredentism, Croatian ultranationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communism||April 10, 1941||May 8, 1945||Europe|
|Dahomey||Dahomeyan Unity Party||African nationalism, Republicanism||1961||1963||Africa|
|Dahomey||Dahomeyan Democratic Party||African nationalism||1963||1965||Africa|
|Dominican Republic||Dominican Party||Trujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism||1931||1961||Central America|
|Egypt||National Democratic Party||Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent||1956||1958||Africa|
|Egypt||National Democratic Party||Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent||1961||1962||Africa|
|El Salvador||National Pro Patria Party||Fascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy||1931||1944||South America|
|Empire of Japan||Imperial Rule Assistance Association||Shōwa statism||1940||1945||Asia|
|Equatorial Guinea||Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea||African nationalism, Militarism||1987||1991||Africa|
|Estonia||Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution)||Estonian nationalism, Personalism||March 9, 1935||July 21, 1940||Europe|
|Nazi Germany||National Socialist German Workers' Party||Nazism||July 14, 1933||May 23, 1945||Europe|
|Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia||National Partnership||Nazism||March 21, 1939||May 9, 1945||Europe|
|Guatemala||Progressive Liberal Party||Ubicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism||1931||1944||South America|
|Haiti||National Unity Party||Black nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism||1957||1985||Central America|
|Government of National Unity||Arrow Cross Party||Hungarism, Fascism, Collaborationism, Agrarianism||October 16, 1944||May 7, 1945||Europe|
|Imperial State of Iran||Rastakhiz Party||Monarchism, Fascism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position||1975||1978||Asia|
|Kingdom of Italy||National Fascist Party||Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism||May 17, 1928 ||July 27, 1943||Europe |
|Italian Social Republic||Republican Fascist Party||Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism, Antisemitism, Collaborationism||September 13, 1943||April 28, 1945||Europe|
|Kenya||Kenya African National Union||Kenyan nationalism, Conservatism||1982||1991||Africa|
|Lithuania||Lithuanian Nationalist Union||Lithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Antisemitism||1927||1940||Europe|
|Manchukuo||Concordia Association||Fascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, Personalism, collaborationism||April 1, 1932||May 1, 1945||Asia|
|Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories||National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands||Nazism, collaborationism||December 14, 1941||May 6, 1945||Europe|
|Niger||Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1960||1974||Africa|
|North Yemen||General People's Congress||Yemeni nationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent||1982||1988||Asia|
|National Government||National Rally||Fascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, Collaborationism||September 25, 1940||May 8, 1945||Europe|
|Paraguay||Colorado Party||Conservatism, national conservatism||1947||1962||South America|
|Philippine Executive Commission||Association for Service to the New Philippines||Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism||December 8, 1942||October 14, 1943||Asia|
|Republic of the Philippines||Association for Service to the New Philippines||Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism||October 14, 1943||August 17, 1945||Asia|
|Portugal||National Union||Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano||July 30, 1930||October 8, 1945||Europe|
|Portugal||National Union||Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano||January 31, 1948||September 1969||Europe|
|Portugal||People's National Action (formerly National Union)||Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano||1970||April 25, 1974||Europe|
|Romania||Party of the Nation||Big tent, Romanian nationalism, Monarchism||December 16, 1938||September 6, 1940||Europe|
|National Legionary State||Iron Guard||Legionarism, clerical fascism, Christian nationalism||September 6, 1940||January 23, 1941||Europe|
|Rwanda||National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development||Hutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism||1978||1991||Africa|
|San Marino||Sammarinese Fascist Party||Italian Fascism, Corporatism||1926||1943||Europe|
|San Marino||Republican Fascist Party of San Marino||Italian Fascism||1943||1944||Europe|
|Slovak Republic||Hlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National Unity||Clerical fascism, Slovak nationalism,||March 14, 1939||May 8, 1945||Europe|
|Spanish State||FET y de las JONS||Francoism, Falangism, Spanish nationalism, traditionalism, National Catholicism, anti-liberalism, corporatism||April 19, 1937||July 6, 1976||Europe|
|Sudan||National Congress Party||Islamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism||1989||2005||Africa|
|Togo||Party of Togolese Unity||African nationalism||1962||1963||Africa|
|Togo||Rally of the Togolese People||African nationalism, Right-wing populism||1969||1991||Africa|
|Upper Volta||Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1960||1966||Africa|
|Yugoslavia||Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy||Royalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism,||1929||1931||Europe|
|Zaire||Popular Movement of the Revolution||Mobutism, Zairean nationalism, Authenticité,||1970||1990||Africa|
The Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, initially on the Chinese mainland and in Taiwan after 1949. Originally the sole ruling party under the Dang Guo system, the KMT is currently the largest opposition party in the Legislative Yuan. In Taiwanese politics, the KMT primarily competes with the rival Democratic Progressive Party (DPP). The KMT opposes de jure Taiwan independence and Chinese unification under "One Country, Two Systems", instead favoring cross-strait relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and maintaining Taiwan's status quo under the Constitution of the Republic of China. The current chairman is Eric Chu. The KMT is one of two major historical contemporary parties in China, the other being the Chinese Communist Party.
Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and was the main communist movement throughout the 20th century. It was the formal name of the official state ideology adopted by the Soviet Union, its satellite states in the Eastern Bloc, and various self-declared scientific socialist regimes in the Non-Aligned Movement and Third World during the Cold War as well as the Communist International after Bolshevisation. Today, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of several communist parties and remains the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam as unitary one-party socialist republics, and of Nepal in a multiparty democracy. Generally, Marxist–Leninists support proletarian internationalism and socialist democracy, and oppose anarchism, fascism, imperialism, and liberal democracy. Marxism–Leninism holds that a two-stage communist revolution is needed to replace capitalism. A vanguard party, organised hierarchically through democratic centralism, would seize power "on behalf of the proletariat", and establish a communist party-led socialist state, which it claims to represent the dictatorship of the proletariat. The state controls the economy and means of production, suppresses the bourgeoisie, counter-revolution, and opposition, promotes collectivism in society, and paves the way for an eventual communist society, which would be both classless and stateless. Due to its state-oriented approach, Marxist–Leninist states have been commonly referred to by Western academics as Communist states.
The Republic of Uzbekistan is a presidential constitutional republic, whereby the President of Uzbekistan is head of state. Executive power is exercised by the government and by the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan.
A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term communist party was popularized by the title of The Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. As a vanguard party, the communist party guides the political education and development of the working class (proletariat). As the ruling party, the communist party exercises power through the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin developed the idea of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when social democracy in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction and the Menshevik faction. To be politically effective, Lenin proposed a small vanguard party managed with democratic centralism which allowed centralized command of a disciplined cadre of professional revolutionaries. Once the policy was agreed upon, realizing political goals required every Bolshevik's total commitment to the agreed-upon policy.
The politics of Belarus takes place in a framework of a presidential republic with a bicameral parliament. The President of Belarus is the head of state. Executive power is exercised by the government, at its top sits a prime minister, appointed by the President. Legislative power is de jure vested in the bicameral parliament, the National Assembly, however the president may enact decrees that are executed the same way as laws, for undisputed time.
A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern after Bolshevisation and the communist states within the Comecon, the Eastern Bloc and the Warsaw Pact. Marxism–Leninism remains the ideology of several communist states around the world and the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam.
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a political occurrence in which a single political party continuously dominates election results over running opposition groups or parties. Any ruling party staying in power for more than one consecutive term may be considered a dominant party.
The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the political party or coalition holding a majority of elected positions in a parliament, that administers the affairs of state.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond. The period is often also called the Fall of Communism, and sometimes the Fall of Nations or the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations that is sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848.
Defensive democracy is a term referring to the collection of laws, delegated legislation, and court rulings which limit certain rights and freedoms in a democratic society in order to protect the existence of the state, its democratic character and institutions, minority rights, et cetera. The term describes a major conflict that may emerge in a democratic country between compliance with democratic values, particularly freedom of association and the right to be elected, and between preventing anti-democratic groups and persons from abusing these principles.
The fall of Communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the USSR, started in earnest in December 1990 with student demonstrations in the capital, Tirana, although protests had begun earlier that year in other cities such as Shkodra and Kavaja. The Central Committee of the communist Party of Labour of Albania allowed political pluralism on 11 December and the largest opposition party, the Democratic Party, was founded the next day. March 1991 elections left the Party of Labour in power, but a general strike and urban opposition led to the formation of a "stability government" that included non-communists. Albania's former communists were routed in elections in March 1992 amid economic collapse and social unrest, with the Democratic Party winning most seats and its party head, Sali Berisha, becoming president.
A bloc party in politics may refer to a political party that is a constituent member of an electoral bloc. However, this term also has a more specific meaning, referring to non-ruling but legal political parties in an authoritarian or totalitarian regime as auxiliary parties and members of a ruling coalition, differing such governments from pure one-party states such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, although such minor parties rarely if ever constitute opposition parties or alternative sources of power.
The 1946 Yugoslav Constitution, officially titled as the Constitution of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, was the first constitution of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. It was adopted by the Constitutional Assembly of Yugoslavia, elected on 11 November 1945. Constitution came into effect at its promulgation, on 31 January 1946.
A popular front is "any coalition of working-class and middle-class parties", including liberal and social-democratic ones, "united for the defense of democratic forms" against "a presumed Fascist assault". The phrase has also been used to refer to political coalitions "sponsored and dominated by Communists as a device for gaining power". More generally, it is "a coalition especially of leftist political parties against a common opponent".
In Marxist philosophy, the dictatorship of the proletariat is a state of affairs in which the proletariat holds political power. The dictatorship of the proletariat is the intermediate stage between a capitalist economy and a communist economy, whereby the post-revolutionary state seizes the means of production, compels the implementation of direct elections on behalf of and within the confines of the ruling proletarian state party, and instituting elected delegates into representative workers' councils that nationalise ownership of the means of production from private to collective ownership. During this phase, the administrative organizational structure of the party is to be largely determined by the need for it to govern firmly and wield state power to prevent counterrevolution and to facilitate the transition to a lasting communist society. Other terms commonly used to describe the dictatorship of the proletariat include socialist state, proletarian state, democratic proletarian state, revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat and democratic dictatorship of the proletariat.
A communist era is a sustained period of national government by a single party following the philosophy of Marxism–Leninism. Many countries have experienced such a period of Communist rule.
Democratic centralism is a practice in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the political party. Although mainly associated with Leninism, wherein the party's political vanguard composed of professional revolutionaries practised democratic centralism to elect leaders and officers as well as to determine policy through free discussion, then decisively realised through united action, democratic centralism has also been practised by social democratic parties. Scholars have disputed whether democratic centralism was implemented in practice in the Soviet Union and China, pointing to violent power struggles, backhanded political maneuvering, historical antagonisms and the politics of personal prestige in those regimes.
A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. The term communist state is often used synonymously in the West specifically when referring to one-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist communist parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism. These countries never describe themselves as communist nor as having implemented a communist society. Additionally, a number of countries that are multi-party capitalist states make references to socialism in their constitutions, in most cases alluding to the building of a socialist society, naming socialism, claiming to be a socialist state, or including the term people's republic or socialist republic in their country's full name, although this does not necessarily reflect the structure and development paths of these countries' political and economic systems. Currently, these countries include Algeria, Bangladesh, Guyana, India, Nepal, Nicaragua, Portugal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.