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|Systems of government|
|Part of the Politics series|
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term "de facto one-party state" is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.
Although it is predated by the 1714 to 1783 "age of the Whig oligarchy" in Great Britain,the rule of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) over the Ottoman Empire following the 1913 coup d'etat is often considered the first one-party state.
One-party states justify themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, being its most politically aware members, and therefore the party's right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that the existence of multiple political parties would perpetuate class struggle, so only a single party could lead a classless proletariat; it therefore made the Communist Party of the Soviet Union the only authorised political party.
Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition (such as a popular front). However, these allied parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Other states outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as independents, as was the case with Taiwan's Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Still others have only a single legal party, membership of which is a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in Turkmenistan under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov or Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko.
Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.
Most one-party states have been ruled by one of the following:
One-party states are usually considered [ by whom? ] to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.
As of 2023 the following countries are legally constituted[ citation needed ] as one-party states:
|Country||Head of party||Leader title||Party||Ideology||Date of establishment||Duration||Notes|
|China||Xi Jinping||General Secretary||Chinese Communist Party||Socialism with Chinese characteristics||20 September 1954||68 years, 127 days|
|Cuba||Miguel Díaz-Canel||First Secretary||Communist Party of Cuba||Marxism–Leninism, Castroism, Guevarism, left-wing nationalism||16 April 1961||61 years, 284 days|
|Eritrea||Isaias Afwerki||Chairperson||People's Front for Democracy and Justice||Eritrean nationalism, statism||24 May 1993||29 years, 246 days|
|Laos||Thongloun Sisoulith||General Secretary||Lao People's Revolutionary Party||Kaysone Phomvihane Thought||2 December 1975||47 years, 54 days|
|North Korea||Kim Jong-un||General Secretary||Workers' Party of Korea||Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism||10 October 1945||77 years, 107 days||Leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||Brahim Ghali||Secretary General||Polisario Front||Sahrawi nationalism, social democracy||27 February 1976||46 years, 332 days|
|Vietnam||Nguyễn Phú Trọng||General Secretary||Communist Party of Vietnam||Ho Chi Minh Thought||2 July 1976||46 years, |
|Country||Party||Ideology||Date of establishment||Date of dissolution||Continent|
|Republic of Afghanistan||National Revolutionary Party||Pashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Secularism||February 14, 1977||April 28, 1978||Asia|
|Afghanistan||People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (National Fatherland Front)||Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialism||December 24, 1980||July 27, 1990||Asia|
|Albanian Kingdom||Albanian Fascist Party||Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, Hellenophobia||June 2, 1939||July 27, 1943||Europe|
|Albanian Kingdom||Guard of Greater Albania||Albanian nationalism, Fascism||July 27, 1943||September 8, 1943||Europe|
|Albanian Kingdom||National Front||Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialism||September 14, 1943||November 29, 1943||Europe|
|Democratic Government of Albania||Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism||October 20, 1944||August 5, 1945||Europe|
|Democratic Government of Albania||Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front)||August 5, 1945||January 11, 1946||Europe|
|Albania||January 11, 1946||December 11, 1990||Europe|
|Algeria||National Liberation Front||Arab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism||1962||1989||Africa|
|People's Republic of Angola||People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola||Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–Leninism||November 11, 1975||May 30, 1991||Africa|
|Armenia||Communist Party of Armenia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||December 2, 1920||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Transcaucasia||Communist Party of Armenia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 12, 1922||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Federal State of Austria||Fatherland Front||Clerical fascism||May 1, 1934||March 13, 1938||Europe|
|Azerbaijan||Azerbaijan Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||April 30, 1920||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Transcaucasia||Azerbaijan Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 12, 1922||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Bangladesh||Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League||Mujibism, Bengali nationalism, Socialism||January 24, 1975||August 15, 1975||Asia|
|Dahomey||Dahomeyan Democratic Party||African nationalism||1963||1965||Africa|
|Benin||People's Revolutionary Party of Benin||Communism, Marxism–Leninism (nominally)||November 30, 1975||March 1, 1990||Africa|
|Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia||National Partnership||Nazism||March 21, 1939||May 9, 1945||Europe|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||September 15, 1946||January 15, 1990||Europe|
|Burma||Burma Socialist Programme Party||Burmese Way to Socialism||1962||1988||Asia|
|Republic of Burundi||Union for National Progress||Burundian nationalism, Tutsi interests||July 11, 1974||March 13, 1992||Africa|
|Byelorussia||Communist Party of Byelorussia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 31, 1920||December 30, 1922||Europe|
|Cambodia (Sangkum era)||Sangkum||Khmer nationalism, National conservatism, Royalism, Statism, Buddhist socialism, Economic nationalism||1955||1970||Asia|
|Kampuchea||Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party||Communism, Socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Revisionism, Left-wing nationalism||January 7, 1979||October 23, 1991||Asia|
|Republic of Cameroon||Cameroonian National Union||Big tent||September 1, 1966||March 24, 1985||Africa|
|Cameroon||Cameroon People's Democratic Movement||Big tent, Nationalism, Francophilia||1975||1990||Africa|
|Cape Verde||African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1975||1980||Africa|
|Cape Verde||African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1980||1990||Africa|
|Central African Republic||Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa||African nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism||1962||1980||Africa|
|Central African Republic||Central African Democratic Union||African nationalism, Republicanism||March 1, 1980||September 2, 1981||Africa|
|Central African Republic||Central African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, Republicanism||February 6, 1987||April 22, 1991||Africa|
|Chad||Chadian Progressive Party||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism||April 16, 1962||April 6, 1973||Africa|
|Chad||National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism||April 6, 1973||April 13, 1975||Africa|
|Chad||National Union for Independence and Revolution||Nationalism||1984||1990||Africa|
|Guangzhou||Chinese Communist Party||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1927||1927||Asia|
|Hunan||Chinese Communist Party||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1927||1927||Asia|
|Jinggang||Chinese Communist Party||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1927||1928||Asia|
|Southwest Jiangxi||Chinese Communist Party||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1930||1931||Asia|
|Chinese Soviet Republic||Chinese Communist Party||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1930||1937||Asia|
|Xinjiang||People's Anti-Imperialist Association||Six Great Policies||1935||1942||Asia|
|Republic of China /Taiwan||Kuomintang||Tridemism||1 July 1925||15 July 1987||Asia|
|Yan'an||Chinese Communist Party||Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism||1937||1949||Asia|
|Comoros||Comorian Union for Progress||Nationalism||1982||1990||Africa|
|People's Republic of the Congo||Congolese Party of Labour||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||January 31, 1969||1991||Africa|
|Tinoquista Costa Rica||Peliquista Party||Nationalism||1917||1919||North America|
|Czechoslovakia||Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front)||Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Husakism||February 25, 1948||November 30, 1989||Europe|
|Dahomey||Dahomeyan Unity Party||African nationalism, Republicanism||1961||1963||Africa|
|Djibouti||People's Rally for Progress||Issa interests||1977||1992||Africa|
|Dominican Republic||Dominican Party||Trujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism||1931||1961||Central America|
|East Germany||Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||October 7, 1949||March 30, 1950||Europe|
|East Germany||Socialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 30, 1950||December 1, 1989||Europe|
|Egypt||National Democratic Party||Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent||1956||1958||Africa|
|Egypt||National Democratic Party||Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent||1961||1962||Africa|
|Egypt||Arab Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism||1962||1976||Africa|
|El Salvador||National Pro Patria Party||Fascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy||1931||1944||Central America|
|Equatorial Guinea||United National Workers' Party||African nationalism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism||1970||1979||Africa|
|Equatorial Guinea||Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea||African nationalism, Militarism||1987||1991||Africa|
|Eritrea||Eritrean People's Liberation Front||Left-wing nationalism||1991 (Provisional government)|
1993 (Recognized state)
|Estonia||Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution)||Estonian nationalism, Personalism||March 9, 1935||July 21, 1940||Europe|
|Estonia||Communist Party of Estonia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 21, 1940||August 9, 1940||Europe|
|Ethiopia||Commission for Organizing the Party of the Working People of Ethiopia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||September 12, 1984||February 22, 1987||Africa|
|Ethiopia||Workers' Party of Ethiopia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||February 22, 1987||April 28, 1991||Africa|
|Gabon||Gabonese Democratic Party||Conservatism||1968||1990||Africa|
|Georgia||Communist Party of Georgia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||February 25, 1921||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Transcaucasia||Communist Party of Georgia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 12, 1922||December 30, 1922||Asia|
|Nazi Germany||National Socialist German Workers' Party||Nazism||July 14, 1933||May 23, 1945||Europe|
|Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories||National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands||Nazism, collaborationism||December 14, 1941||May 6, 1945||Europe|
|Ghana||Convention People's Party||Nkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1964||1966||Africa|
|Grenada||New Jewel Movement||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||March 13, 1979||October 25, 1983||Central America|
|Guatemala||Progressive Liberal Party||Ubicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism||1931||1944||Central America|
|Guinea||Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism||1958||1984||Africa|
|Guinea-Bissau||African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1974||1991||Africa|
|Haiti||National Unity Party||Black nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism||1957||1985||Central America|
|Hawaii||Reform Party||Americanisation, Annexationism||1894||1898||North America|
|Government of National Unity||Arrow Cross Party||Hungarism, Fascism, Collaborationism, Agrarianism||October 16, 1944||May 7, 1945||Europe|
|Hungary||Hungarian Working People's Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism||August 20, 1949||October 30, 1956||Europe|
|Hungary||Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Kádárism||November 4, 1956||October 7, 1989||Europe|
|Indonesia||Indonesian National Party||Nationalism, Marhaenism||August 17, 1945||November 3, 1945||Asia|
|Imperial State of Iran||Rastakhiz Party||Monarchism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position||1975||1978||Asia|
|Iran||Islamic Republican Party||Velyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment||1981||1987||Asia|
|Iraq||Iraqi Arab Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism||1964||1968||Asia|
|Iraq||Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front)||Saddamist Ba'athism||1968||2003||Asia|
|Kingdom of Italy||National Fascist Party||Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism||May 17, 1928 ||July 27, 1943||Europe |
|Italian Social Republic||Republican Fascist Party||Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism, Antisemitism, Collaborationism||September 13, 1943||April 28, 1945||Europe|
|Ivory Coast||Democratic Party of Ivory Coast – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism||1960||1990||Africa|
|Empire of Japan||Imperial Rule Assistance Association||Shōwa statism||1940||1945||Asia|
|Philippine Executive Commission||Association for Service to the New Philippines||Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism||December 8, 1942||October 14, 1943||Asia|
|Kampuchea||Communist Party of Kampuchea||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, Ultranationalism||April 17, 1975||June 22, 1982||Asia|
|Kenya||Kenya African National Union||Kenyan nationalism, Conservatism||1982||1991||Africa|
|Independent State of Croatia||Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement||Croatian irredentism, Croatian ultranationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communism||April 10, 1941||May 8, 1945||Europe|
|Latvia||Communist Party of Latvia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||December 17, 1918||January 13, 1920||Europe|
|Latvia||Communist Party of Latvia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 21, 1940||August 5, 1940||Europe|
|Libya||Arab Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism||1971||1977||Africa|
|Lithuania–Byelorussia||Communist Party of Lithuania and Belorussia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||February 17, 1919||July 17, 1919||Europe|
|Lithuania||Lithuanian Nationalist Union||Lithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Antisemitism||1927||1940||Europe|
|Lithuania||Communist Party of Lithuania||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 21, 1940||August 3, 1940||Europe|
|Democratic Republic of Madagascar||National Front for the Defense of the Revolution||Left-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism||1976||1989||Africa|
|Malawi||Malawi Congress Party||Ubuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism||1964||1993||Africa|
|Mali||Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism||1960||1968||Africa|
|Mali||Democratic Union of the Malian People||African socialism, Democratic centralism||1976||1991||Africa|
|Manchukuo||Concordia Association||Fascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, Personalism, collaborationism||April 1, 1932||May 1, 1945||Asia|
|Mauritania||Mauritanian People's Party||Nationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism||1961||1978||Africa|
|Mongolia||Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1921||July 29, 1990||Asia|
|Mozambique||FRELIMO||Marxism–Leninism||June 25, 1975||December 1, 1990||Africa|
|Niger||Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1960||1974||Africa|
|Niger||National Movement for the Development of Society||Conservatism||1989||1991||Africa|
|Vietnam (partially)||Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought||September 2, 1945||1946[ citation needed ]||Asia|
|North Vietnam||Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought||1955||July 2, 1976||Asia|
|North Yemen||General People's Congress||Yemeni nationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent||1982||1988||Asia|
|National Government||National Rally||Fascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, Collaborationism||September 25, 1940||May 8, 1945||Europe|
|Ottoman Empire||Union and Progress Party||İttihadism||11 June 1913||1918||Asia/Europe|
|Paraguay||Colorado Party||Conservatism, national conservatism||1947||1962||South America|
|Persia||Communist Party of Persia||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1920||1921||Asia|
|Republic of the Philippines||Association for Service to the New Philippines||Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism||October 14, 1943||August 17, 1945||Asia|
|Poland||Polish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity)||Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||February 5, 1947||July 1982||Europe|
|Poland||Polish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth)||Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||July 1982||August 24, 1989||Europe|
|Portugal||National Union||Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano||July 30, 1930||October 8, 1945||Europe|
|Portugal||National Union||Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano||January 31, 1948||September 1969||Europe|
|Portugal||People's National Action (formerly National Union)||Corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano||1970||April 25, 1974||Europe|
|Romania||Party of the Nation||Big tent, Romanian nationalism, Monarchism||December 16, 1938||September 6, 1940||Europe|
|National Legionary State||Iron Guard||Legionarism, clerical fascism, Christian nationalism||September 6, 1940||January 23, 1941||Europe|
|Romania||Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||February 5, 1948||1968||Europe|
|Romania||Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism||1968||1980||Europe|
|Romania||Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism||1980||December 29, 1989||Europe|
|Rwanda||National Revolutionary Movement for Development||Hutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism||1978||1991||Africa|
|San Marino||Sammarinese Fascist Party||Italian fascism, Corporatism||1926||1943||Europe|
|San Marino||Republican Fascist Party of San Marino||Italian fascism||1943||1944||Europe|
|Senegal||Socialist Party of Senegal||African nationalism, African socialism||1966||1974||Africa|
|Seychelles||Seychelles People's Progressive Front||Communism, Marxism-Leninism||1977||1991||Africa|
|Sierra Leone||All People's Congress||African nationalism, Democratic socialism||1978||1991||Africa|
|Slovak Republic||Hlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National Unity||Clerical fascism, Slovak nationalism||March 14, 1939||May 8, 1945||Europe|
|Somalia||Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party||Islamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism||July 1976||January 26, 1991||Africa|
|South Yemen||National Liberation Front||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism||November 30, 1967||October 31, 1978||Asia|
|South Yemen||Yemeni Socialist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||October 31, 1978||May 22, 1990||Asia|
|Yemen||Yemeni Socialist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||May 21, 1994||July 7, 1994||Asia|
|Estonia||Russian Communist Party (Central Committee of the Estonian Sections)||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||November 29, 1918||June 5, 1919||Europe|
|Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic||Russian Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 8, 1918||December 30, 1922||Europe/Asia|
|Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic||Russian Social Democratic Labour Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||January 19, 1918||March 8, 1918||Europe/Asia|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||Russian Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||December 30, 1922||December 31, 1925||Europe/Asia|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||All-Union Communist Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Stalinism||December 31, 1925||October 13, 1952||Europe/Asia|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||Communist Party of the Soviet Union||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||October 13, 1952||October 9, 1990||Europe/Asia|
|Kingdom of Spain||Patriotic Union||Spanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism||1924||1930||Europe|
|Spanish State||FET y de las JONS||Francoism, Falangism, Spanish nationalism, traditionalism, National Catholicism, anti-liberalism, corporatism||April 19, 1937||July 6, 1976||Europe|
|Democratic Republic of the Sudan||Sudanese Socialist Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism||1971||1985||Africa|
|Sudan||National Congress Party||Islamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism||1989||2005||Africa|
|Syrian Republic||Arab Liberation Movement||Pan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western||1953||1954||Asia|
|Syria||Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front)||Neo-Ba'athism||1963||February 27, 2012||Asia|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe – Social Democratic Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism||1975||1990||Africa|
|Tanganyika||Tanganyika African National Union||African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa||1961||1977||Africa|
|Tanzania||Chama Cha Mapinduzi||Ujamaa, African socialism||1977||1992||Africa|
|Togo||Party of Togolese Unity||African nationalism||1962||1963||Africa|
|Togo||Rally of the Togolese People||African nationalism, Right-wing populism||1969||1991||Africa|
|Tunisia||Neo Destour||Tunisian nationalism, Bourguibism||1963||1964||Africa|
|Tunisia||Socialist Destourian Party||Tunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism||1964||1981||Africa|
|Turkey (one-party period)||Republican People's Party||Kemalism||1923||1945||Asia/Europe|
|Turkmenistan||Democratic Party of Turkmenistan||Turkmen nationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party||1992||2008||Asia|
|Tuva||Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||August 14, 1921||October 11, 1944||Asia|
|Uganda||Uganda People's Congress||Social democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1969||1971||Africa|
|Ukraine||Communist Party of Ukraine||Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism||March 10, 1919||December 30, 1922||Europe|
|United Arab Republic||National Union||Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism||1958||1961||Africa|
|Upper Volta||Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Rally||African nationalism, Pan-Africanism||1960||1966||Africa|
|Yugoslavia||Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy||Royalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism||1929||1931||Europe|
|Yugoslavia||League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia)||Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, Yugoslavism||November 29, 1945||January 22, 1990||Europe|
|Zaire||Popular Movement of the Revolution||Mobutism, Zairean nationalism, Authenticité||1970||1990||Africa|
|Zambia||United National Independence Party||African socialism, African nationalism||1972||1990||Africa|
|Zanzibar||Afro-Shirazi Party||African nationalism, Marxism–Leninism||1964||1977||Africa|
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the CCP emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang, and, in 1949, Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since then, the CCP has governed China with eight smaller parties within its united front and has sole control over the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Each successive leader of the CCP has added their own theories to the party's constitution, which outlines the ideological beliefs of the party, collectively referred to as socialism with Chinese characteristics. As of 2022, the CCP has more than 96 million members, making it the second largest political party by party membership in the world after India's Bharatiya Janata Party. The Chinese public generally refers to the CCP as simply "the Party".
Leninism is a political ideology developed by Russian Marxist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin that proposes the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat led by a revolutionary vanguard party as the political prelude to the establishment of communism. The function of the Leninist vanguard party is to provide the working classes with the political consciousness and revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in the Russian Empire (1721–1917). Leninist revolutionary leadership is based upon The Communist Manifesto (1848), identifying the communist party as "the most advanced and resolute section of the working class parties of every country; that section which pushes forward all others." As the vanguard party, the Bolsheviks viewed history through the theoretical framework of dialectical materialism, which sanctioned political commitment to the successful overthrow of capitalism, and then to instituting socialism; and, as the revolutionary national government, to realise the socio-economic transition by all means.
Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology that was the main communist movement throughout the 20th century. Developed by the Bolsheviks, it was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, Soviet satellite states in the Eastern Bloc, and various countries in the Non-Aligned Movement and Third World during the Cold War, as well as the Communist International after Bolshevisation. Today, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam, as well as many other Communist parties, while the state ideology of North Korea is derived from Marxism–Leninism. Marxist–Leninist states are commonly referred to as "communist states" by Western academics. Marxist–Leninists reject anarchism and left communism, as well as reformist socialism and social democracy. They oppose fascism, imperialism, and liberal democracy. Marxism–Leninism holds that a two-stage communist revolution is needed to replace capitalism. A vanguard party, organized through democratic centralism, would seize power on behalf of the proletariat and establish a one-party socialist state, called the dictatorship of the proletariat. The state would control the means of production, suppress opposition, counter-revolution, and the bourgeoisie, and promote Soviet collectivism, to pave the way for an eventual communist society that would be classless and stateless.
Totalitarianism is a form of government and a political system that prohibits all opposition parties, outlaws individual and group opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high if not complete degree of control and regulation over public and private life. It is regarded as the most extreme and complete form of authoritarianism. In totalitarian states, political power is often held by autocrats, such as dictators and absolute monarchs, who employ all-encompassing campaigns in which propaganda is broadcast by state-controlled mass media in order to control the citizenry. By 1950, the term and concept of totalitarianism entered mainstream Western political discourse. Furthermore this era also saw anti-communist and McCarthyist political movements intensify and use the concept of totalitarianism as a tool to convert pre-World War II anti-fascism into Cold War anti-communism.
A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the socio-economic goals of communism. The term communist party was popularized by the title of The Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. As a vanguard party, the communist party guides the political education and development of the working class (proletariat). As a ruling party, the communist party exercises power through the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin developed the idea of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when the socialist movement in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction and the Menshevik faction. To be politically effective, Lenin proposed a small vanguard party managed with democratic centralism which allowed centralized command of a disciplined cadre of professional revolutionaries. Once a policy was agreed upon, realizing political goals required every Bolshevik's total commitment to the agreed-upon policy.
Autocracy is a system of government in which absolute power over a state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject neither to external legal restraints nor to regularized mechanisms of popular control.
The Armenian genocide was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.
A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern after Bolshevisation and the communist states within the Comecon, the Eastern Bloc, and the Warsaw Pact. Marxism–Leninism currently still remains the ideology of a few parties around the world. After its peak when many communist states were established, the Revolutions of 1989 brought down most of the communist states, however, it is still the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam. During most of the 20th century, before the Revolutions of 1989, around one-third of the world's population lived under communist states.
The Revolutions of 1989, also known as the Fall of Communism, was a revolutionary wave that resulted in the end of most communist states in the world. Sometimes this revolutionary wave is also called the Fall of Nations or the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations that is sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848 in Europe. It also led to the eventual dissolution of the Soviet Union—the world's largest communist state—and the abandonment of communist regimes in many parts of the world, some of which were violently overthrown. The events, especially the fall of the Soviet Union, drastically altered the world's balance of power, marking the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the post-Cold War era.
Communist propaganda is the artistic and social promotion of the ideology of communism, communist worldview, communist society, and interests of the communist movement. While it tends to carry a negative connotation in the Western world, the term propaganda broadly refers to any publication or campaign aimed at promoting a cause and is/was used for official purposes by most communist-oriented governments. The term may also refer to political parties' opponents' campaign. Rooted in Marxist thought, the propaganda of communism is viewed by its proponents as the vehicle for spreading their idea of enlightenment of working class people and pulling them away from the propaganda of who they view to be their oppressors, that they claim reinforces exploitation, such as religion or consumerism. Communist propaganda therefore stands in opposition to bourgeois or capitalist propaganda.
The actions by governments of communist states have been subject to criticism across the political spectrum. Rule by communist parties has often led to totalitarianism, political repression, restrictions of human rights, poor economic performance, and cultural and artistic censorship. Communist party rule has been especially criticized by anti-communists and right-wing critics, but also by other socialists such as anarchists, communists, democratic socialists, libertarian socialists and Marxists. Ruling communist parties have also been challenged by domestic dissent.
The history of the Chinese Communist Party began with its establishment in July 1921. A study group led by Peking University professors Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao to discuss Marxism, led to intellectuals officially founding the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in July 1921. In 1923, Sun Yat-sen invited the CCP to form a United Front, and to join his Nationalist Party (GMD) in Canton for training under representatives of the Comintern, the Soviet Union's international organization. The Soviet representatives reorganized both parties into Leninist parties. Rather than the loose organization that characterized the two parties until then, the Leninist party operated on the principle of democratic centralism, in which the collective leadership set standards for membership and an all powerful Central Committee determined the Party line, which all members must follow.
The ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was Bolshevist Marxism–Leninism, an ideology of a centralised command economy with a vanguardist one-party state to realise the dictatorship of the proletariat. The Soviet Union's ideological commitment to achieving communism included the development of socialism in one country and peaceful coexistence with capitalist countries while engaging in anti-imperialism to defend the international proletariat, combat capitalism and promote the goals of communism. The state ideology of the Soviet Union—and thus Marxism–Leninism—derived and developed from the theories, policies and political praxis of Lenin and Stalin.
A bloc party in politics may refer to a political party that is a constituent member of an electoral bloc. However, this term also has a more specific meaning, referring to non-ruling but legal political parties in a one-party state as auxiliary parties and members of a ruling coalition, differing such governments from pure one-party states such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, although such minor parties rarely if ever constitute opposition parties or alternative sources of power. Other authoritarian regimes may also have multiple political parties which are nominally independent in order to give the appearance of political pluralism, but support or act in de facto cooperation with the government or ruling party.
A popular front is "any coalition of working-class and middle-class parties", including liberal and social democratic ones, "united for the defense of democratic forms" against "a presumed Fascist assault". More generally, it is "a coalition especially of leftist political parties against a common opponent".
People's democracy is a theoretical concept within Marxism–Leninism and a form of government which developed after World War II and allows in theory for a multi-class and multi-party democracy on the pathway to socialism. People's democracy was established in a number of European and Asian countries as a result of the people's democratic revolutions of the 1940s.
Anti-revisionism is a position within Marxism–Leninism which emerged in the 1950s in opposition to the reforms of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. Where Khrushchev pursued an interpretation that differed from his predecessor Joseph Stalin, the anti-revisionists within the international communist movement remained dedicated to Stalin's ideological legacy and criticized the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and his successors as state capitalist and social imperialist.
Real socialism, better known as actually existing socialism or developed socialism, was an ideological catchphrase popularized during the Brezhnev era in the Eastern Bloc countries and the Soviet Union.
A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. The term communist state is often used synonymously in the West specifically when referring to one-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist communist parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism and progressing toward a communist society. These countries never describe themselves as communist nor as having implemented a communist society. Additionally, a number of countries that are multi-party capitalist states make references to socialism in their constitutions, in most cases alluding to the building of a socialist society, naming socialism, claiming to be a socialist state, or including the term people's republic or socialist republic in their country's full name, although this does not necessarily reflect the structure and development paths of these countries' political and economic systems. Currently, these countries include Algeria, Bangladesh, Guyana, India, Nepal, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.