List of political ideologies

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In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some political parties follow a certain ideology very closely while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. The popularity of an ideology is in part due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their own interests. Political ideologies have two dimensions: (1) goals: how society should be organized; and (2) methods: the most appropriate way to achieve this goal.

Contents

An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. autocracy or democracy) and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism or socialism). The same word is sometimes used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, socialism may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology which supports that economic system. The same term may also be used to refer to multiple ideologies and that is why political scientists try to find consensus definitions for these terms. While the terms have been conflated at times, communism has come in common parlance and in academics to refer to Soviet-type regimes and Marxist–Leninist ideologies whereas socialism has come to refer to a wider range of differing ideologies which are distinct from Marxism–Leninism. [1]

Political ideology is a term fraught with problems, having been called "the most elusive concept in the whole of social science". [2] While ideologies tend to identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), they can be distinguished from political strategies (e.g. populism as it is commonly defined) and from single issues around which a party may be built (e.g. civil libertarianism and support or opposition to European integration), although either of these may or may not be central to a particular ideology. There are several studies that show that political ideology is heritable within families. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

The following list is strictly alphabetical and attempts to divide the ideologies found in practical political life into a number of groups, with each group containing ideologies that are related to each other. The headers refer to names of the best-known ideologies in each group. The names of the headers do not necessarily imply some hierarchical order or that one ideology evolved out of the other. Instead, they are merely noting that the ideologies in question are practically, historically and ideologically related to each other. As such, one ideology can belong to several groups and there is sometimes considerable overlap between related ideologies. The meaning of a political label can also differ between countries and political parties often subscribe to a combination of ideologies.

Anarchism

Political internationals

Classical

Post-classical

Contemporary

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Authoritarianism

General

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Christian democracy

Political internationals

General

Other

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Communitarianism

General

Other

Regional variants

Communism

Political internationals

Authoritarian

Libertarian

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Conservatism

Political internationals

Traditional

Reactionary

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Corporatism

General

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

Democracy

Political internationals

General

Other

Direct democracy movements

Pirate politics

Pirate politics
Ideology Anti-corruption
Civil libertarianism
Civil rights
Direct democracy
E-democracy
Participatory democracy
Social liberalism

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

Asian

American

European

Oceanian

Environmentalism

Political internationals

Bright green environmentalism

Deep green environmentalism

Light green environmentalism

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Fascism

General

Other

Opposition

By country

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Identity politics

Political internationals

Feminism

General

Opposition

Chronological variants

Ethnic and social variants

Religious variants

Regional variants

African
American
Asian
European
Oceanian

LGBT social movements

Men's movement

Self-determination movements

African-American

Indigenous peoples

Latin American

Separatist and supremacist movements

Ethnic

Black
White
Regional variants
African
American
Asian
European
Oceania

Gender

Religious variants

Student movements

General

Regional variants

Liberalism

Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Libertarianism

Political internationals

Left-libertarianism

Right-libertarianism

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Nationalism

Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Unification movements

Populism

Political internationals

General

Left-wing populism

Right-wing populism

Other

Regional variants

African

Asian

American

European

Oceanian

Progressivism

Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

Religio-political ideologies

Political internationals

General

Political atheism and agnosticism

Political Buddhism

Political Christianity

Political Confucianism

Political Hinduism

Political indigenous religions

Political Islam

Political Judaism

Political Mormonism

Political Neopaganism

Political Shinto

Political Sikhism

Satirical and anti-politics

General

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

Social democracy

Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Socialism

Political internationals

General

Authoritarian

Libertarian

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Syndicalism

Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Regional variants

Transhumanist politics

Political internationals

General

Other

Regional variants

See also

Related Research Articles

Libertarian socialism, also referred to as anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism, free socialism, stateless socialism, socialist anarchism and socialist libertarianism, is an anti-authoritarian, anti-statist and libertarian political philosophy within the socialist movement which rejects the state socialist conception of socialism as a statist form where the state retains centralized control of the economy. Overlapping with anarchism and libertarianism, libertarian socialists criticize wage slavery relationships within the workplace, emphasizing workers' self-management and decentralized structures of political organization. As a broad socialist tradition and movement, libertarian socialism includes anarchist, Marxist and anarchist or Marxist-inspired thought as well as other left-libertarian tendencies. Anarchism and libertarian Marxism are the main currents of libertarian socialism.

Left-wing politics Political ideologies that support social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. Left-wing politics typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished. According to emeritus professor of economics Barry Clark, left-wing supporters "claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status, power, and wealth are eliminated."

Autarky is a description of societies that are reaching for self-sufficiency.

Yellow socialism was an economic system proposed in 1902 by Pierre Biétry, as an alternative to the "Red socialism" advocated in Marxism. Yellow socialism was prominent until World War I, competing with Marxism for support among workers. "Yellow socialism" was also a Marxist term of abuse for all non-Marxist socialists.

Libertarian Marxism Set of political philosophies emphasizing the anti-authoritarian and libertarian aspects of Marxism

Libertarian Marxism is a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian and libertarian aspects of Marxism. Early currents of libertarian Marxism such as left communism emerged in opposition to Marxism–Leninism.

A political international is a transnational organization of political parties having similar ideology or political orientation. The international works together on points of agreement to co-ordinate activity.

What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments has been a complicated and highly disputed subject concerning the exact nature of fascism and its core tenets debated amongst historians, political scientists, and other scholars since Benito Mussolini first used the term in 1915.

Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful as well as opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as anarchists, advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical voluntary associations. While anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, opposition to the state is not its central or sole definition. Anarchism can entail opposing authority or hierarchy in the conduct of all human relations.

Communism is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments, politics is observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power. The definition of "politics" from "The Free Dictionary" is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power. Politics study include political philosophy, which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behavior, and public administration, which examines the practices of governance.

Articles in social and political philosophy include:

Marxist schools of thought

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that originates in the works of 19th century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxism analyzes and critiques the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. It frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation and analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development - materialist in the sense that the politics and ideas of an epoch are determined by the way in which material production is carried on.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science:

Types of socialism include a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production and organizational self-management of enterprises as well as the political theories and movements associated with socialism. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity in which surplus value goes to the working class and hence society as a whole. There are many varieties of socialism and no single definition encapsulates all of them, but social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. Socialists disagree about the degree to which social control or regulation of the economy is necessary; how far society should intervene and whether government, particularly existing government, is the correct vehicle for change are issues of disagreement.

Social anarchism is the branch of anarchism that sees individual freedom as interrelated with mutual aid. Social anarchist thought emphasizes community and social equality as complementary to autonomy and personal freedom. It attempts to accomplish this balance through freedom of speech, which is maintained in a decentralized federalism, with freedom of interaction in thought and subsidiarity. Subsidiarity is best defined as "that one should not withdraw from individuals and commit to the community what they can accomplish by their own enterprise and industry" and that "[f]or every social activity ought of its very nature to furnish help to the members of the body social, and never destroy and absorb them", or the slogan "Do not take tools out of people's hands".

The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it brought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 just before the Revolutions of 1848 swept Europe, expressing what they termed scientific socialism. In the last third of the 19th century, social democratic parties arose in Europe, drawing mainly from Marxism. The Australian Labor Party was the world's first elected socialist party when it formed government in the Colony of Queensland for a week in 1899.

References

  1. Roberts, Andrew (2004). The State of Socialism: A Note on Terminology. Cambridge University Press. 63 (2). 349–366.
  2. D. McLellan, Ideology, University of Minnesota Press, 1986, p. 1.
  3. Bouchard, T. J.; McGue, M. (2003). "Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences". Journal of Neurobiology. 54 (1). 44–45.