Hong Xiuquan

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Hong Xiuquan
洪秀全
Heavenly King of Great Peace
Hong Xiuquan.jpg
Alleged [lower-alpha 1] drawing of Hong Xiuquan, dating from around early 1850s.
Taiping Heavenly King
Reign11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864
Predecessor Kingdom established
Successor Hong Tianguifu
BornHong Huoxiu (洪火秀)
(1814-01-01)1 January 1814
Hua County, Guangdong, Qing China
Died1 June 1864(1864-06-01) (aged 50)
Tianjing, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
SpouseLai Xiying (賴惜英) [2] or Lai Lianying (賴蓮英) [3]
Issue
  • Princess Hong Tianjiao (洪天姣) [3]
  • Hong Tianguifu, Junior Heavenly King [3]
  • Hong Tianming, Ming King (明王 洪天明) [3]
  • Hong Tianguang, Guang King (光王 洪天光) [3]
  • Hong Tianyou, Junior East King (幼東王 洪天佑)
Names
Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全)
Era name and dates
太平天囯: 11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864
House Hong
FatherHong Jingyang (洪鏡揚) [3]
MotherMadam Wang (王氏)
Religion God Worshipping Society

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Qin Rigang, né Qin Richang (秦日昌), was a Hakka military leader of the Taiping Rebellion, known during his military tenure as the King of Yen (燕王). He served under Hong Xiuquan's Taiping Administration and led Taiping forces to many military victories. He was executed by Hong Xiuquan in 1856 because he had killed the family and followers of Shi Dakai during the Tianjing Incident. Chen Yucheng and Li Xiucheng were trained and taught by Qin.

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God Worshipping Society 19th-century Chinese religious movement which began the Taiping Rebellion

The God Worshipping Society, in its literal translation Emperor Worshipping Society, was a religious movement founded and led by Hong Xiuquan which drew on his own unique interpretation of Protestant Christianity and combined it with Chinese folk religion, based on the faith in Shangdi, and other religious traditions. According to historical evidence, his first contact with Christian pamphlets occurred in 1836 when he directly received American Congregationalist missionary Edwin Stevens' personal copy of the Good Words to Admonish the Age. He only briefly looked over and did not carefully examine it. Subsequently, Hong claimed to have experienced mystical visions in the wake of his third failure of the imperial examinations in 1837 and after failing for a fourth time in 1843, he sat down to carefully examine the tracts with his distant cousin Feng Yunshan, believing that they were "the key to interpreting his visions" coming to the conclusion that he was "the son of God the Father, Shangdi, and the younger brother of Jesus Christ who had been directed to rid the world of demon worship ."

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Fu Shanxiang was a Chinese scholar from Nanjing who became Chancellor under the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a rebel Chinese state opposed to the Qing dynasty in the 1850s. Fu is known as the first female Zhuangyuan in Chinese history.

Hong Xuanjiao Female general during the Taiping Rebellion (c. 1830 - 1856 or later)

Hong Xuanjiao, was a Chinese female general and rebel leader during the Taiping Rebellion. She was the sister of the leader of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan. She acted as co-commander of the Taiping forces during the civil war against the Imperial forces of the Qing dynasty. Xuanjiao and her brother, Xiuquan, established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ.

Hu Jiumei (1830–1856) was a Chinese rebel during the Taiping Rebellion. A leading follower of Hong Xiuquan, she was known as one of the "Three Hu's".

Jiang Zhongyuan, courtesy name Changrui, (常孺) was a scholar and soldier from Hunan who fought for the Qing and against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.

A New Treatise on Aids to Administration or A New Treatise on Political Counsel, also called New Treatise on Government, was a pro-modernisation proposal written by Hong Rengan to Hong Xiuquan when he arrived in Tianjing in the ninth year of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1859).

References

Notes

  1. According to P. Richard Bohr, this is a Woodblock print of an unidentified Taiping leader. [1]

Citations

  1. Bohr, P. Richard (2009). "Did the Hakka Save China? Ethnicity, Identity, and Minority Status in China's Modern Transformation". Headwaters. College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University. 26: 13.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Jen 1973, p. 10.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "洪天贵福亲书自述、诗句" (PDF). jds.cssn.cn (in Chinese). 1 September 1997.
  4. 1 2 3 Michael & Chang 1966, p. 35.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Li 2012, p. 165.
  6. 1 2 Jen 1973, p. 12.
  7. Wakeman, Frederic Jr. (1975). The Fall of Imperial China . Free Press. ISBN   9780029336908.
  8. Michael & Chang 1966, pp. 21–22.
  9. Jen 1973, pp. 11–12.
  10. Spence 1996, p. 27.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Jen 1973, p. 13.
  12. Jen 1973, p. 14.
  13. Jen 1973, pp. 14–15.
  14. Gray 1990, p. 55.
  15. Jen 1973, pp. 15–18.
  16. 1 2 Michael & Chang 1966, p. 23.
  17. Spence 1996, pp. 47–48.
  18. 1 2 Spence 1996, p. 48.
  19. Spence 1996, p. 49.
  20. Michael & Chang 1966, p. 28.
  21. Hamberg, Theodore (1854). The Visions of Hung-Siu-tshuen and Origin of the Kwang-si Insurrection. Hong Kong. p. 14.
  22. Jen 1973, p. 19.
  23. Jen 1973, p. 20.
  24. De Bary, Wm. Theodore; Lufrano, Richard (2000). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Vol. 2. Columbia University Press. pp. 213–215. ISBN   978-0-231-11271-0.
  25. Spence 1996, p. 64.
  26. Spence 1996, p. 65.
  27. Michael & Chang 1966, p. 36.
  28. Spence 1996 , p. 67 "The two men discuss Hong's dream, and feel that some of it, at least, can be understood literally. So together they ordered a local craftsman to forge two double-edged swords--each sword nine pounds in weight, and three feet in length--with three characters carved upon each blade, 'Sword for exterminating demons'."
  29. Spence 1996, p. 67.
  30. Spence 1996, p. 69.
  31. 1 2 Spence 1996, p. 71.
  32. Spence 1996, p. 72.
  33. Spence 1996, pp. 78–79.
  34. 1 2 3 4 Spence 1996, p. 93.
  35. China a to Z: Everything You Need to Know to Understand Chinese Customs and Culture. Penguin. 25 November 2014. ISBN   9780142180846.
  36. Spence 1996, pp. 93–94.
  37. Spence 1996, pp. 94–95.
  38. Spence 1996, p. 95.
  39. Michael & Chang 1966, pp. 34–37.
  40. Michael & Chang 1966, p. 37.
  41. Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2010). The Wobbling Pivot: China Since 1800 . p.  104.
  42. Michael & Chang 1966, p. 25.
  43. 1 2 Reilly 2004, pp. 74–79.
  44. Michael & Chang 1966, p. 47.
  45. Michael 1966, p. 68.
  46. Kuhn 1978.
  47. (Cambridge University Press, 1978). Cambridge Histories Online. Cambridge University Press.
  48. Spence 1996, p. 324.
  49. Spence 1996, pp. 324–325.
  50. 1 2 3 4 5 Spence 1996, p. 325.
  51. Michael & Chang 1966, p. 173.
  52. Spence 1996, p. 371.
  53. 1 2 Cohen 2003, p. 212.
  54. Porter, Noah (2003). Falun Gong in the United States: An Ethnographic Study. Universal-Publishers. pp. 89–92. ISBN   978-1-58112-190-2.

Bibliography

Hong Xiuquan
Chinese
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Position established
Heavenly King of Taiping
1851-1864
Succeeded by