Hong Xiuquan

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Hong Xiuquan
Heavenly King of Great Peace
Hong Xiuquan.jpg
Alleged [lower-alpha 1] drawing of Hong Xiuquan, dating from around early 1850s.
Taiping Heavenly King
Reign11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864
Predecessor Kingdom established
Successor Hong Tianguifu
BornHong Huoxiu (洪火秀)
(1814-01-01)1 January 1814
Hua County, Guangdong, Qing China
Died1 June 1864(1864-06-01) (aged 50)
Tianjing, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
SpouseLai Xiying (賴惜英) [2] or Lai Lianying (賴蓮英) [3]
  • Princess Hong Tianjiao (洪天姣) [3]
  • Hong Tianguifu, Junior Heavenly King [3]
  • Hong Tianming, Ming King (明王 洪天明) [3]
  • Hong Tianguang, Guang King (光王 洪天光) [3]
  • Hong Tianyou, Junior East King (幼東王 洪天佑)
Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全)
Era name and dates
太平天囯: 11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864
House Hong
FatherHong Jingyang (洪鏡揚) [3]
MotherMadam Wang (王氏)
Religion God Worshipping Society

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taiping Rebellion</span> Rebellion in Qing-era China from 1850 to 1864

The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion and civil war that was waged in China between the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Han, Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. It lasted from 1850 to 1864, although following the fall of Tianjing the last rebel army was not wiped out until August 1871. After fighting the bloodiest civil war in world history, with over 20 million dead, the established Qing government won decisively, although at a great price to its fiscal and political structure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tianjing</span> Historical name for Nanjing

Tianjing (天京), romanized at the time as Tienking, was the name given to Nanjing when it served as the capital of Hong Xiuquan's Heavenly Kingdom from 1853 to 1864, amid the Qing Empire's Taiping Rebellion.

Hong Rengan was an important leader of the Taiping Rebellion. He was a distant cousin of the movement's founder and spiritual leader Hong Xiuquan. His position as the Gan Wang resembled the role of a prime minister. He is a noted figure in history because of the sweeping reforms attempted under his rule, and because of his popularity in the West.

Yang Xiuqing, was an organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jintian Uprising</span> 1851 revolt against Qing rule by the God Worshipping Society; start of the Taiping Rebellion

The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan, founder and leader of the God Worshipping Society, on 11 January 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty of China. The uprising was named after the rebel base in Jintian, a town in Guangxi within present-day Guiping. It marked the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion.

Shi Dakai General and honorary king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Shi Dakai, born in Guigang, Guangxi, also known as Wing King or phonetically translated as Yi-Wang, was one of the most highly acclaimed leaders in the Taiping Rebellion and a poet.

Xiao Chaogui was an important leader during the early years of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing dynasty of China. He was a sworn brother to Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taipings, and claimed to serve as a mouthpiece for Jesus Christ. Because of his importance to the rebellion, he was awarded the title of the "West King."

Feng Yunshan was the South King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a distant cousin and early accomplice of Hong Xiuquan, and an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government. He was one of the first Taipings to be baptized and established the first group of God Worshippers during the 1840s. He was killed during the initial stages of the rebellion, prior to the establishment of the Taiping's capital of Tianjing at Nanjing.

Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.

Qin Rigang, né Qin Richang (秦日昌), was a Hakka military leader of the Taiping Rebellion, known during his military tenure as the King of Yen (燕王). He served under Hong Xiuquan's Taiping Administration and led Taiping forces to many military victories. He was executed by Hong Xiuquan in 1856 because he had killed the family and followers of Shi Dakai during the Tianjing Incident. Chen Yucheng and Li Xiucheng were trained and taught by Qin.

The Tianjing Incident occurred during the late Qing Dynasty from September 2 to October 1856. This was a major political internal conflict within the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom which took place in its capital city Tianjing. A few key leaders of the Taiping Rebellion were killed: the East King Yang Xiuqing, the North King Wei Changhui and the Yan King Qin Rigang. More than 27,000 other opposition rivals including soldiers perished in the conflict as well. The Tianjing Incident was said to be one of the factors which led to the eventual failure of the Taiping Rebellion, as well as the turning point in its fate.

Battle of Changzhou occurred during the Taiping Rebellion. It was won by the Qing dynasty, who regained control over all of Jiangsu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taiping Heavenly Kingdom</span> Chinese rebel state (1851–1864)

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, later shortened to the Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, was an unrecognised rebel state in China and a Chinese Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing.

<i>Twilight of a Nation</i> Hong Kong TV series from 1988 about the Taiping rebellion

Twilight of a Nation is a Hong Kong television series based on the events of the Taiping Rebellion and the rise and fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the late Qing dynasty. The 45 episodes long series was produced by Siu Sang and was first aired on TVB Jade in Hong Kong in November 1988. It was broadcast again on TVB in 1996. The theme songs and insert songs in the series were performed by Roman Tam.

God Worshipping Society 19th-century Chinese religious movement which began the Taiping Rebellion

The God Worshipping Society, in its literal translation Emperor Worshipping Society, was a religious movement founded and led by Hong Xiuquan which drew on his own unique interpretation of Protestant Christianity and combined it with Chinese folk religion, based on the faith in Shangdi, and other religious traditions. According to historical evidence, his first contact with Christian pamphlets occurred in 1836 when he directly received American Congregationalist missionary Edwin Stevens' personal copy of the Good Words to Admonish the Age. He only briefly looked over and did not carefully examine it. Subsequently, Hong claimed to have experienced mystical visions in the wake of his third failure of the imperial examinations in 1837 and after failing for a fourth time in 1843, he sat down to carefully examine the tracts with his distant cousin Feng Yunshan, believing that they were "the key to interpreting his visions" coming to the conclusion that he was "the son of God the Father, Shangdi, and the younger brother of Jesus Christ who had been directed to rid the world of demon worship ."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fu Shanxiang</span> Qing dynasty politician

Fu Shanxiang was a Chinese scholar from Nanjing who became Chancellor under the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a rebel Chinese state opposed to the Qing dynasty in the 1850s. Fu is known as the first female Zhuangyuan in Chinese history.

Hong Xuanjiao Female general during the Taiping Rebellion (c. 1830 - 1856 or later)

Hong Xuanjiao, was a Chinese female general and rebel leader during the Taiping Rebellion. She was the sister of the leader of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan. She acted as co-commander of the Taiping forces during the civil war against the Imperial forces of the Qing dynasty. Xuanjiao and her brother, Xiuquan, established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ.

Hu Jiumei (1830–1856) was a Chinese rebel during the Taiping Rebellion. A leading follower of Hong Xiuquan, she was known as one of the "Three Hu's".

Jiang Zhongyuan, courtesy name Changrui, (常孺) was a scholar and soldier from Hunan who fought for the Qing and against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.

A New Treatise on Aids to Administration or A New Treatise on Political Counsel, also called New Treatise on Government, was a pro-modernisation proposal written by Hong Rengan to Hong Xiuquan when he arrived in Tianjing in the ninth year of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1859).



  1. According to P. Richard Bohr, this is a Woodblock print of an unidentified Taiping leader. [1]


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  28. Spence 1996 , p. 67 "The two men discuss Hong's dream, and feel that some of it, at least, can be understood literally. So together they ordered a local craftsman to forge two double-edged swords--each sword nine pounds in weight, and three feet in length--with three characters carved upon each blade, 'Sword for exterminating demons'."
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Hong Xiuquan
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Position established
Heavenly King of Taiping
Succeeded by