|Hak-kâ-va / Hak-kâ-fa|
|Native to||China, Taiwan|
|Region||Mainland China: Northeastern Guangdong, adjoining regions of Fujian, Jiangxi, Southern Hunan and the midwest of Sichuan |
Hong Kong: New Territories (older generations since younger Hakkas mostly speak Cantonese due to language shift and social assimilation)
|47.8 million (2007)|
|romanization, Latin (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ)|
Official language in
Taiwan (a statutory language for public transportation; government sponsor of Hakka-language television station)
|Hakka||hag5 ga1 fa4|
or hag5 ga1 va4
Hakka is a language group of varieties of Chinese,spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout Southern China and Taiwan and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia,Southeast Asia and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
Due to its primary usage in scattered isolated regions where communication is limited to the local area,Hakka has developed numerous varieties or dialects,spoken in different provinces,such as Guangdong,Guangxi,Hainan,Fujian,Sichuan,Hunan,Jiangxi and Guizhou,as well as in Taiwan,Singapore,Malaysia and Indonesia. Hakka is not mutually intelligible with Yue,Wu,Southern Min,Mandarin or other branches of Chinese,and itself contains a few mutually unintelligible varieties. It is most closely related to Gan and is sometimes classified as a variety of Gan,with a few northern Hakka varieties even being partially mutually intelligible with southern Gan. There is also a possibility that the similarities are just a result of shared areal features.
Taiwan (where Hakka is the native language of a significant minority of the island's residents) is a center for the study and preservation of the language. Pronunciation differences exist between the Taiwanese Hakka dialects and Mainland China's Hakka dialects;even in Taiwan,two major local varieties of Hakka exist.
The Meixian dialect (Moiyen) of northeast Guangdong in China has been taken as the "standard" dialect by the People's Republic of China. The Guangdong Provincial Education Department created an official romanization of Moiyen in 1960,one of four languages receiving this status in Guangdong.
The name of the Hakka people who are the predominant original native speakers of the variety literally means "guest families" or "guest people":Hak (Mandarin:kè) means "guest",and ka (Mandarin:jiā) means "family". Among themselves,Hakka people variously called their language Hak-ka-fa (-va),Hak-fa (-va),Tu-gong-dung-fa (-va),literally "Native Guangdong language",and Ngai-fa (-va),"My/our language". In Tonggu County,Jiangxi province,people call their language Huai-yuan-fa.
It is commonly believed that Hakka people have their origins in several episodes of migration from northern China into southern China during periods of war and civil unrest -p -t -k,as are found in other modern southern Chinese varieties,but which have been lost in Mandarin.dating back as far as the end of Western Jin. The forebears of the Hakka came from present-day Central Plains provinces of Henan and Shaanxi,and brought with them features of Chinese varieties spoken in those areas during that time. (Since then,the speech in those regions has evolved into dialects of modern Mandarin). The presence of many archaic features occur in modern Hakka,including final consonants
Laurent Sagart (2002)considers Hakka and southern Gan Chinese to be sister dialects that descended from a single common ancestral language (Proto-Southern Gan) spoken in central Jiangxi during the Song Dynasty. In Hakka and southern Gan,Sagart (2002) identifies a non-Chinese substratum that is possibly Hmong-Mien,an archaic layer,and a more recent Late Middle Chinese layer. Lexical connections between Hakka,Kra-Dai,and Hmong-Mien have also been suggested by Deng (1999).
Due to the migration of its speakers,Hakka may have been influenced by other language areas through which the Hakka-speaking forebears migrated. For instance,common vocabulary is found in Hakka,Min,and the She (Hmong–Mien) languages.[ citation needed ] Today,most She people in Fujian and Zhejiang speak Shehua,which is closely related to Hakka.
A regular pattern of sound change can generally be detected in Hakka,as in most Chinese varieties,of the derivation of phonemes from earlier forms of Chinese. Some examples:
Hakka has as many regional dialects as there are counties with Hakka speakers as the majority. Some of these Hakka dialects are not mutually intelligible with each other. Meixian is surrounded by the counties of Pingyuan,Dabu,Jiaoling,Xingning,Wuhua,and Fengshun. Each county has its own special phonological points of interest. For instance,Xingning lacks the codas [-m] and [-p]. These have merged into [-n] and [-t],respectively. Further away from Meixian,the Hong Kong dialect lacks the [-u-] medial,so whereas the Meixian dialect pronounces the character 光as [kwɔŋ˦],the Hong Kong Hakka dialect pronounces it as [kɔŋ˧],which is similar to the Hakka spoken in neighboring Shenzhen.
Tones also vary across the dialects of Hakka. The majority of Hakka dialects have six tones. However,there are dialects which have lost all of their checked tones (rusheng),and the characters originally of this tone class are distributed across the non-ru tones. An example of such a dialect is Changting,which is situated in Western Fujian province. Moreover,there is evidence of the retention of an earlier Hakka tone system in the dialects of Haifeng and Lufeng,situated in coastal southeastern Guangdong province. They contain a yin-yang splitting in the qu tone,giving rise to seven tones in all (with yin-yang registers in ping and ru tones and a shang tone).
In Taiwan,there are two main dialects:Sixian and Hailu (alternatively known as Haifeng;Hailu refers to Haifeng County and Lufeng County). Most Hakka speakers in Taiwan can trace their ancestry to these two regions. Sixian speakers come from Jiaying Prefecture,mainly from the four counties of Chengxiang (now Meixian District),Zhengping (now Jiaoling),Xingning and Pingyuan. Most dialects of Taiwanese Hakka,except Sixian and Dabu,preserved postalveolar consonants ([tʃ],[tʃʰ],[ʃ] and [ʒ]),which are uncommon in other southern Chinese varieties.
Ethnologue reports the dialects of Hakka as being Yue-Tai (Meixian,Wuhua,Raoping,Taiwan Kejia:Meizhou above),Yuezhong(Central Guangdong),Huizhou,Yuebei (Northern Guangdong),Tingzhou (Min-Ke),Ning-Long (Longnan),Yugui, and Tonggu.
Like other southern Chinese varieties,Hakka retains single syllable words from earlier stages of Chinese;thus a large number of syllables are distinguished by tone and final consonant. This reduces the need for compounding or making words of more than one syllable. However,it is also similar to other Chinese varieties in having words which are made from more than one syllable.
|𠊎||[ŋai˩]||me / I||In Hakka,the standard Chinese equivalent 我 is pronounced [ŋɔ˧].|
|渠 or 𠍲||[ki˩]||he / she / it||In Hakka,the standard Chinese equivalents 他 / 她 / 它 / 牠 are pronounced [tʰa˧].|
Hakka,as well as numerous other Chinese varieties such as Min and Cantonese,prefers the verb [kɔŋ˧˩] 講 when referring to saying rather than the Mandarin shuō 說 (Hakka [sɔt˩]).
Hakka uses [sit˥] 食 ,like Cantonese [sɪk˨] for the verb "to eat" and 飲 [jɐm˧˥] (Hakka [jim˧˩]) for "to drink",unlike Mandarin which prefers chī 吃 (Hakka [kʰiɛt˩]) as "to eat" and hē 喝 (Hakka [hɔt˩]) as "to drink" where the meanings in Hakka are different,to stutter and to be thirsty respectively.
|阿妹，若姆去投墟轉來唔曾？||[a˦mɔi˥,ɲja˦mi˦hi˥tʰju˩hi˦tsɔn˧˩lɔi˩m˦tsʰɛn˩]||Has your mother returned from going to the market yet,child?|
|其老弟捉到隻蛘葉來搞。||[kja˦lau˧˩tʰai˦tsuk˧tau˧˩tsak˩jɔŋ˩jap˥lɔi˩kau˧˩]||His/her younger brother caught a butterfly to play with.|
|好冷阿，水桶个水敢凝冰阿。||[hau˧˩laŋ˦ɔ˦,sui˧˩tʰuŋ˧kai˥˧sui˧˩kam˦kʰɛn˩pɛn˦ɔ˦]||It's very cold,the water in the bucket has frozen over.|
Various dialects of Hakka have been written in a number of Latin orthographies,largely for religious purposes,since at least the mid-19th century.
The popular The Little Prince has also been translated into Hakka (2000),specifically the Miaoli dialect of Taiwan (itself a variant of the Sixian dialect). This also was dual-script,albeit using the Tongyong Pinyin scheme.[ citation needed ]
Hakka TV is a state-run,primarily Hakka-language television channel in Taiwan that started in 2003. In mainland China,Meizhou Televisions's Hakka Public Channel has broadcasts 24 hours a day in Hakka since 2006. [ better source needed ]
The Hakka, sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese subgroup whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan, Guizhou and the island of Taiwan. The Chinese characters for Hakka literally mean "guest families". Unlike other Han Chinese subgroups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city, in China. Modern day Hakka are generally identified by both full Hakka and by different degrees of Hakka ancestry and usually speak the Hakka language.
Yue is a group of similar Sinitic languages spoken in Southern China, particularly in Liangguang.
Min is a broad group of Sinitic languages spoken by about 30 million people in Fujian province as well as by the descendants of Min speaking colonists on Leizhou peninsula and Hainan, or assimilated natives of Chaoshan, parts of Zhongshan, three counties in southern Wenzhou, Zhoushan archipelago, and Taiwan. The name is derived from the Min River in Fujian, which is also the abbreviated name of Fujian Province. Min varieties are not mutually intelligible with one another nor with any other variety of Chinese.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. Variation is particularly strong in the more mountainous southeast of mainland China. The varieties are typically classified into several groups: Mandarin, Wu, Min, Xiang, Gan, Hakka and Yue, though some varieties remain unclassified. These groups are neither clades nor individual languages defined by mutual intelligibility, but reflect common phonological developments from Middle Chinese.
Hakka hill songs are rural songs sung in the Hakka language by the Hakka people. They are probably one of the better known elements that reflect Hakka culture, regarded by many as the 'pearl of Hakka Literature'.
Xingning is a county-level city, under the jurisdiction of Meizhou City, Guangdong Province, China. The second largest city in east Guangdong, Xingning has an area of 2,104.85 square kilometres (812.69 sq mi) and a population of 1.13 million.
Teochew is a dialect of Chaoshan Min, a Southern Min language, that is spoken by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world. It is sometimes referred to as Chiuchow, its Cantonese rendering, due to the English romanisation by colonial officials and explorers. It is closely related to some dialects of Hokkien, as it shares some cognates and phonology with Hokkien. The two are relatively mutually intelligible. Although the two are far from the exact same language, it is possible for Hokkien and Teochow speakers to converse relatively easily.
Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka and Hainanese. The schemes utilized similar elements with some differences in order to adapt to their respective spoken varieties.
The subgroups of the Han Chinese people, Chinese dialect groups or just dialect groups, are defined based on linguistic, cultural, ethnic, genetic and regional features. The terminology used in Mandarin to describe the groups is: "minxi", used in Mainland China or "zuqun", used in Taiwan. No Han subgroup is recognized as one of People's Republic of China's 56 official minority ethnic groups. Scholars like James W. Hayes have described the Han Chinese subgroups as "ethnic group" outright, at least in the context of Hong Kong society.
The Sinitic languages, often synonymous with "Chinese languages", constitute the major branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is frequently proposed that there is a primary split between the Sinitic languages and the rest of the family, but this view is rejected by an increasing number of researchers. The Bai languages, whose classification is difficult, may be an offshoot of Old Chinese and thus Sinitic; otherwise Sinitic is defined only by the many varieties of Chinese, and usage of the term "Sinitic" may reflect the linguistic view that Chinese constitutes a family of distinct languages, rather than variants of a single language.
Huang Huahua is a retired Chinese politician, and the Governor of Guangdong between 2003 and 2011. Of Hakka heritage, he was once the mayor of Meizhou.
Pha̍k-fa-sṳ is an orthography similar to Pe̍h-ōe-jī and used to write Hakka, a variety of Chinese. Hakka is a whole branch of Chinese, and Hakka dialects are not necessarily mutually intelligible with each other, considering the large geographical region. This article discusses a specific variety of Hakka. The orthography was invented by the Presbyterian church in the 19th century. The Hakka New Testament published in 1924 is written in this system.
The languages of Taiwan consist of several varieties of languages under the families of Austronesian languages and Sino-Tibetan languages. The Formosan languages, a branch of Austronesian languages, have been spoken by the Taiwanese aborigines in Taiwan for thousands of years. Owing to the wide internal variety of the Formosan languages, research on historical linguistics recognizes Taiwan as the Urheimat (homeland) of the whole Austronesian languages family. In the last 400 years, several waves of Han emigrations brought several different Sino-Tibetan languages into Taiwan. These languages include Taiwanese Hokkien, Hakka, and Mandarin, which have become the major languages spoken in Taiwan nowadays.
The history of Gan Chinese, a variety of Chinese spoken in modern-day China, stretches back to the beginning of the Qin dynasty. This long stretch of time is divided into Old Gan, late Old Gan, and Middle Gan periods.
The Wuhua dialect is a major dialect of Hakka Chinese spoken in Wuhua County,.
The Meixian dialect, also known as Moiyan dialect, as well as Meizhou dialect (梅州話), or Jiaying dialect, is the prestige dialect of Hakka Chinese and the basis for the Hakka dialects in Taiwan. It is named after Meixian District, Guangdong.
Taiwanese Hakka is a language group consisting of Hakka dialects spoken in Taiwan, and mainly used by people of Hakka ancestry. Taiwanese Hakka is divided into five main dialects: Sixian, Hailu, Dabu, Raoping, and Zhao'an. The most widely spoken of the five Hakka dialects in Taiwan are Sixian and Hailu. The former, possessing six tones, originates from Meizhou, Guangdong, and is mainly spoken in Miaoli, Pingtung and Kaohsiung, while the latter, possessing seven tones, originates from Haifeng and Lufeng, Guangdong, and is concentrated around Hsinchu. Taiwanese Hakka is also officially listed as one of the national languages of Taiwan. In addition to the five main dialects, there are the northern Xihai dialect and the patchily-distributed Yongding, Fengshun, Wuping, Wuhua, and Jiexi dialects.
The Sixian dialect, also known as the Sixian accent, is a dialect of Hakka used by Taiwanese Hakkas, and it is the most spoken dialect of Taiwanese Hakka, being used in Hakka broadcasting in many public occasions. The Sixian dialect is generally spoken in northern and southern Taiwan, with main representative regions being Taoyuan and Miaoli in the north, as well as the Liudui Region in Kaohsiung and Pingtung in the south.
The Hakka Transliteration Scheme or Pinfa refers to a romanization scheme published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in September 1960 as one of four systems collectively referred to as Guangdong Romanization. The scheme describes the Meixian dialect spoken in Meizhou, Guangdong which is considered to be the prestige dialect of Hakka, and was later adapted for Gan and Xiang. This system utilizes the Latin alphabet with superscript numbers to represent tone.
|Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Hakka .|