Hakka Chinese

Last updated
Hak-kâ-va / Hak-kâ-fa
Native to China, Taiwan
RegionMainland China: Northeastern Guangdong, adjoining regions of Fujian, Jiangxi, Southern Hunan and the midwest of Sichuan
Hong Kong: New Territories (older generations since younger Hakkas mostly speak Cantonese due to language shift and social assimilation)
Ethnicity Hakka
Native speakers
47.8 million (2007) [1]
romanization, Latin (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ)
Official status
Official language in
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan [lower-alpha 1]
Recognised minority
language in
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan (a statutory language for public transportation; [3] government sponsor of Hakka-language television station)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 hak
Glottolog hakk1236
Linguasphere 79-AAA-g > 79-AAA-ga (+ 79-AAA-gb transition to 79-AAA-h)
Idioma hakka.png
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
  1. National language in Taiwan; [2] also statutory status in Taiwan as one of the languages for public transport announcements [3] and for the naturalisation test. [4]

Related Research Articles

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The Hakka, sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese subgroup whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan, Guizhou and the island of Taiwan. The Chinese characters for Hakka literally mean "guest families". Unlike other Han Chinese subgroups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city, in China. Modern day Hakka are generally identified by both full Hakka and by different degrees of Hakka ancestry and usually speak the Hakka language.

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The Wuhua dialect is a major dialect of Hakka Chinese spoken in Wuhua County, Jiexi County, Shenzhen, eastern Dongguan, Northern Guangdong around Shaoguan, Sichuan Province, and Tonggu County in Jiangxi Province.

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Taiwanese Hakka Chinese topolect spoken in Taiwan

Taiwanese Hakka is a language group consisting of Hakka dialects spoken in Taiwan, and mainly used by people of Hakka ancestry. Taiwanese Hakka is divided into five main dialects: Sixian, Hailu, Dabu, Raoping, and Zhao'an. The most widely spoken of the five Hakka dialects in Taiwan are Sixian and Hailu. The former, possessing six tones, originates from Meizhou, Guangdong, and is mainly spoken in Miaoli, Pingtung and Kaohsiung, while the latter, possessing seven tones, originates from Haifeng and Lufeng, Guangdong, and is concentrated around Hsinchu. Taiwanese Hakka is also officially listed as one of the national languages of Taiwan. In addition to the five main dialects, there are the northern Xihai dialect and the patchily-distributed Yongding, Fengshun, Wuping, Wuhua, and Jiexi dialects.

Sixian dialect

The Sixian dialect, also known as the Sixian accent, is a dialect of Hakka used by Taiwanese Hakkas, and it is the most spoken dialect of Taiwanese Hakka, being used in Hakka broadcasting in many public occasions. The Sixian dialect is generally spoken in northern and southern Taiwan, with main representative regions being Taoyuan and Miaoli in the north, as well as the Liudui Region in Kaohsiung and Pingtung in the south.

The Hakka Transliteration Scheme or Pinfa refers to a romanization scheme published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in September 1960 as one of four systems collectively referred to as Guangdong Romanization. The scheme describes the Meixian dialect spoken in Meizhou, Guangdong which is considered to be the prestige dialect of Hakka, and was later adapted for Gan and Xiang. This system utilizes the Latin alphabet with superscript numbers to represent tone.


  1. Hakka at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. Fan, Cheng-hsiang; Kao, Evelyn (2018-12-25). "Draft National Language Development Act Clears Legislative Floor". Focus Taiwan News Channel. Central News Agency. Archived from the original on 2018-12-25.
  3. 1 2 "Dàzhòng yùnshū gōngjù bòyīn yǔyán píngděng bǎozhàng fǎ" 大眾運輸工具播音語言平等保障法 [Act on Broadcasting Language Equality Protection in Public Transport] (in Chinese) via Wikisource.
  4. Article 6 of the Standards for Identification of Basic Language Abilities and General Knowledge of the Rights and Duties of Naturalized Citizens
  5. Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J., eds. (2003). The Sino-Tibetan Languages. Routledge. ISBN   0-7007-1129-5.
  6. "The Hakka People > Historical Background". edu.ocac.gov.tw. Archived from the original on 2019-09-09. Retrieved 2010-06-11.
  7. "[Insert title here]". edu.ocac.gov.tw (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2004-08-30. Retrieved 2014-10-12.
  8. Sagart (2002).
  9. Deng, Xiaohua 邓晓华 (1999). "Kèjiāhuà gēn Miáo-Yáo-Zhuàng-Dòngyǔ de Guānxì wèntí" 客家话跟苗瑶壮侗语的关系问题 (PDF). Mínzú yǔwén民族语文 (in Chinese). 3: 42–49.
  10. Zhan, Bohui 詹伯慧 (1993). "Guǎngdōng Shěng Ráopíng fāngyán jì yīn" 广东省饶平方言记音. Fāngyán方言 (in Chinese) (2): 129–141.
  11. Liu, Zhenfa 劉鎮發 (1997). Kèyǔ pīnyīn zìhuì客語拼音字彙[Hakka Pinyin Vocabulary] (in Chinese). Xianggang zhongwen daxue chubanshe. p. xxvi. ISBN   962-201-750-9.
  12. 𠍲. Jiàoyùbù yìtǐzì zìdiǎn教育部異體字字典[Dictionary of Chinese Character Variants of the Ministry of Education] (in Chinese). Retrieved 2021-11-04.
  13. "Méizhōu diànshìtái kāishè quán Kèjiāhuà píndào (24 xiǎoshí bōchū)" 梅州电视台开设全客家话频道(24小时播出) [Meizhou TV Station Opens an All-Hakka Dialect Channel (24 Hours Broadcast)]. Luófú shān pùbù de bókè罗浮山瀑布的博客 (in Chinese). blog.sina.com.cn. 2011-07-21.

Further reading

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