|ཨ་མདོ་སྐད་, A-mdo skad|
|Region||Qinghai, Gansu, Tibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan, Amdo|
|1.8 million (2005)|
The Amdo Tibetan (Tibetan : ཨ་མདོ་སྐད་, Wylie : A-mdo skad, Lhasa dialect : [ámtokɛ́ʔ] ; also called Am kä) is the Tibetic language spoken by the majority of Amdowa, mainly in Qinghai and some parts of Sichuan (Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture) and Gansu (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture).
Amdo Tibetan is one of the four main spoken Tibetic languages, the other three being Central Tibetan, Khams Tibetan and Ladakhi. These four related languages share a common written script but different in phonology, grammar and vocabulary. These differences may have emerged due to geographical isolation of the regions of Tibet. Unlike Standard Tibetan, Amdo language is not a tonal. It retains many word-initial consonant clusters that have been lost in Central Tibetan.
Bradley (1997)includes Thewo and Choni as close to Amdo if not actually Amdo dialects.
Hua (2001)contains word lists of the Xiahe County 夏河, Tongren County 同仁, Xunhua County 循化, Hualong County 化隆, Hongyuan County 红原, and Tianjun County 天峻 dialects of Amdo Tibetan in Gansu and Qinghai provinces.
The Salar people are a Turkic ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz language.
The Bonan people are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in Northwestern China. They are one of the "titular nationalities" of Gansu's Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County, which is located south of the Yellow River, near Gansu's border with Qinghai.
Amdo is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama. Amdo encompasses a large area from the Machu to the Drichu (Yangtze). While historically, culturally, and ethnically a Tibetan area, Amdo was administered by a series of local rulers since the mid-18th century and the Dalai Lamas have not governed the area directly since that time. From 1917 to 1928, much of Amdo was occupied intermittently by the Hui Muslim warlords of the Ma clique. In 1928, the Ma Clique joined the Kuomintang, and during the period from 1928 to 1949, much of Amdo was gradually assimilated into the Qinghai province of the Kuomintang Republic of China. By 1952, Communist Party of China forces had defeated both the Kuomintang and the local Tibetans and had assumed control of the region, solidifying their hold on the area by 1958 and formally spelling the end of the political existence of Amdo as a distinct Tibetan province.
The Monguor language is a Mongolic language of its Shirongolic branch and is part of the Gansu–Qinghai sprachbund. There are several dialects, mostly spoken by the Monguor people. A written script was devised for Huzhu Monguor (Mongghul) in the late 20th century, but has been little used. A division into two languages, namely Mongghul in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County and Mangghuer in Minhe Hui and Tu Autonomous County, is considered necessary by some linguists. While Mongghul was under strong influence from Amdo Tibetan, the same holds for Mangghuer and Sinitic languages, and local varieties of Chinese such as the Gangou language were in turn influenced by Monguor.
Khams Tibetan is the Tibetic language used by the majority of the people in Kham, which is now divided between the eastern part of Tibet Autonomous Region, the southern part of Qinghai, the western part of Sichuan, and the northwestern part of Yunnan, China. It is one of the six main spoken Tibetic languages, the other five being Central Tibetan language, Amdo, Ladakhi, Dzongkha and Balti. These Tibetic languages share the same written script, but their pronunciations, vocabularies and grammars are different. These differences may have emerged due to geographical isolation of the regions of Tibet. Khams Tibetan is used alongside Standard Tibetan and Amdo Tibetan in broadcasting. Khams Tibetan is not mutually intelligible with other Tibetic languages.
Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, also known as Aba, is an autonomous prefecture of northwestern Sichuan, bordering Gansu to the north and northeast and Qinghai to the northwest. Its seat is in Barkam, and it has an area of 83,201 km2 (32,124 sq mi). The population was 919,987 in late 2013.
Gānnán Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in Southern Gansu Province, China. It includes Xiahe and the Labrang Monastery, Luqu, Maqu and other mostly Tibetan towns and villages. Gannan has an area of 40,898 km2 (15,791 sq mi) and its capital is Hezuo (Zoi). In the first year of the proclamation of Gannan Autonomous District, the district-seat was at the Labrang Town of Sangqu.
Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, locally also known as Qaidam Prefecture, is an autonomous prefecture occupying much of the northern tier of as well as part of the southwest of Qinghai Province, China. It has an area of 325,785 square kilometres (125,786 sq mi) and its seat is Delingha. The name of the prefecture literally means "west of (Qinghai) Lake."
GologTibetan Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture occupying the southeastern corner of Qinghai province, People's Republic of China. The prefecture has an area of 76,312 km2 (29,464 sq mi) and its seat is located in Maqên County.
Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, formerly known as Tsolho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, is an autonomous prefecture of Northeastern Qinghai Province in Western China. The prefecture has an area of 45,895 square kilometres (17,720 sq mi) and its seat is located in Gonghe County. Its name literally means "south of (Qinghai) Lake."
Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture of Eastern Qinghai, China, bordering Gansu to the east. The prefecture has area of 17,921 km2 (6,919 sq mi) and its seat is in Tongren County.
Xunhua Salar Autonomous County is an autonomous Salar county in the southeast of Haidong Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. The county has an area of around 2,100 square kilometres (810 sq mi) and approximately 110,000 inhabitants (2002). In the east it borders on the province of Gansu, in the south and the west to the Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, its postal code is 811100 and its capital is the town of Jishi.
Bairi (Tianzhu) Tibetan Autonomous County is in the prefecture-level city of Wuwei in the central part of Gansu province, China, bordering Qinghai province to the south and west. It has an area of 7,147 km2 (2,759 sq mi) and approximately 230,000 inhabitants (2003). Its administrative seat is the town of Huazangsi.
The Bonan language is the Mongolic language of the Bonan people of China. As of 1985, it was spoken by about 8,000 people, including about 75% of the total Bonan ethnic population and many ethnic Monguor, in Gansu and Qinghai Provinces and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture. There are several dialects, which are influenced to varying degrees — but always heavily — by Chinese and Tibetan, while bilingualism in Wutun is less common. The most commonly studied is the Tongren dialect. There is no writing system in use. The language is also referred to as "Manegacha", natively.
Standard Tibetan is a widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages that has many commonalities with the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan is often called Lhasa Tibetan. Tibetan is an official language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The written language is based on Classical Tibetan and is highly conservative.
Baima is a language spoken by 10,000 Baima people, of Tibetan nationality, in north central Sichuan Province, and Gansu Province, China. Baima is passed on from parents to children in Baima villages. It is spoken within the home domain and is not used in any media of mass communication.
Gakog (Hongyuan) County is a county in the north of Sichuan Province, China. It is under the administration of the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture. There is a river called Ka Chu/Gaqu in the area and kog means "valley" or "area"; thus it means the area of the Ga River.
The 2010 Tibetan language protest was a series of protests in Tongren County, Gonghe County and Maqên County, in Qinghai Province; Minzu University of China in Beijing; and Xiahe County in Gansu Province, People's Republic of China by ethnic Tibetan students over the period of October 20 through October 27, 2010.
The Xunhua Incident was an uprising of Tibetan and Salar people against the rule of Communist Party of China (CPC) in Qinghai, China in April, 1958. The incident took place in Xunhua Salar Autonomous County of Qinghai Province, the hometown of 10th Panchen Lama, amid the Great Leap Forward. Since March 1958, local officials imposed strict rules for socialist transformations and, in order to prevent uprising, religious leaders including Jnana Pal Rinpoche (加乃化仁波切), a well-respected monk, were forcibly sent for re-education. Over 4,000 people with different ethnic backgrounds subsequently revolted and killed a team leader from the CPC task force. The incident ended in suppression and a massacre by the People's Liberation Army, which killed 435 people within four hours on April 25, most of whom were unarmed civilians.
|Wikivoyage has travel information for Amdo Tibetan phrasebook .|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Research on Tibetan Languages: A Bibliography|