|буряад хэлэн buryaad xelen|
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠠᠳ ᠮᠤᠨᠭᠭᠤᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
|Native to||Russia (Buryat Republic, Ust-Orda Buryatia, Aga Buryatia), northern Mongolia, China (Hulunbuir)|
|Ethnicity||Buryats, Barga Mongols|
|(265,000 in Russia and Mongolia (2010 census); 65,000 in China cited 1982 census)|
|Cyrillic, Mongolian script, Vagindra script, Latin|
Official language in
Buryat or Buriat // ; Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) (in the USSR from 1917 to 1956 - the Buryat-Mongolian language; in China - the Bargu-Buryat dialect of the Mongolian language) is a variety of the Mongolic languages spoken by the Buryats and Bargas that is classified either as a language or major dialect group of Mongolian.(
The majority of Buryat speakers live in Russia along the northern border of Mongolia where it is an official language in the Buryat Republic, Ust-Orda Buryatia and Aga Buryatia.In the Russian census of 2002, 353,113 people out of an ethnic population of 445,175 reported speaking Buryat (72.3%). Some other 15,694 can also speak Buryat, mostly ethnic Russians. There are at least 100,000 ethnic Buryats in Mongolia and the People's Republic of China as well. Buryats in Russia have a separate literary standard, written in a Cyrillic alphabet. It is based on the Russian alphabet with three additional letters: Ү/ү, Ө/ө and Һ/һ.
The delimitation of Buryat mostly concerns its relationship to its immediate neighbors, Mongolian proper and Khamnigan. While Khamnigan is sometimes regarded as a dialect of Buryat, this is not supported by isoglosses. The same holds for Tsongol and Sartul dialects, which rather group with Khalkha Mongolian to which they historically belong. Buryat dialects are:
Based on loan vocabulary, a division might be drawn between Russia Buriat, Mongolia Buriat and China Buriat.However, as the influence of Russian is much stronger in the dialects traditionally spoken west of Lake Baikal, a division might rather be drawn between the Khori and Bargut group on the one hand and the other three groups on the other hand.
Buryat has the vowel phonemes /i, ɯ, e, a, u, ʊ, o, ɔ/ (plus a few diphthongs),short /e/ being realized as [ɯ], and the consonant phonemes /b, g, d, tʰ, m, n, x, l, r/ (each with a corresponding palatalized phoneme) and /s, ʃ, z, ʒ, h, j/. These vowels are restricted in their occurrence according to vowel harmony. The basic syllable structure is (C)V(C) in careful articulation, but word-final CC clusters may occur in more rapid speech if short vowels of non-initial syllables get dropped.
[ɯ] only occurs as a sound of a short e. [ə] is only an allophone of unstressed vowels.
[ŋ] only occurs as an allophone of /n/.
Lexical stress (word accent) falls on the last heavy nonfinal syllable when one exists. Otherwise, it falls on the word-final heavy syllable when one exists. If there are no heavy syllables, then the initial syllable is stressed. Heavy syllables without primary stress receive secondary stress:
|ˌHˈHL||[ˌøːɡˈʃøːxe]||"to act encouragingly"|
|LˌHˈHL||[naˌmaːˈtuːlxa]||"to cause to be covered with leaves"|
|ˌHLˌHˈHL||[ˌbuːzaˌnuːˈdiːje]||"steamed dumplings (accusative)"|
|ˌHˈHLLL||[ˌtaːˈruːlaɡdaxa]||"to be adapted to"|
|LˈHLˌH||[xuˈdaːliŋɡˌdaː]||"to the husband's parents"|
|LˌHˈHˌH||[daˌlaiˈɡaːˌraː]||"by one's own sea"|
|ˌHLˈHˌH||[ˌxyːxenˈɡeːˌreː]||"by one's own girl"|
|LˈH||[xaˈdaːr]||"through the mountain"|
Secondary stress may also occur on word-initial light syllables without primary stress, but further research is required. The stress pattern is the same as in Khalkha Mongolian.
From the end of the 17th century, Classical Mongolian was used in clerical and religious practice. The language of the end of the XVII — XIX centuries is conventionally referred to as the Old Buryat literary and written language.
Before the October Revolution, Western Buryats clerical work was conducted in Russian language, and not by the Buryats themselves, but originally sent by representatives of the tsarist administration, the so-called clerks, the old-Mongolian script was used only by ancestral nobility, lamas and traders Relations with Tuva, Outer and Inner Mongolia.
In 1905, on the basis of the Old Mongolian letter Agvan Dorzhiev a script was created Vagindra , which until 1910 had at least a dozen books printed. However, vagindra was not widespread.
In USSR in 1926 began the organized scientific development of the Buryat romanized writing. In 1929, the draft Buryat alphabet was ready. It contained the following letters: A a, B b, C c, Ç ç, D d, E e, Ә ә, Ɔ ɔ, G g, I i, J j, K k, L l, M m, N n, O o, P p, R r, S s, Ş ş, T t, U u, Y y, Z z, Ƶ ƶ, H h, F f, V v. However, this project was not approved. In February 1930, a new version of the Latinized alphabet was approved. It contained letters of the standard Latin alphabet (except for h, q, x), digraphs ch, sh, zh, and also the letter ө. But in January 1931, its modified version was officially adopted, unified with other alphabets of peoples USSR.
Buryat alphabet (Latin) 1931-1939
|A a||B b||C c||Ç ç||D d||E e||F f||G g|
|H h||I i||J j||K k||L l||M m||N n||O o|
|Ө ө||P p||R r||S s||Ş ş||T t||U u||V v|
|X x||Y y||Z z||Ƶ ƶ||ь|
In 1939, the Latinized alphabet was replaced by Cyrillic with the addition of three special letters (Ү ү, Ө ө, Һ һ).
Modern Buryat alphabet (Cyrillic) since 1939
|А а||Б б||В в||Г г||Д д||Е е||Ё ё||Ж ж|
|З з||И и||Й й||К к||Л л||М м||Н н||О о|
|Ө ө||П п||Р р||С с||Т т||У у||Ү ү||Ф ф|
|Х х||Һ һ||Ц ц||Ч ч||Ш ш||Щ щ||Ъ ъ||Ы ы|
|Ь ь||Э э||Ю ю||Я я|
Buryats changed the literary base of their written language three times in order to approach the living spoken language. Finally, in 1936, Khorinsky oriental dialect, close and accessible to most native speakers, was chosen as the basis of the literary language at the linguistic conference in Ulan-Ude.
Buryat is an SOV language that makes exclusive use of postpositions. Buryat is equipped with eight grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, ablative, comitative, dative-locative and a particular oblique form of the stem.
The Mongolian language is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family. The number of speakers across all its dialects may be 5.2 million, including the vast majority of the residents of Mongolia and many of the Mongolian residents of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. In Mongolia, the Khalkha dialect, written in Cyrillic, is predominant, while in Inner Mongolia, the language is dialectally more diverse and is written in the traditional Mongolian script. In the discussion of grammar to follow, the variety of Mongolian treated is Standard Khalkha Mongolian, but much of what is to be said is also valid for vernacular (spoken) Khalkha and for other Mongolian dialects, especially Chakhar.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia and Buryatia. The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia and the Mongolian residents of Inner Mongolia, with an estimated 5.7+ million speakers.
The Tatar language is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, as well as Siberia. It should not be confused with the Crimean Tatar or Siberian Tatar which are closely related but belong to different subgroups of the Kipchak languages.
Bashkir is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch. It is co-official with Russian in Bashkortostan. It is spoken by approximately 1.2 million native speakers in Russia. It has three dialect groups: Southern, Eastern and Northwestern.
Tuvan, also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia. The language has borrowed a great number of roots from the Mongolian language, Tibetan and the Russian language. There are small diaspora groups of Tuvan people that speak distinct dialects of Tuvan in the People's Republic of China and in Mongolia.
Jaꞑalif, Yangalif or Yañalif is the first Latin alphabet used during the Soviet epoch for the Turkic languages in the 1930s. It replaced the Yaña imlâ Arabic script-based alphabet in 1928 and was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1938-1940; several former Soviet states in Central Asia switched back to Latin script, with slight modifications to the original Jaꞑalif.
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Oe or barred O is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
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The braille alphabet used for the Kazakh language is based on Russian Braille, with several additional letters found in the print Kazakh alphabet.
The braille alphabet used for the Tatar language is based on Russian Braille, with several additional letters found in the print Tatar alphabet.
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|Buryat edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|