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Province of Sichuan
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese四川省 (Sìchuān Shěng)
  AbbreviationSC / (pinyin :Chuān)
Jiu Zhai Gou -Wu Hua Hai .jpg
Leshan Buddha Statue View.JPG
Huang Long Zheng Yan Chi (Huanglong Park).jpg
Mount Emei - Sunrise above the clouds.jpg
Chengdu Chengdu Panda Reserve Base Grosse Pandas 24.jpg
(clockwise from top)
Sichuan in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Sichuan Province
Coordinates: 30°08′N102°56′E / 30.133°N 102.933°E / 30.133; 102.933 Coordinates: 30°08′N102°56′E / 30.133°N 102.933°E / 30.133; 102.933
(and largest city)
Divisions21 prefectures, 181 counties, 5011 townships
  Type Province
  Body Sichuan Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Wang Xiaohui
   Congress chairman Peng Qinghua
   Governor Huang Qiang
   CPPCC chairman Ke Zunping
   National People's Congress Representation147 deputies
  Total485,000 km2 (187,000 sq mi)
  Rank 5th
Highest elevation7,556 m (24,790 ft)
 (2020) [2]
  Rank 4th
  Density170/km2 (450/sq mi)
   Rank 22nd
  Ethnic composition Han – 95%
Yi – 2.6%
Tibetan – 1.5%
Qiang – 0.4%
Others - 0.5%
  Languages and dialects Southwestern Mandarin (Sichuanese dialects), Khams Tibetan, Hakka Chinese
ISO 3166 code CN-SC
GDP (2021) CNY 4.86 trillion
USD 847 billion (6th)
 • per capita CNY 64,357
USD 10,120 (16th)
HDI (2019)0.734 [3] (high) (23rd)

Sichuan was originally the origin of the Deng lineage until one of them was hired as an official in Guangdong during the Ming dynasty but during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to Sichuan again. Deng Xiaoping was born in Sichuan. [41]

During the Qing dynasty, Sichuan was merged with Shaanxi and Shanxi to create "Shenzhuan" during 1680-1731 and 1735–1748. [25] The current borders of Sichuan (which then included Chongqing) were established in the early 18th century. In the aftermath of the Sino-Nepalese War on China's southwestern border, the Qing gave Sichuan's provincial government direct control over the minority-inhabited areas of Sichuan west of Kangding, which had previously been handled by an amban. [39]

A landslide dam on the Dadu River caused by an earthquake gave way on 10 June 1786. The resulting flood killed 100,000 people. [42]

Republic of China

Japanese bombers bombing a Chinese road in Sichuan during WW2 Japanese bombing chinese main road.jpg
Japanese bombers bombing a Chinese road in Sichuan during WW2

In the early 20th century, the newly founded Republic of China established Chuanbian Special Administrative District (川邊特別行政區), which acknowledged the unique culture and economy of the region largely differing from that of mainstream northern China in the Yellow River region. The Special District later became the province of Xikang, incorporating the areas inhabited by Yi, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minorities to its west, and eastern part of today's Tibet Autonomous Region.[ citation needed ]

In the 20th century, as Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Wuhan had all been occupied by the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the capital of the Republic of China had been temporarily relocated to Chongqing, then a major city in Sichuan. An enduring legacy of this move is that n* Akio Hong, broadcasterearby inland provinces, such as Shaanxi, Gansu, and Guizhou, which previously never had modern Western-style universities, began to be developed in this regard. [43] The difficulty of accessing the region overland from the eastern part of China and the foggy climate hindering the accuracy of Japanese bombing of the Sichuan Basin, made the region the stronghold of Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government during 1938–45, and led to the Bombing of Chongqing.[ citation needed ]

The Second Sino-Japanese War was soon followed by the resumed Chinese Civil War, and the cities of East China are obtained by the Communists one after another, the Kuomintang government again tried to make Sichuan its stronghold on the mainland, although it already saw some Communist activity since it was one area on the road of the Long March. Chiang Kai-shek himself flew to Chongqing from Taiwan in November 1949 to lead the defense. But the same month Chongqing switched to the Communists, followed by Chengdu on 10 December. The Kuomintang general Wang Sheng wanted to stay behind with his troops to continue anticommunist guerilla war in Sichuan, but was recalled to Taiwan. Many of his soldiers made their way there as well, via Burma. [44]

People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, and it split Sichuan into four areas and separated out Chongqing municipality. Sichuan was reconstituted in 1952, with Chongqing added in 1954, while the former Xikang province was split between Tibet in the west and Sichuan in the east. [25]

The province was deeply affected by the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–1961, during which period some 9.4 million people (13.07% of the population at the time) died. [45]

In 1978, when Deng Xiaoping took power, Sichuan was one of the first provinces to experiment with market economic enterprise.

From 1955 until 1997 Sichuan had been China's most populous province, hitting 100 million mark shortly after the 1982 census figure of 99,730,000. [46] This changed in 1997 when the Sub-provincial city of Chongqing as well as the three surrounding prefectures of Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang were split off into the new Chongqing Municipality. The new municipality was formed to spearhead China's effort to economically develop its western provinces, as well as to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project.

In 1997 when Sichuan split, the sum of the two parts was recorded to be 114,720,000 people. [47] As of 2010, Sichuan ranks as both the 3rd largest (the largest among Chinese provinces with population greater than 50 million) and 4th most populous province in China. [48]

Shops in Jundao, a town devastated by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake Sichuan earthquake jundao.JPG
Shops in Jundao, a town devastated by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake

In May 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9/8.0 hit just 79 kilometres (49 mi) northwest of the provincial capital of Chengdu. Official figures recorded a death toll of nearly 70,000 people, and millions of people were left homeless. [49]

Administrative divisions

Sichuan consists of twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: eighteen prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and three autonomous prefectures:

Sichuan (Chinese characters).svg
"Sichuan" in Chinese characters
Administrative divisions of Sichuan
Division code [50] DivisionArea in km2 [51] Population 2010 [52] SeatDivisions [53]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
510000Sichuan Province485,000.0080,418,200 Chengdu city54107418
510100 Chengdu city12,163.1614,047,625 Wuhou District 1235
510300 Zigong city4,373.132,678,898 Ziliujing District 42
510400 Panzhihua city7,423.421,214,121 Dong District 32
510500 Luzhou city12,233.584,218,426 Jiangyang District 34
510600 Deyang city5,951.553,615,759 Jingyang District 213
510700 Mianyang city20,267.464,613,862 Fucheng District 3411
510800 Guangyuan city16,313.702,484,125 Lizhou District 34
510900 Suining city5,323.853,252,551 Chuanshan District 221
511000 Neijiang city5,385.333,702,847 Shizhong District 221
511100 Leshan city12,827.493,235,756 Shizhong District 4421
511300 Nanchong city12,479.966,278,622 Shunqing District 351
511400 Meishan city7,173.822,950,548 Dongpo District 24
511500 Yibin city13,293.894,472,001 Cuiping District 37
511600 Guang'an city6,301.413,205,476 Guang'an District 231
511700 Dazhou city16,591.005,468,092 Tongchuan District 241
511800 Ya'an city15,213.281,507,264 Yucheng District 26
511900 Bazhong city12,301.263,283,771 Bazhou District 23
512000 Ziyang city7,962.563,665,064 Yanjiang District 12
513200 Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture 82,383.32898,713 Barkam city121
513300 Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 147,681.371,091,872 Kangding city171
513400 Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture 60,422.674,532,809 Xichang city1511

The twenty Prefecture of Sichuan are subdivided into 183 county-level divisions (53 districts, 17 county-level cities, 109 counties, and 4 autonomous counties). At the end of year 2017, the total population is 83.02 million. [54]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [55] District area [55] City proper [55] Census date
1 Chengdu [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] 6,316,9227,415,59015,118,8392010-11-01
(1)Chengdu (new districts) [lower-alpha 1] 1,384,7702,176,092see Chengdu2010-11-01
2 Mianyang [lower-alpha 3] 967,0071,355,3314,613,8712010-11-01
(2)Mianyang (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 96,265366,802see Mianyang2010-11-01
3 Nanchong 890,4021,858,8756,278,6142010-11-01
4 Luzhou 742,2741,371,2334,218,4272010-11-01
5 Leshan 678,7521,211,2373,235,7592010-11-01
6 Zigong 666,2041,262,0642,678,8992010-11-01
7 Panzhihua 631,258787,1771,214,1212010-11-01
8 Neijiang 586,4451,251,0953,702,8472010-11-01
9 Suining 549,8261,295,8853,252,6192010-11-01
10 Yibin [lower-alpha 4] 549,650836,3404,471,8962010-11-01
(10)Yibin (new districts) [lower-alpha 4] 277,9931,148,864see Yibin2010-11-01
11 Deyang [lower-alpha 5] 530,122735,0703,615,7582010-11-01
(11)Deyang (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 79,269212,185see Deyang2010-11-01
12 Bazhong 477,2351,126,16732831482010-11-01
13 Xichang 466,732712,434part of Liangshan Prefecture 2010-11-01
14 Guangyuan 407,756859,2462,484,1222010-11-01
15 Dazhou [lower-alpha 6] 379,467478,2765,468,0972010-11-01
(15)Dazhou (new district) [lower-alpha 6] 299,2231,111,159see Dazhou2010-11-01
16 Ziyang [lower-alpha 2] 376,387905,7292,593,8432010-11-01
17 Jianyang [lower-alpha 2] 365,3861,071,214see Chengdu2010-11-01
18 Meishan [lower-alpha 7] 347,546821,8532,950,5452010-11-01
(18)Meishan (new district) [lower-alpha 7] 150,350285,889see Meishan2010-11-01
19 Dujiangyan 317,627657,996see Chengdu2010-11-01
20 Guang'an 317,502858,1593,205,4762010-11-01
21 Jiangyou 312,154762,140see Mianyang2010-11-01
(22) Longchang [lower-alpha 8] 289,494633,210see Neijiang2010-11-01
23 Pengzhou 263,199762,887see Chengdu2010-11-01
24 Langzhong 242,535728,935see Nanchong2010-11-01
25 Guanghan 235,872591,115see Deyang2010-11-01
26 Emeishan 220,349437,068see Leshan2010-11-01
27 Ya'an [lower-alpha 9] 208,940355,5721,507,2582010-11-01
(27)Ya'an (new district) [lower-alpha 9] 52,131256,484see Ya'an2010-11-01
28 Chongzhou 206,448661,120see Chengdu2010-11-01
29 Mianzhu 192,001477,868see Deyang2010-11-01
30 Qionglai 190,099612753see Chengdu2010-11-01
31 Shifang 187,473412,758see Deyang2010-11-01
32 Wanyuan 129,617407,594see Dazhou2010-11-01
33 Huaying 119,228278,359see Guang'an2010-11-01
(34) Kangding [lower-alpha 10] 60,439130,142part of Garzê Prefecture 2010-11-01
(35) Barkam [lower-alpha 11] 28,78358,437part of Ngawa Prefecture 2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Shuangliu (Shuangliu County), Pidu (Pixian County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 3 Jianyang CLC was transferred from Ziyang PLC to Chengdu PLC's jurisdiction after census; the City proper count is reflected onto Chengdu PLC not Ziyang PLC.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Anxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New districts established after census: Nanxi (Nanxi County), Xuzhou (Yibin County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Luojiang (Luojiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Dachuan (Daxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New district established after census: Pengshan (Pengshan County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. Longchang County is currently known as Longchang CLC after census.
  9. 1 2 New district established after census: Mingshan (Mingshan County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  10. Kangding County is currently known as Kangding CLC after census.
  11. Barkam County is currently known as Barkam CLC after census.

Geography and biodiversity

Sichuan consists of two geographically very distinct parts. The eastern part of the province is mostly within the fertile Sichuan basin (which is shared by Sichuan with Chongqing Municipality). The western Sichuan consists of the numerous mountain ranges forming the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau, which are known generically as Hengduan Mountains. One of these ranges, Daxue Mountains, contains the highest point of the province Gongga Shan, at 7,556 m (24,790 ft) above sea level. The mountains are formed by the collision of the Tibetan Plateau with the Yangtze Plate. Faults here include the Longmenshan Fault which ruptured during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Other mountain ranges surround the Sichuan Basin from north, east, and south. Among them are the Daba Mountains, in the province's northeast.

The Yangtze River and its tributaries flow through the mountains of western Sichuan and the Sichuan Basin; thus, the province is upstream of the great cities that stand along the Yangtze River further to the east, such as Chongqing, Wuhan, Nanjing and Shanghai. One of the major tributaries of the Yangtze within the province is the Min River of central Sichuan, which joins the Yangtze at Yibin. There are also a number of other rivers, such as Jialing River, Tuo River, Yalong River, Wu River and Jinsha River, and any four of the various rivers are often grouped as the "four rivers" that the name of Sichuan is commonly and mistakenly believed to mean. [6] [7]

Due to great differences in terrain, the climate of the province is highly variable. In general it has strong monsoonal influences, with rainfall heavily concentrated in the summer. Under the Köppen climate classification, the Sichuan Basin (including Chengdu) in the eastern half of the province experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa or Cfa), with long, hot, wet summers and short, mild to cool, dry and cloudy winters. Consequently, it has China's lowest sunshine totals. The western region has mountainous areas producing a cooler but sunnier climate. Having cool to very cold winters and mild summers, temperatures generally decrease with greater elevation. However, due to high altitude and its inland location, many areas such as Garze County and Zoige County in Sichuan exhibit a subarctic climate (Köppen Dwc)- featuring extremely cold winters down to −30 °C and even cold summer nights. The region is geologically active with landslides and earthquakes. Average elevation ranges from 2,000 to 3,500 meters; average temperatures range from 0 to 15 °C. [56] The southern part of the province, including Panzhihua and Xichang, has a sunny climate with short, very mild winters and very warm to hot summers.

Sichuan borders Qinghai to the northwest, Gansu to the north, Shaanxi to the northeast, Chongqing to the east, Guizhou to the southeast, Yunnan to the south, and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the west.

Giant panda

Giant pandas eating bamboo in Chengdu, Sichuan Chengdu-pandas-d10.jpg
Giant pandas eating bamboo in Chengdu, Sichuan

Giant pandas live in bamboo forests and low mountainous areas such as the Minshan Mountains in Sichuan. [57] The majority of the panda population lives in Sichuan, with their range spreading into Shaanxi and Gansu. As it is abundant where they live, pandas' diet consists of 99% bamboo, with small other plants, or small animals consisting of the other 1%. As the panda is native to China, they have become a national symbol of China. [58]

Davidia Involucrata "Dove Trees"

Chinese Dove Trees were in full bloom in Gulin county, southwest China's Sichuan Province on May 7, 2022, according to SinaEnglish, 'Davidia involucrata, called the Chinese dove tree or handkerchief tree, is an ancient deciduous species of the Tertiary period. It is regarded as 'the living plant fossil' and 'the green panda' of the plant kingdom." [59]

Linpan settlements

The Linpan in Chengdu Plain is a special settlement in Chengdu Plain, which consists of farm house with woods around, irrigation system, farm land and is elementary unit of the village within the scattered locations. The rural landscape of Chengdu Plain is unique because of the typical element "Linpan".[ original research? ][ clarification needed ]


The politics of Sichuan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The governor of Sichuan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Sichuan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Sichuan Communist Party of China's Party Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Sichuan CPC Party Chief".


The capital of Sichuan, Chengdu. CHUNXILU.jpg
The capital of Sichuan, Chengdu.
IFS Chengdu Mall Entrance IFS Chengdu Mall Entrance 1.jpg
IFS Chengdu Mall Entrance
Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts in Chengdu Waldorf Astoria in Chengdu.jpg
Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts in Chengdu

Sichuan has been historically known as the "Province of Abundance". It is one of the major agricultural production bases of China. Grain, including rice and wheat, is the major product with output that ranked first in China in 1999. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, peaches and grapes. Sichuan also had the largest output of pork among all the provinces and the second largest output of silkworm cocoons in 1999. Sichuan is rich in mineral resources. It has more than 132 kinds of proven underground mineral resources including vanadium, titanium, and lithium being the largest in China. The Panxi region alone possesses 13.3% of the reserves of iron, 93% of titanium, 69% of vanadium, and 83% of the cobalt of the whole country. [60] Sichuan also possesses China's largest proven natural gas reserves, the majority of which is transported to more developed eastern regions. [48]

Sichuan is one of the major industrial centers of China. In addition to heavy industries such as coal, energy, iron and steel, the province has also established a light industrial sector comprising building materials, wood processing, food and silk processing. Chengdu and Mianyang are the production centers for textiles and electronics products. Deyang, Panzhihua, and Yibin are the production centers for machinery, metallurgical industries, and wine, respectively. Sichuan's wine production accounted for 21.9% of the country's total production in 2000.

Great strides have been made in developing Sichuan into a modern hi-tech industrial base, by encouraging both domestic and foreign investments in electronics and information technology (such as software), machinery and metallurgy (including automobiles), hydropower, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries.

The auto industry is an important and key sector of the machinery industry in Sichuan. Most of the auto manufacturing companies are located in Chengdu, Mianyang, Nanchong, and Luzhou. [61]

Other important industries in Sichuan include aerospace and defense (military) industries. A number of China's rockets (Long March rockets) and satellites were launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, located in the city of Xichang.

Sichuan's landscapes and rich historical relics have also made the province a center for tourism.

The Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam ever constructed, was built on the Yangtze River in nearby Hubei province to control flooding in the Sichuan Basin, neighboring Yunnan province, and downstream. The plan is hailed by some as China's efforts to shift towards alternative energy sources and to further develop its industrial and commercial bases, but others have criticised it for its potentially harmful effects, such as massive resettlement of residents in the reservoir areas, loss of archeological sites, and ecological damages.

Sichuan has one of the largest economy in western China. Its nominal GDP for 2017 was 3.69 trillion yuan (US$547.71 billion), equivalent to 44,651 RMB (US$6,613) per capita. [62] In 2021, the per capita net income of rural residents was 17,575 yuan (US$2760). The per capita disposable income of the urbanites averaged 41,444 yuan (US$6510).

Foreign trade

According to the Sichuan Department of Commerce, the province's total foreign trade was US$22.04 billion in 2008, with an annual increase of 53.3 percent. Exports were US$13.1 billion, an annual increase of 52.3 percent, while imports were US$8.93 billion, an annual increase of 54.7 percent. These achievements were accomplished because of significant changes in China's foreign trade policy, acceleration of the yuan's appreciation, increase of commercial incentives and increase in production costs. The 18 cities and counties witnessed a steady rate of increase. Chengdu, Suining, Nanchong, Dazhou, Ya'an, Abazhou, and Liangshan all saw an increase of more than 40 percent while Leshan, Neijiang, Luzhou, Meishan, Ziyang, and Yibin saw an increase of more than 20 percent. Foreign trade in Zigong, Panzhihua, Guang'an, Bazhong and Ganzi remained constant.[ citation needed ]

Minimum wage

Starting in 2021, the minimum wage in Sichuan Province will be 2,100 yuan($330).

Economic development zones

Chengdu Hi-tech Comprehensive Free Trade Zone

Chengdu Hi-tech Comprehensive Free Trade Zone was established with the approval of the State Council on October 18, 2010, and passed the national acceptance on February 25, 2011. It was officially operated in May 2011. Chengdu High-tech Comprehensive Free Trade Zone is integrated and expanded from the former Chengdu Export Processing Zone and Chengdu Bonded Logistics Center. it is located in the Chengdu West High-tech Industrial Development Zone, with an area of 4.68 square kilometers and divided into three areas A, B and C. The industries focus on notebook computer manufacturing, tablet computer manufacturing, wafer manufacturing and chip packaging testing, electronic components, precision machining, and biopharmaceutical industry. Chengdu Hi-Tech Comprehensive Free Trade Zone has attracted top 500 and multinational enterprises such as Intel, Foxconn, Texas Instruments, Dell, Morse and so on.

In 2020, the Chengdu Hi-Tech Comprehensive Free Trade Zone achieved a total import and export volume of 549.1 billion yuan (including Shuangliu Sub-zone), accounting for 68% of the province's total foreign trade import and export volume, ranking first in the national comprehensive insurance zone import and export volume for three consecutive years.

Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone

Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone (Chinese:成都经济技术开发区; pinyin:Chéngdū jīngjì jìshù kāifā qū) was approved as state-level development zone in February 2000. The zone now has a developed area of 10.25 km2 (3.96 sq mi) and has a planned area of 26 km2 (10 sq mi). Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone (CETDZ) lies 13.6 km (8.5 mi) east of Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province and the hub of transportation and communication in southwest China. The zone has attracted investors and developers from more than 20 countries to carry out their projects there. Industries encouraged in the zone include mechanical, electronic, new building materials, medicine and food processing. [63]

Chengdu Export Processing Zone

Chengdu Export Processing Zone (Chinese:成都出口加工区; pinyin:Chéngdū chūkǒu jiāgōng qū)) was ratified by the State Council as one of the first 15 export processing zones in the country in April 2000. In 2002, the state ratified the establishment of the Sichuan Chengdu Export Processing West Zone with a planned area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), located inside the west region of the Chengdu Hi-tech Zone. [64]

Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Nijia Qiao, South Renmin Road, Chengdu S. Renmin Road.jpg
Nijia Qiao, South Renmin Road, Chengdu

Established in 1988, Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese:成都高新技术产业开发区; pinyin:Chéngdū Gāoxīn Jìshù Chǎnyè Kāifā Qū) was approved as one of the first national hi-tech development zones in 1991. In 2000, it was open to APEC and has been recognized as a national advanced hi-tech development zone in successive assessment activities held by China's Ministry of Science and Technology. It ranks 5th among the 53 national hi-tech development zones in China in terms of comprehensive strength.

Chengdu Hi-tech Development Zone covers an area of 82.5 km2 (31.9 sq mi), consisting of the South Park and the West Park. By relying on the city sub-center, which is under construction, the South Park is focusing on creating a modernized industrial park of science and technology with scientific and technological innovation, incubation R&D, modern service industry and Headquarters economy playing leading roles. Priority has been given to the development of software industry. Located on both sides of the "Chengdu-Dujiangyan-Jiuzhaigou" golden tourism channel, the West Park aims at building a comprehensive industrial park targeting at industrial clustering with complete supportive functions. The West Park gives priority to three major industries i.e. electronic information, biomedicine and precision machinery. [65]

Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992, with a planned area of 43 km2 (17 sq mi). The zone is situated 96 kilometers away from Chengdu, and is 8 km (5.0 mi) away from Mianyang Airport. Since its establishment, the zone accumulated 177.4 billion yuan of industrial output, 46.2 billion yuan of gross domestic product, fiscal revenue 6.768 billion yuan. There are more than 136 high-tech enterprises in the zone and they accounted for more than 90% of the total industrial output.

The zone is a leader in the electronic information industry, biological medicine, new materials and production of motor vehicles and parts. [66]


Sichuan-Tibet Highway passes by Lake Kasa in Luhuo County. Qia Sa Hu .jpg
Sichuan–Tibet Highway passes by Lake Kasa in Luhuo County.

For millennia, Sichuan's rugged and riverine landscape presented enormous challenges to the development of transportation infrastructure, and the lack of roads out of the Sichuan Basin contributed to the region's isolation. Since the 1950s, numerous highways and railways have been built through the Qinling in the north and the Bashan in the east. Dozens of bridges across the Yangtze and its tributaries to the south and west have brought greater connectivity with Yunnan and Tibet.


Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is the 4th-busiest airport in mainland China. It was among the world's top 30 busiest airports in 2015, and the busiest in western and central China. It was also the fifth-busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic in China for 2013. Chengdu airport is the hub of Sichuan Airlines, Chengdu Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Tibet Airlines, China Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, Lucky Air and Air China. Alongside Shuangliu Airport, Chengdu Tianfu International Airport has opened since 2021.

Chengdu airports are also 144-hour transit visa-free airports for foreigners from 51 countries including Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Republic of Montenegro, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and United States.


On 3 November 2007, the Sichuan Transportation Bureau announced that the Suining-Chongqing Expressway was completed after three years of construction. After completion of the Chongqing section of the road, the 36.64 km (22.77 mi) expressway connected Chengdu-Nanchong Expressway and formed the shortest expressway from Chengdu to Chongqing. The new expressway is 50 km (31 mi) shorter than the pre-existing road between Chengdu and Chongqing; thus journey time between the two cities was reduced by an hour, now taking two and a half hours. The Sui-Yu Expressway is a four lane overpass with a speed limit of 80 km/h (50 mph). The total investment was 1.045 billion yuan.


China Railway Chengdu Group is headquartered in Chengdu, capital of Sichuan Province, managing railway systems in Sichuan, Chongqing and Guizhou. Sichuan's major railways in Sichuan include the Baoji–Chengdu, Chengdu–Chongqing, Chengdu–Kunming, Neijiang–Kunming, Suining-Chongqing and Chengdu–Dazhou Railways. High-speed railways in Sichuan include the Chengdu-Chongqing High-speed Railway, Xi'an-Chengdu High-speed Railway, Chengdu-Guiyang High-speed Railway, and Chengdu-Kunming High-speed Railway. A suburban railway connects Chengdu and Dujiangyan.


The Yi are the largest ethnic minority group in Sichuan. Yi-Minority.JPG
The Yi are the largest ethnic minority group in Sichuan.

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese (95% of provincial population), who are found scattered throughout the region with the exception of the far western areas. Thus, significant minorities of Tibetan, Yi, Qiang and Nakhi people reside in the western portion that are impacted by inclement weather and natural disasters, environmentally fragile, and impoverished. Sichuan's capital of Chengdu is home to a large community of Tibetans, with 30,000 permanent Tibetan residents and up to 200,000 Tibetan floating population. [78] The Eastern Lipo, included with either the Yi or the Lisu people, as well as the A-Hmao, also are among the ethnic groups of the provinces.

Sichuan was China's most populous province before Chongqing became a directly controlled municipality; it is currently the fourth most populous, after Guangdong, Shandong and Henan. As of 1832, Sichuan was the most populous of the 18 provinces in China, with an estimated population at that time of 21 million. [79] It was the third most populous sub-national entity in the world, after Uttar Pradesh, India and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 1991, when the Soviet Union was dissolved. It is also one of the only eight subnational divisions to ever reach 100 million people (Uttar Pradesh, Russian RSFSR, Maharashtra, Sichuan, Bihar, Shandong, Guangdong, and Punjab). It is currently ranked 10th.


Religion in Sichuan [80] [note 2]

   Chinese religion (also including Confucians, Taoists and sects other than Yiguandao), or not religious people (71.31%)
   Buddhism [note 3] (15%)
   Yiguandao [82] (2.4%)
   Christianity (0.68%)
   Islam [note 4] (0.1%)

The predominant religions in Sichuan are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 10.6% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 0.68% of the population identifies as Christian. [80] According to the Japanese publication Tokyo Sentaku in 1999 there were 2 million members of Yiguandao (Tiandao) in Sichuan, equal to 2.4% of the province's population. [82]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; the vast majority of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. Tibetan Buddhism is widespread, especially in areas inhabited by ethnic Tibetans. Sichuan is one of the cradles of the early Heavenly Masters' Taoist religious movements.


Typical vernacular house in Sichuan Farmhouse in Chengdu Plain.jpg
Typical vernacular house in Sichuan

The Sichuanese people (Sichuanese: 巴蜀人 Ba1su2ren2; IPA: [pa˥su˨˩zən˨˩]; alternatively 川人, 川渝人, 四川人 or 巴蜀民系) are a subgroup of Han Chinese living in mostly Sichuan province and the neighboring Chongqing municipality. Beginning from the 9th century BC, Shu (on the Chengdu Plain) and Ba (which had its first capital at Enshi City in Hubei and controlled part of the Han Valley) emerged as cultural and administrative centers where two rival kingdoms were established. Although eventually the Qin dynasty destroyed the kingdoms of Shu and Ba, the Qin government accelerated the technological and agricultural advancements of Sichuan making it comparable to that of the Yellow River Valley. The now-extinct Ba-Shu language was derived from Qin-era settlers and represents the earliest documented division from what is now called Middle Chinese.

During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the population of the area was reduced through wars and the bubonic plague and settlers arrived from the area of modern Hubei, replacing the earlier common Chinese with a new standard.

The Li Bai Memorial, located in Jiangyou, is a museum in memory of Li Bai, a Chinese poet of Tang China (618–907) built at the place where he grew up. Building was begun in 1962 on the occasion of 1200th anniversary of his death, completed in 1981 and opened to the public in October 1982. The memorial is built in the style of the classic Tang garden.

In 2003, Sichuan had "88 art performing troupes, 185 culture centers, 133 libraries and 52 museums". Companies based in Sichuan also produced 23 television series and one film. [84]


Extent of present-day Sichuanese language Sichuanese in China.png
Extent of present-day Sichuanese language

The Sichuanese once spoke their own variety of Spoken Chinese called Ba-Shu Chinese, or Old Sichuanese, before it became extinct during the Ming dynasty. Now most of them speak Sichuanese Mandarin. The Minjiang dialects are thought by some linguists[ who? ] to be a bona fide descendant of Old Sichuanese, but there is no conclusive evidence whether Minjiang dialects are derived from Old Sichuanese or Southwestern Mandarin.[ citation needed ]

The languages of Sichuan are primarily members of three subfamilies of the Sino-Tibetan languages.

The most widely used variety of Chinese spoken in Sichuan is Sichuanese Mandarin, which is the lingua franca in Sichuan, Chongqing and parts of Tibet Autonomous Region. Although Sichuanese is generally classified as a dialect of Mandarin Chinese, it is highly divergent in phonology, vocabulary, and even grammar from Standard Chinese. [85] The Minjiang dialect is especially difficult for speakers of other Mandarin dialects to understand. [86] [87] [88] [89]

Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in western Sichuan are populated by Tibetans and Qiang people. Tibetans speak the Khams and Amdo Tibetan, which are Tibetic languages, as well as various Qiangic languages. The Qiang speak Qiangic languages and often Tibetic languages as well. The Yi people of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in southern Sichuan speak the Nuosu language, which is one of the Lolo-Burmese languages; Yi is written using the Yi script, a syllabary standardized in 1974. The Southwest University for Nationalities has one of China's most prominent Tibetology departments, and the Southwest Minorities Publishing House prints literature in minority languages. [90] In the minority-inhabited regions of Sichuan, there is bilingual signage and public school instruction in non-Mandarin minority languages.


Sichuan is well known for its spicy cuisine and use of Sichuan peppers due to its more humid climate. The Sichuanese are proud of their cuisine, known as one of the Four Great Traditions of Chinese cuisine. The cuisine here is of "one dish, one shape, hundreds of dishes, hundreds of tastes", as the saying goes, to describe its acclaimed diversity. The most prominent traits of Sichuanese cuisine are described by four words: spicy, hot, fresh and fragrant. [91] Sichuan cuisine is popular in the whole nation of China, so are Sichuan chefs. Two well-known Sichuan chefs are Chen Kenmin and his son Chen Kenichi, who was Iron Chef Chinese on the Japanese television series "Iron Chef".

Another famous Sichuan cuisine is hotpot. Hot pot is a Chinese soup containing a variety of East Asian foodstuffs and ingredients, prepared with a simmering pot of soup stock at the dining table. While the hot pot is kept simmering, ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table. Typical hot pot dishes include thinly sliced meat, leaf vegetables, mushrooms, wontons, egg dumplings, tofu, and seafood. The cooked food is usually eaten with a dipping sauce.


Sichuan Education Department SichuanEdDepartment.jpg
Sichuan Education Department

Colleges and universities


UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality include:

As of July 2013, the world's largest building the New Century Global Center is located in the city of Chengdu. At 328 feet (100 m) high, 1,640 feet (500 m) long, and 1,312 feet (400 m) wide, the Center houses retail outlets, a 14-theater cinema, offices, hotels, the Paradise Island waterpark, an artificial beach, a 164 yards (150 m)-long LED screen, skating rink, pirate ship, fake Mediterranean village, 24-hour artificial sun, and 15,000-spot parking area. [92]

Notable individuals


Professional sports teams in Sichuan include:

Sister states and regions

See also


  1. Si (四) means "four", Chuan (川) means "plain", and Xia ("峡") could be understood as "gorge". Sì Chuānlù and Chuānxiá Sìlù are general names for the Four Circuits,.
  2. Some of the data collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007 have been reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [80] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) were not reported by Wang and come from different sources.
  3. Based on a 2006 survey of the distribution of Buddhist institutions in China, [81] assuming that the percentage of institutions per capita is consistent with the percentage of Buddhists (which has been proved so by data on other regions), the Buddhist religion would account for between 10% and 20% (≈15%) of the population of Sichuan.
  4. As of 2010 there are 11,200 Muslims in Sichuan. [83]

Related Research Articles

Hubei Province of China

Hubei is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

Shaanxi Province in China, whose capital is Xian

Shaanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).

Chongqing Megacity and provincial-level municipality in southwest China

Chongqing, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a municipality in southwest China.

Qinghai Province of China

Qinghai, also known as Kokonor, is a landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. It is the fourth largest province of China by area and has the third smallest population. Its capital and largest city is Xining.

Yibin Prefecture-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Yibin is a prefecture-level city in the southeastern part of Sichuan province, China, located at the junction of the Min and Yangtze Rivers. Its population was 4,588,804 inhabitants, according to the 2020 census, of whom 2,158,312 lived in the built-up area comprising three urban districts.

Sichuan Basin Basin in Sichuan, China

The Sichuan Basin, formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River and its tributaries. The basin is anchored by Chengdu, capital of Sichuan province, in the west, and the direct-administered municipality of Chongqing in the east. Due to its relative flatness and fertile soils, it is able to support a population of more than 100 million. In addition to being a dominant geographical feature of the region, the Sichuan Basin also constitutes a cultural sphere that is distinguished by its own unique customs, cuisine and dialects. It is famous for its rice cultivation and is often considered the breadbasket of China. In the 21st century its industrial base is expanding with growth in the high-tech, aerospace, and petroleum industries.

Luzhou Prefecture-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Luzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: 瀘州; pinyin: Lúzhōu; Sichuanese Pinyin: Nu2zou1; Luzhou dialect: [nu˨˩tsəu˥]), formerly transliterated as Lu-chou or Luchow, is a prefecture-level city located in the southeast of Sichuan Province, China. The city, named Jiangyang until the Southern and Northern Dynasties, is known as the "Liquor City" (酒城). Situated at the confluence of the Tuo River and the Yangtze River, Luzhou is not only an important port on the Yangtze river, but also the largest port in both size and output in Sichuan province since Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province in 1997. As of the 2020 Chinese census, its population was 4,254,149 inhabitants whom 1,241,273 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Jiangyang and Longmatan districts, as Naxi district is not conurbated yet. Luzhou, which borders Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing, is the only geographic junction of the four provinces, and was therefore the logical place for a port in ancient China. After the PRC was founded in 1949, Luzhou became the capital of southern Sichuan province. In 1983, Luzhou was approved as a prefecture-level city administratively.

Nanchong Prefecture-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Nanchong is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of Sichuan province, China, with an area of 12,479.96 km2 (4,818.54 sq mi). At the 2020 census it was home to 5,607,565 people, of whom 1,936,534 lived in the built-up area made of three urban districts. It is the second most populated city of Sichuan Province, after Chengdu. The administrative center is Shunqing District.

Sichuanese dialects Branch of the Mandarin Chinese language family

Sichuanese or Szechwanese (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles: Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), also called Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 四川官话; traditional Chinese: 四川官話; pinyin: Sìchuān Guānhuà) is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Shaanxi. Although "Sichuanese" is often synonymous with the Chengdu-Chongqing dialect, there is still a great amount of diversity among the Sichuanese dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible with each other. In addition, because Sichuanese is the lingua franca in Sichuan, Chongqing and part of Tibet, it is also used by many Tibetan, Yi, Qiang and other ethnic minority groups as a second language.

Southwest China Geographical region of China

Southwest China is a region in the south of the People's Republic of China, traditionally known as Southwest China due to its location in relation to historical China proper. The narrowest concept of Southwest China consists of Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, and Guizhou, while wider definitions often include Guangxi and western portions of Hunan. The official government definition of Southwest China includes the core provinces of Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, and Guizhou, in addition to the Tibet Autonomous Region which has not traditionally been included as part of the region.

Pengzhou County-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Pengzhou, formerly Peng County or Pengxian, is a county-level city of Sichuan Province, Southwest China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Chengdu. There is an expressway that connects Pengzhou to Chengdu. It is bordered by the prefecture-level divisions of Deyang to the northeast and the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture to the north.

Wuhou District District in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Wuhou District is one of 12 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. It contains the historic site, Wuhou Temple and Jinli Street. The district is bordered by Jinjiang District to the east, Shuangliu County to the south and west, and Qingyang District to the north.

Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County Autonomous County in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County is a county under the jurisdiction of Mianyang City in northern Sichuan province, China. It is located in an ethnically diverse mountainous region of Sichuan. Its Chinese name literally means "North" (bei) "River" (chuan). Its new county seat is located at Yongchang after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

Ba-Shu Chinese (Chinese: 巴蜀語; pinyin: Bāshǔyǔ; Wade–Giles: Ba1 Shu33; Sichuanese Pinyin: Ba¹su²yu³; IPA: [pa˥su˨˩y˥˧]), or Old Sichuanese (or Old Szechwanese; Chinese: 蜀語), is an extinct Sinitic language formerly spoken in what is now Sichuan and Chongqing, China. This language is first attested in Fangyan during the Western Han dynasty (206 BCE–8 CE) and represents one of the earliest splits from Old Chinese or Early Middle Chinese. It became extinct during the late South Song Dynasty period due to the Mongolian conquest which resulted in a massacre throughout the Sichuan Basin. At that time the language was supplanted by Southwestern Mandarin after settlement by people from other parts of China, mostly from present-day Hubei and Hunan.

Sichuanese people

The Sichuanese, Sze Chuan or Ssu Ch'uan people (Chinese: 四川人; Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1ren2; Hanyu pinyin: Sìchuānrén; Wade–Giles: Szŭ4-ch'uan1-jen2, 川人 or 川渝人) are a Han Chinese subgroup comprising most of the population of China's Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality.

Chengdu-Chongqing dialect Variety of Mandarin Chinese

Chengdu-Chongqing dialect or Cheng–Yu is the most widely used branch of Southwestern Mandarin, with about 90 million speakers. It is named after Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan, and Chongqing, which was split from Sichuan in 1997. It is spoken mainly in northern and eastern Sichuan, the northeastern part of the Chengdu Plain, several cities or counties in southwestern Sichuan, southern Shaanxi and western Hubei.

Shuangliu District District in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Shuangliu District is one of 11 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. The district covers an area of 1,065 square kilometres (411 sq mi), and has a population of approximately 1,396,400 as of 2019. It is the home of Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, the fourth busiest airport in China. Shuangliu District is rapidly being urbanized by the growth of Chengdu and the airport's recent expansion. The district is bordered by the prefecture-level cities of Ziyang to the southeast and Meishan to the south.

Bashu culture Culture of Sichuan and nearby parts of China

Bashu culture, sometimes also named Chongqing-Sichuan culture, refers to the culture of Sichuan province and Chongqing city, China and the surrounding areas, including parts of the neighboring provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou, since the Han Chinese groups in these two provinces also primarily speak Southwestern Mandarin nowadays. It has a long history of over 3000 years, claimed to be one of the cradles of modern Chinese civilization.

Sichuan anti-Mongol fortresses Defensive fortresses in the Southern Song dynasty

The Sichuan anti-Mongol fortresses are 83 mountain cities built by the soldiers and civilians of the Southern Song Dynasty during the Mongol conquest of China in Sichuan to resist the invasion of the Mongol Empire. Taking full advantage of the geographical advantages of the Sichuan Basin, these fortresses formed a comprehensive three-dimensional defense system, which succeeded in resisting the Mongol attacks for up to 53 years, greatly extending the life of Southern Song. They also made Sichuan the last to be conquered by the Mongolians in 1288. Due to the defense of the fortresses, it was difficult to settle the Sichuan region. The Mongol Army had to abort its original strategy of "taking Shu (Sichuan) and destroying Song" and moved to the area of Jingzhou and Xiangyang starting from 1271, defeating the Song Dynasty via the Han River. Möngke Khan became the only Mongol khagan to perish on the battlefield when he died during an assault on Diaoyucheng in 1259. He may have been a victim of dysentery or of injuries sustained when attacking the fortress.

Bashu nationalism Movement advocating for the creation of a Bashu nation state

Bashu nationalism, also known as the Basuria independence movement, refers to the movement advocating for the creation of a nation state for the Bashu people, a prominent cultural identity in Southwest China. The Bashu people were historically their own ethnic group, but are not recognized by the People’s Republic of China, which classifies them as Han Chinese. Today, the vast majority of Bashu people identify as Han Chinese- a stance opposed by Bashu nationalists, who contend that the Bashu people are their own ethnic group and nation, and call for the de-Sinicization of their homeland.


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