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A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. It is also known as warm temperate climate in some climate classifications.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Cfa and Cwa climates are either described as humid subtropical climates or warm temperate climates. This climate features mean temperature in the coldest month between 0 °C (32 °F) or −3 °C (27 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F) and mean temperature in the warmest month 22 °C (72 °F) or higher. However, while some climatologists have opted to describe this climate type as a "humid subtropical climate", Köppen himself never used this term. The humid subtropical climate classification was officially created under the Trewartha climate classification.[ citation needed ] In this classification, climates are termed humid subtropical when they have at least 8 months with a mean temperature above 10 °C (50 °F).
While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases, they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts and the more continental climates to the north and further inland. As such, the climate can be said to exhibit somewhat different features depending on whether it is found inland, or in a maritime position.
In a humid subtropical climate, summers are typically long, hot and humid. Monthly mean summer temperatures are normally between 24 and 27 °C (75 and 81 °F). A deep current of tropical air dominates the humid subtropics at the time of high sun, and daily intense (but brief) convective thundershowers are common. Summer high temperatures are typically in the high 20s to mid-30s °C (80s or 90s °F), while overnight lows in the summer are typically in the lower 20s °C (70s °F). Monthly mean temperatures in winter are often mild, typically averaging 7.5 to 16 °C (45.5 to 60.8 °F). Daytime highs in winter normally are in the 10 to 16 °C (50 to 61 °F) range, while overnight lows are from 2 to 7 °C (36 to 45 °F), though the poleward boundaries of this climate feature colder temperatures.
Rainfall often shows a summer peak, especially where monsoons are well developed, as in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Other areas have a more uniform or varying rainfall cycles, but consistently lack any predictably dry summer months. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms that build up due to the intense surface heating and strong subtropical sun angle. Weak tropical lows that move in from adjacent warm tropical oceans, as well as infrequent tropical storms often contribute to summer seasonal rainfall peaks. Winter rainfall is often associated with large storms in the westerlies that have fronts that reach down into subtropical latitudes. However, many subtropical climates such as southeast Asia and Florida in the United States have very dry winters, with frequent brush fires and water shortages.
Under the Holdridge life zones classification, the subtropical climates have a biotemperature between the frost or critical temperature line, 16 to 18 °C (61 to 64 °F) (depending on locations in the world) and 24 °C (75 °F), and these climates are humid (or even perhumid or superhumid) when the potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio (= PET / Precipitation) is less than 1. In the Holdridge classification, the humid subtropical climates coincide more or less with the warmest Cfa and Cwa climates and the less warm humid tropical "Köppen" climates (Aw, Am and Af).
Cfa: C = Mild temperate f = Fully humid a = Hot Summer
Cwa: C = Mild temperate w = Dry Winter a = Hot Summer
|Durban, South Africa|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In Africa, humid subtropical climates are primarily found in the southern hemisphere of the continent. The Cwa climate is found over a large portion of the interior of the Middle and Eastern African regions. This area includes central Angola, northeastern Zimbabwe, the Niassa, Manica and Tete provinces of Mozambique, the southern Congo provinces, southwest Tanzania, and the majority of Malawi, and Zambia. Some lower portions of the Ethiopian Highlands also have this climate.
The climate is also found in the narrow coastal sections of southern and eastern South Africa, primarily in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape provinces. South Africa's version of this climate features heavy oceanic influences resulting in generally milder temperatures. This is particularly evident in its winters when temperatures do not drop as low as in many other regions within the humid subtropical category.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In East and Southeast Asia, this climate type is found in the southeastern quarter of mainland China from Hong Kong north to Nanjing, the northern half of Taiwan, northern Myanmar, northern Vietnam, north through southern and central Japan (Kyushu, Shikoku and half of Honshu), and the most southern regions of Korea (the south coast and Jeju island). Cities near the equatorward boundary of this zone include Hong Kong, Hanoi and Taipei; while Tokyo, Busan and Qingdao are near the northern boundary.
The influence of the strong Siberian anticyclone in East Asia brings colder winter temperatures than in the humid subtropical zones in North America, South America, and Australia. The 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm reaches as far south as the valleys of the Yellow and Wei rivers, roughly latitude 34° N. At Hainan Island and in Taiwan, the climate transitions from subtropical into tropical. In most of this region, the winter monsoon is very well developed, as such eastern Asian humid subtropical zones have a strong winter dry season and heavy summer rainfall.
Only in inland areas below the Yangtze River and coastal areas between approximately the Huai River and the beginning of the coast of Guangdong is there sufficient winter rainfall to produce a Cfa climate; even in these areas, rainfall and streamflow display a highly pronounced summer peak, unlike other regions of this climate type. Drought can be severe and often catastrophic to agriculture in the Cwa zone.
The only area where winter precipitation equals or even exceeds the summer rain is around the San'in region at the western coast of Japan, which during winter is on the windward side of the westerlies. The winter precipitation in these regions is usually produced by low-pressure systems off the east coast that develop in the onshore flow from the Siberian high. Summer rainfall comes from the East Asian Monsoon and from frequent typhoons. Annual rainfall is generally over 1,000 millimetres (39 in), and in areas below the Himalayas can be much higher still.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Humid subtropical climates can also be found in South Asia. However, the humid subtropical climates exhibited here typically differ markedly from those in East Asia (and for that matter a good portion of the globe). Winters here are typically mild, dry and relatively short. They also tend to be foggy. Summers tend to be long and very hot, starting from mid-April and peaking in May and early June with high temperatures often exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). They also tend to be extremely dry, complete with dust storms, traits usually associated with arid or semi-arid climates. During this period many native trees defoliate to save water. This is followed by the cooler monsoons, where the region experiences heavy rains on almost a daily basis. Average high temperatures decrease during the monsoon season, but humidity increases. This results in hot and humid conditions, similar to summers in other humid subtropical climates. Cities such as New Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur and Patna exhibit this atypical version of the climate in India. In Pakistan, the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, as well as the city of Swabi in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, feature this weather pattern.
In Bangladesh, cities like Rangpur, Saidpur and Dinajpur in northern region features the monsoon variant (Cwa), where rainfall peaks at the monsoon season. Like neighboring Northern Indian plains, this region also shows a distinct three season pattern- relatively dry and very hot summer (March- early june), extremely wet, cooler Monsoon seson (June- September), and mild, foggy winter and autumn (Late October- February)
Humid subtropical climates can also be found in Nepal. However the Nepalese version of the climate generally do not feature the extreme hot spells that are commonplace for many other South Asian locations with this climate. In Nepal cities such as Kathmandu, Pokhara, Butwal, Birgunj and Biratnagar feature this iteration of the climate.
In South Asia, humid subtropical climates generally border on continental climates as altitude increases, or on winter-rainfall climates in western areas of Pakistan and northwestern India (e.g. Peshawar in northwestern Pakistan or Srinagar in the Kashmir Valley in India, where the primary precipitation peak occurs in March, not July or August). Further east, in highland areas with lengthier monsoons such as Nepal, seasonal temperature variation is lower than in the lowlands.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Although humid subtropical climates in Asia are mostly confined to the southeastern quarter of the continent, there are two narrow areas along the coast of the Caspian Sea and Black Sea with humid subtropical climates. Summers in these locations are cooler than typical humid subtropical climates and snowfall in winter is relatively common, but is usually of a short duration.
In Western Asia, the climate is prevalent in the Gilan, Māzandarān and Golestan Provinces of Iran, in parts of the Caucasus, in Azerbaijan and in Georgia wedged between the Caspian and Black seas and coastal (Black Sea) Turkey, albeit having more oceanic influence.
Annual rainfall ranges from around 740 millimetres (29.1 in) at Sari to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) at Bandar-e Anzali, and is heavy throughout the year, with a maximum in October or November when Bandar-e Anzali can average 400 millimetres (16 inches). Temperatures are generally moderate in comparison with other parts of Western Asia. During winter, the coastal areas can receive snowfall, which is usually of a short duration.
In Rasht, the average maximum in July is around 28 °C (82 °F) but with near-saturation humidity, whilst in January it is around 9 °C (48 °F). The heavy, evenly distributed rainfall extends north into the Caspian coastal strip of Azerbaijan up to its northern border but this climate in Azerbaijan is, however, a Cfb/Cfa (Oceanic climate/Humid subtropical climate) borderline case.
Western Georgia (Batumi and Kutaisi) in the Kolkheti Lowland and the northeast coast of Turkey (Giresun), have a climate similar to that of Gilan and Mazandaran in Iran and very similar to that of southeastern and northern Azerbaijan. Temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) in summer to 5 °C (41 °F) in winter and rainfall is even heavier than in Caspian Iran, up to 2,300 millimetres (91 in) per year in Hopa (Turkey). These climates are a Cfb/Cfa (Oceanic climate/Humid subtropical climate) borderline case.
In North America, humid subtropical climates are found in the American Gulf and lower East Coast states, including Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. On the Florida peninsula, the humid subtropical climate gives way to the tropical climate of South Florida and the Florida Keys.
|Houston, United States|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Under Köppen's climate classification, this zone includes locations further north, primarily Virginia, Kentucky, the lower elevations of West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Washington, D.C., New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, extreme southern New York around New York City and sections of Long Island. It can also be found in the lower Midwest, primarily in the central and southern portions of Kansas and Missouri, and the far southern portions of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.
In Mexico, there are small areas of Cfa and Cwa climates. The climate can be found in small areas scattered around the northeastern part of the country, in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. Other areas where the climate can be found is in the high elevations of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Sierra Madre Oriental. Despite being located at higher elevations, these locations have summers that are too warm to qualify as a subtropical highland climate. Guadalajara's climate is a major example of this.
Outside of isolated sections of Mexico, the southernmost limits of this climate zone in North America lie just north of South Florida and around southern coastal Texas. Cities at the southernmost limits, such as Tampa and Orlando and along the Texas coast around Corpus Christi down toward Brownsville generally feature warm weather year-round and minimal temperature differences between seasons. In contrast, cities at the northernmost limits of the climate zone such as New York, Philadelphia and Louisville feature hot, humid summers and chilly winters. These areas have average winter temperatures at the coldest limit of climates classed as humid subtropical.
Snowfall varies greatly in this climate zone. In locations at the southern limits of this zone and areas around the Gulf Coast, cities such as Orlando, Tampa, Houston, New Orleans, and Savannah rarely see snowfall, which occurs, at most, a few times per generation. In Southern cities farther north or inland, such as Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Dallas, Memphis, Nashville, Oklahoma City, and Raleigh, snow only occasionally falls and is usually three inches or less. However, for the majority of the winter here, temperatures remain above or well above freezing.At the northernmost limits of this zone, cities such as New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore typically see snowfall during the winter, with occasional heavy snowstorms. Still, average temperatures during a typical winter hover just above freezing at these locations. Precipitation is plentiful in the humid subtropical climate zone in North America – but with significant variations in terms of wettest/driest months and seasons. Much of the interior South, including Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern halves of Mississippi and Alabama, tends to have a winter or spring (not summer) precipitation maximum. Closer to the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, there is a summer maximum, with July or August usually the wettest month – as at Norfolk, Cape Hatteras and Jacksonville, North Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Mobile, Alabama and New Orleans. A semblance of a monsoon pattern (dry winters/wet summers) is evident along the Atlantic coast from southern North Carolina (Wilmington, North Carolina area) south to Florida. The seasonal monsoon is much stronger on the Florida peninsula, as most locations in Florida have dry winters and wet summers.
In addition, areas in Texas that are slightly inland from the Gulf of Mexico, such as Austin and San Antonio that border the semi-arid climate zone, generally see a peak of precipitation in May, a drought-like nadir in mid-summer and a secondary, if not equal, precipitation peak in September or October. Areas further south along South Texas' Gulf Coast (Brownsville), which closely border tropical climate classification, typically have a strong September precipitation maximum, and a tendency toward dry conditions in winter with rain increasing in spring, with December or January often the driest months.
|Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Humid subtropical climates are found in a sizable portion of South America. The climate extends over a few states of southern Brazil, including Paraná, into sections of Paraguay, all of Uruguay and central Argentina (Pampas region). Major cities such as São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Porto Alegre and Montevideo, have a humid subtropical climate, generally in the form of hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters. These areas, which include the Pampas, generally feature a Cfa climate categorization. At 38°S, the Argentine city of Bahía Blanca lies on the southern limit of the humid subtropical zone.
The Cwa climate occurs in parts of tropical highlands of São Paulo state, Mato Grosso do Sul and near the Andean highland in northwestern Argentina. These highland areas feature summer temperatures that are warm enough to fall outside the subtropical highland climate category.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The humid subtropical climate zone predominantly lies in eastern Australia, which begins from the coastal strip of Mackay, Queensland and stretches down to the southern coast of Sydney, where it transitions into the cooler, oceanic climates.
From Newcastle, approximately 200 kilometres (124 mi) northeast of Sydney, the Cfa zone would extend to inland New South Wales, excluding the highland regions (which have an oceanic climate), stretching towards Dubbo to the northwest and Wagga Wagga to the south, ending at the New South Wales/Victoria border (Albury–Wodonga). To note, these places would have characteristics of the semi-arid and/or Mediterranean climates. Furthermore, the inland Cfa climates generally have drier summers, or at least summers with low humidity.
Extreme heat is more often experienced in Sydney than in other large cities in Australia's Cfa zone, especially in the western suburbs, where highs over 40 °C (104 °F) are not uncommon. Frost is prevalent in the more inland areas of Sydney, such as Richmond. Average annual rainfall in the Sydney region ranges between 800 and 1,200 millimetres (31.5 and 47.2 in).
There is usually a distinct summer rainfall maximum that becomes more pronounced moving northwards. In Brisbane, the wettest month (February) receives five times the rainfall of the driest month (September). Temperatures are very warm to hot but are not excessive: the average maximum in February is usually around 29 °C (84 °F) and in July around 21 °C (70 °F). Frosts are extremely rare except at higher elevations, but temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are not common on the coast.
North of the Cfa climate zone there is a zone centred upon Rockhampton which extends north to the Köppen Cwa classified climate zone of the Atherton Tablelands region. This region has a very pronounced dry winter period, with often negligible rainfall between June and October. Winter temperatures generally only fall slightly below 18 °C (64 °F), which would classify the region as a tropical savanna, or Aw, climate.
Annual rainfall within Australia's humid subtropical climate zone can reach as high as 2,000 millimetres (78.7 in) in coastal locations and is generally 1,000 millimetres (39.4 in) or above. The most intense 2-3 day rainfall periods that occur in this coastal zone however are the outcome of east coast lows forming to the north of a large high pressure system, there can be great variation in rainfall amounts from year to year as a result of these systems. As an example Lismore which lies in the centre of this zone, the annual rainfall can range from less than 550 millimetres (21.7 in) in 1915 to more than 2,780 millimetres (109.4 in) in 1950.
As the continent lacks a major southeastern sea, humid subtropical climate in Europe is limited to relatively small areas on the margins of the Mediterranean basin. Cfa zones are generally transitional between the Mediterranean climate zones along the coast and oceanic and humid continental zones to the west and north.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The Po Valley, in Northern Italy, including major cities such as Milan, Turin, Bologna, and Verona, has a humid subtropical climate, featuring hot, humid summers with frequent thunderstorms; winters are foggy, damp and chilly, with sudden bursts of frost. Some parts of the valley have a mild continental climate. Places along the shores of Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como (Como and Verbania in Italy and Lugano in Switzerland) have a humid subtropical climate with a distinctive high amount of rainfall during summer. Budapest, Hungary, is just warm enough to qualify, due to recent warming. At 47°N, the city lies on the northern limit of the humid subtropical zone.
The coastal areas in the northern half of the Adriatic Sea also fall within this climate zone. The cities include Trieste, Venice, and Rimini in Italy, Rijeka and Split in Croatia, Koper in Slovenia and Kotor in Montenegro. Other Southern European areas in the Cfa zone include the central valleys and coast of Catalonia of Girona and Barcelona in Spain, some on the north-east of Spain (Huesca), West Macedonia in Greece (Kozani), the Garonne Valley (Toulouse) and Rhone Valley (Valence) in France.
Along the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria (Varna), coast of Romania (Constanta and Mamaia), Sochi, Russia and Crimea, have summers too warm (>22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month) to qualify as oceanic, no freezing month, and enough summer precipitation and sometimes humid conditions, where they would be fit to be classed under Cfa, though they closely border the humid continental zone. All these areas are subject to occasional, in some cases repeated snowfalls and freezes during winter.
In Central Europe, a small area of humid subtropical climates are located in transitional areas between the oceanic and continental climates in areas where higher summer temperature do not quite qualify it for inclusion in the Oceanic climate schema (but, in the Trewartha climate classification, this type of climate is included in that typical of the other areas of central-west Europe, classified as Do -the Temperate Oceanic climate-) and mild winters do not allow their inclusion into continental climates. Average summer temperatures in areas of Europe with this climate are generally not as hot as most other subtropical zones around the world.
In the Azores, some islands have this climate, with very mild and rainy winters (>13 °C (55 °F)) and no snowfall, warm summers (>21 °C (70 °F)) but with no dry season during the warmest period, which means that they can neither be classified as oceanic, nor as Mediterranean, only as humid subtropical, as with Corvo Island.
In many other climate classification systems outside of the Köppen, most of these locations would not be included in the humid subtropical grouping. The higher summer precipitation and poleward flow of tropical air-masses in summer are not present in Europe as they are in eastern Australia or the southern United States.
Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in an area, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months to millions of years. Some of the meteorological variables that are commonly measured are temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, and precipitation. In a broader sense, climate is the state of the components of the climate system, which includes the ocean, land, and ice on Earth. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude/longitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents.
In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 40 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends toward that hemisphere's pole during the summer and migrates toward the equator during the winter due to increasing north–south temperature differences.
The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical and climate zones located to the north and south of the Torrid Zone. Geographically part of the North and South temperate zones, they cover the latitudes between 23°26′11.1″ (or 23.43643°) and approximately 35° in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The horse latitudes lie within this range.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1894-1981) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.
An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring mild summers and cool but not cold winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature. Oceanic climates can be found in both temperate and subtropical areas, notably in Western Europe, parts of central and Southern Africa, North America, South America, parts of Asia, and as well as parts of Australia and New Zealand.
A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.
The Climate of India consists of a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalizations difficult. Based on the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic sub types, ranging from arid deserts in the west, alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions supporting rain forests in the southwest and the island territories. Many regions have starkly different microclimates, making it one of the most climatically diverse countries in the world. The country's meteorological department follows the international standard of four seasons with some local adjustments: winter, summer, monsoon (rainy) season, and a post-monsoon period.
A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is usually distributed throughout the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below 0 °C (32.0 °F) or −3 °C (26.6 °F) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The Dfb, Dwb, and Dsb subtypes are also known as hemiboreal.
Australia's climate is governed mostly by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt. This moves north-west and north-east with the seasons. The climate is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons, thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Australia has a wide variety of climates due to its large geographical size. The largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varying between grasslands and desert. Australia holds many heat-related records: the continent has the hottest extended region year-round, the areas with the hottest summer climate, and the highest sunshine duration.
Italy has a variety of climate systems. The inland northern areas of Italy have a relatively cool, mid-latitude version of the Humid subtropical climate, while the coastal areas of Liguria and the peninsula south of Florence generally fit the Mediterranean climate profile.
The climate of the United States varies due to changes in latitude, and a range of geographic features, including mountains and deserts. Generally, on the mainland, the climate of the U.S. becomes warmer the further south one travels, and drier the further west, until one reaches the West Coast.
South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, with hot summers throughout most of the State. But, an exception does occur in the Blue Ridge Mountains, as outlier pockets of an Oceanic Climate do exist. Mild winters predominate in the eastern and southern part of the state, but cool to occasionally cold winters are the standard in the northwestern area of the state, especially areas at or above 600 feet in elevation. On average, between 40 and 80 inches of precipitation falls annually across the state, potentially even in excess of 100 inches in portions of the Appalachian temperate rainforest. Tropical cyclones, and afternoon thunderstorms due to hot and humid conditions, contribute to precipitation during the summer and sometimes fall months, while extratropical cyclones contribute to precipitation during the fall, winter, and spring months. The coast experiences nearly all of their tropical weather impacts from storms coming directly from the Atlantic coast. The northwestern area of the state can receive impacts from both Atlantic basin storms moving westward from the coast and also occasionally very heavy rainfall and flooding from storms originating from the Gulf of Mexico that move inland towards the northeast after making landfall from the Florida Panhandle to Louisiana.
The climate of Mexico is very varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land that is north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences lower temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly consistent all year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. The north of the country usually receives less precipitation.
The climate of Los Angeles is year-round mild-to-hot and mostly dry. It is classified as a Mediterranean climate, which is a type of dry subtropical climate. It is characterized by seasonal changes in rainfall—with a dry summer and a winter rainy season. Under the modified Köppen climate classification, the coastal areas are classified as Csb, and the inland areas as Csa.
The state of Alabama is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa) under the Köppen climate classification. The state's average annual temperature is 64 °F (18 °C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the state's southern portion with its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while its northern portions, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler. Alabama generally has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. The state receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall each year and experiences a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in its southern portion. Hailstorms occur occasionally during the spring and summer here, but they are seldom destructive. Heavy fogs are rare, and they are confined chiefly to the coast. Thunderstorms also occur year-around. They are most common in the summer, but they are most commonly severe during the spring and late autumn. That is when destructive winds and tornadoes occur frequently, especially in the northern and central parts of the state. Central and northern Alabama are squarely within Dixie Alley, the primary area in the U.S. outside the Southern Plains with relatively high tornado risk. Alabama is ranked second in the U.S for the deadliest tornadoes. Hurricanes are quite common in the state, especially in the southern part. Major hurricanes occasionally strike the coast, such as Hurricane Frederic in September 1979 and Hurricane Ivan in September 2004; both storms resulted in significant to devastating damage in the Mobile area.
Earth rainfall climatology Is the study of rainfall, a sub-field of meteorology. Formally, a wider study includes water falling as ice crystals, i.e. hail, sleet, snow. The aim of rainfall climatology is to measure, understand and predict rain distribution across different regions of planet Earth, a factor of air pressure, humidity, topography, cloud type and raindrop size, via direct measurement and remote sensing data acquisition. Current technologies accurately predict rainfall 3–4 days in advance using numerical weather prediction. Geostationary orbiting satellites gather IR and visual wavelength data to measure realtime localised rainfall by estimating cloud albedo, water content, and the corresponding probability of rain. Geographic distribution of rain is largely governed by climate type, topography and habitat humidity. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the monsoon trough, or Intertropical Convergence Zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes. The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Warming may also cause changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions at high latitudes and in some wet tropical areas. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres (121,000 cu mi) of water falls as precipitation each year; 398,000 cubic kilometres (95,000 cu mi) of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres (39 in). Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
The climate of Seoul features a humid continental climate with dry winter, called "Dwa" in the Köppen climate classification. Seoul is classed as having a temperate climate with four distinct seasons, but temperature differences between the hottest part of summer and the depths of winter are extreme. In summer the influence of the North Pacific high-pressure system brings hot, humid weather with temperatures soaring as high as 35 °C (95 °F) on occasion. In winter the city is topographically influenced by expanding Siberian High-pressure zones and prevailing west winds, temperatures dropping almost as low as -20 °C (-4 °F) in severe cold waves. The bitterly cold days tend to come in three-day cycles regulated by rising and falling pressure systems. The most pleasant seasons for most people in the city are spring and autumn, when azure skies and comfortable temperatures are typical. Most of Seoul's precipitation falls in the summer monsoon period between June and September, as a part of East Asian monsoon season.
The climate in Spain varies across continental Spain. Spain is the most climatically diverse country in Europe with 13 different Köppen climates, excluding the Canary Islands, and is within the 10 most climatically diverse countries in the world. Five main climatic zones can be distinguished, according to the country's Köppen-Geiger climate classification and orographic conditions:
Due to its vast size and range of altitudes, Argentina possesses a wide variety of climatic regions, ranging from the hot subtropical region in the north to the cold subantarctic in the far south. Lying between those is the Pampas region, featuring a mild and humid climate. Many regions have different, often contrasting, microclimates. In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold in which the relief features, and the latitudinal extent of the country, determine the different varieties within the main climate types.