A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts of these countries and the more continental climates of China and the United States’ northern and central regions (localities around the Ohio and Yangtze rivers exhibiting continental influence from the north, compared to climates around the Gulf of Mexico and the South China Sea, which exhibit tropical influence due to their southern coastal positions).
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. On its own, the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined below. Briefly, geodetic latitude at a point is the angle formed by the vector perpendicular to the ellipsoidal surface from that point, and the equatorial plane. Also defined are six auxiliary latitudes which are used in special applications.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Cfa and Cwa climates are either described as humid subtropical climates or mild temperate climates. This climate features mean temperatures in the coldest month between 0 °C (32 °F) or −3 °C (27 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F) and mean temperatures in the warmest month 22 °C (72 °F) or higher. However, while some climatologists have opted to describe this climate type as a "humid subtropical climate", Köppen himself never used this term. The humid subtropical climate classification was officially created under the Trewartha Climate classification. Summer high temperatures are typically in the high 20s to mid-30s °C (80s or 90s °F), while winter lows are typically either just below freezing or in the single digits (°C) above freezing (25-50 °F).
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.
The Trewartha system was a 1966 update of the Köppen climate classification, and sought to redefine middle latitude climates into smaller zones (the original Köppen system grouped all middle latitude climates into a single zone). Under the Trewartha climate classification, climates are termed humid subtropical when they have monthly mean air temperatures higher than 10 °C (50 °F) for eight or more months a year and at least one month with mean temperature below 18 °C (64.4 °F). Under the Trewartha system, humid subtropical climates typically occupy the portions of the temperate zone closest to the equator, from 23.5 to 35.0 north and south latitude.
The Trewartha climate classification is a climate classification system first published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966. It is a modified version of the Köppen-Geiger system, created to answer some of its deficiencies. The Trewartha system attempts to redefine the middle latitudes to be closer to vegetation zoning and genetic climate systems. It was considered a more true or "real world" reflection of the global climate.
Rainfall often shows a summer peak, especially where monsoons are well developed, as in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Other areas have a more uniform or varying rainfall cycles, but consistently lack any predictably dry summer months. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms that build up due to the intense surface heating and strong subtropical sun angle. Weak tropical lows that move in from adjacent warm tropical oceans, as well as infrequent tropical storms often contribute to summer seasonal rainfall peaks. Winter rainfall is often associated with large storms in the westerlies that have fronts that reach down into subtropical latitudes. However, many subtropical climates such as southeast Asia or Florida have very dry winters, with frequent brush fires and water shortages.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:
The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons. It affects the Indian subcontinent, where it is one of the oldest and most anticipated weather phenomena and an economically important pattern every year from June through September, but it is only partly understood and notoriously difficult to predict. Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin, process, strength, variability, distribution, and general vagaries of the monsoon, but understanding and predictability are still evolving.
|Durban, South Africa|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In Africa, humid subtropical climates are primarily found in the southern hemisphere of the continent. The Cwa climate is found over a large portion of the interior of the Middle and Eastern African regions. This area includes central Angola, northeastern Zimbabwe, the Niassa, Manica and Tete provinces of Mozambique, the southern Congo provinces, southwest Tanzania, and the majority of Malawi, and Zambia. Some lower portions of the Ethiopian Highlands also have this climate.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda. Middle Africa is an analogous term that includes Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, and São Tomé and Príncipe. All of the states in the UN subregion of Middle Africa, plus those otherwise commonly reckoned in Central Africa, constitute the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Since its independence in 2011, South Sudan has also been commonly included in the region.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 20 territories make up Eastern Africa:
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola, is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda.
The climate is also found in the narrow coastal sections of southern and eastern South Africa, primarily in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape provinces. South Africa's version of this climate features heavy oceanic influences resulting in generally milder temperatures. This is particularly evident in its winters when temperatures do not drop as low as in many other regions within the humid subtropical category.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of Whites, Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.
KwaZulu-Natal is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu and Natal Province were merged. It is located in the southeast of the country, enjoying a long shoreline beside the Indian Ocean and sharing borders with three other provinces and the countries of Mozambique, Eswatini and Lesotho. Its capital is Pietermaritzburg and its largest city is Durban. It is the 2nd most populous province in South Africa, with slightly fewer residents than Gauteng.
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho, but its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London. It was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing place and home of the 1820 Settlers. The central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people.
In East and Southeast Asia, this climate type is found in the southeastern quarter of mainland China from Hong Kong north to Nanjing, the northern half of Taiwan, northern Myanmar, northern Vietnam, north through southern and central Japan (Kyushu, Shikoku and half of Honshu), and the extreme southern tip of South Korea around Busan. Cities near the equatorward boundary of this zone include Hong Kong, Hanoi and Taipei; while Qingdao and Tokyo are near the northern boundary.
The influence of the strong Siberian anticyclone in East Asia brings colder winter temperatures than the humid subtropical zones in North America, South America, and Australia. The 0 °C isotherm reaches as far south as the valleys of the Yellow and Wei, roughly latitude 34° N. At Hainan Island and in Taiwan, the climate transitions from subtropical into tropical. In most of this region, the winter monsoon is very well developed, as such eastern Asian humid subtropical zones have a strong winter dry season and heavy summer rainfall.
Only in inland areas below the Yangtze River and coastal areas between approximately the Huai River and the beginning of the coast of Guangdong is there sufficient winter rainfall to produce a Cfa climate; even in these areas, rainfall and streamflow display a highly pronounced summer peak, unlike other regions of this climate type. Drought can be severe and often catastrophic to agriculture in the Cwa zone.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The only area where winter precipitation equals or even exceeds the summer rain is on the "San-in" (Sea of Japan), or western, coast of Japan, which during winter is on the windward side of the westerlies. The winter precipitation in these regions is usually produced by low-pressure systems off the east coast that develop in the onshore flow from the Siberian high. Summer rainfall comes from the East Asian Monsoon and from frequent typhoons. Annual rainfall is generally over 1,000 millimetres (39 in), and in areas below the Himalayas can be much higher still.
Humid subtropical climates can also be found in South Asia, primarily along the Ganges River. However, the humid subtropical climates exhibited here differ markedly from those in East Asia (and for that matter a good portion of the globe). Winters here are typically mild, dry and relatively short. They also tend to be foggy. Summers tend to be long and very hot, starting from mid-April and peaking in May and early June with high temperatures often exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). They also tend to be extremely dry, complete with dust storms, traits usually associated with arid or semi-arid climates. During this period many native trees defoliate to save water. This is followed by the cooler monsoons, where the region experiences heavy rains on almost a daily basis. Average high temperatures decrease during the monsoon season, but humidity increases. This results in hot and humid conditions, similar to summers in other humid subtropical climates. Cities such as New Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur and Patna exhibit this atypical version of the climate in India. In Pakistan, the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, as well as the city of Swabi in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, feature this weather pattern.
In South Asia, humid subtropical climates generally border on continental climates as altitude increases, or on winter-rainfall climates in western areas of Pakistan and northwestern India (e.g. Peshawar in northwestern Pakistan or Srinagar in the Kashmir Valley in India, where the primary precipitation peak occurs in March, not July or August). Further east, in highland areas with lengthier monsoons such as Nepal, seasonal temperature variation is lower than in the lowlands.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Although humid subtropical climates in Asia are mostly confined to the southeastern quarter of the continent, there are two narrow areas along the coast of the Caspian Sea and Black Sea with humid subtropical climates. Summers in these locations are cooler than typical humid subtropical climates and snowfall in winter is relatively common, but is usually of a short duration.
In Western Asia, the climate is prevalent in the Gilan and Māzandarān Provinces of Iran, in parts of the Caucasus, in Azerbaijan and in Georgia wedged between the Caspian and Black seas and coastal (Black Sea) Turkey, albeit having more oceanic influence.
Annual rainfall ranges from around 740 mm (29 inches) at Sari to over 2,000 mm (78 inches) at Bandar-e Anzali, and is heavy throughout the year, with a maximum in October or November when Bandar-e Anzali can average 400 millimetres (16 inches). Temperatures are generally moderate in comparison with other parts of Western Asia. During winter, the coastal areas can receive snowfall, which is usually of a short duration.
In Rasht, the average maximum in July is around 28 °C (82 °F) but with near-saturation humidity, whilst in January it is around 9 °C (48 °F). The heavy, evenly distributed rainfall extends north into the Caspian coastal strip of Azerbaijan up to its northern border but this climate in Azerbaijan is, however, a Cfb/Cfa (Oceanic climate/Humid subtropical climate) borderline case.
Western Georgia (Batumi and Kutaisi) in the Kolkheti Lowland and the northeast coast of Turkey (Giresun), have a climate similar to that of Gilan and Mazandaran in Iran and very similar to that of southeastern and northern Azerbaijan. Temperatures range from 22 °C in summer to 5 °C in winter and rainfall is even heavier than in Caspian Iran, up to 2,300 millimetres per year in Hopa (Turkey). These climates are a Cfb/Cfa (Oceanic climate/Humid subtropical climate) borderline case.
|Houston, United States|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In North America, humid subtropical climates are found exclusively in the American Gulf and East Coast states, including the following states: the eastern half of Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. On the Florida peninsula, the humid subtropical climate gives way to the tropical climate of south Florida and the Florida Keys.
Under Köppen's climate classification, the climate can also be found in the Mid-Atlantic, primarily Virginia, the lower elevations of West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Washington, D.C., New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, and far southern New York, specifically New York City and sections of Long Island. It can also be found in the Midwest, primarily in the central and southern portions of Kansas and Missouri, and far southern portions of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.
In Mexico, there are small areas of Cfa and Cwa climates. The climate can be found in small areas scattered around the northeastern part of the country, in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. Other areas where the climate can be found is in the high elevations of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Sierra Madre Oriental. Despite being located at higher elevations, these locations have summers that are too warm to qualify as a subtropical highland climate. Guadalajara's climate is a major example of this.
Outside of isolated sections of Mexico, the southernmost limits of this climate zone in North America lie just north of South Florida and around southern coastal Texas. Cities at the southernmost limits, such as Tampa and Orlando and along the Texas coast around Corpus Christi down toward Brownsville generally feature warm weather year-round and minimal temperature differences between seasons. In contrast, cities at the northernmost limits of the climate zone such as New York, Philadelphia, and Louisville feature hot, humid summers and chilly winters. These areas have average winter temperatures at the coldest limit of climates classed as humid subtropical.
Snowfall varies greatly in this climate zone. In locations at the southern limits of this zone and areas around the Gulf Coast, cities such as Orlando, Tampa, New Orleans, and Savannah rarely see snowfall, which occurs, at most, a few times per generation. In Southern cities farther north or inland, such as Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Dallas, Memphis, Nashville, and Raleigh, snow only occasionally falls and is usually three inches or less. However, for the majority of the winter here, temperatures remain above or well above freezing.At the northernmost limits of this zone, cities such as New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore typically see snowfall during the winter, with occasional heavy snowstorms. Still, average temperatures during a typical winter hover just above freezing at these locations. Precipitation is plentiful in the humid subtropical climate zone in North America – but with significant variations in terms of wettest/driest months and seasons. Much of the interior South, including Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern halves of Mississippi and Alabama, tends to have a winter or spring (not summer) precipitation maximum. Closer to the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, there is a summer maximum, with July or August usually the wettest month – as at Norfolk, Cape Hatteras and Jacksonville, North Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Mobile, Alabama and New Orleans. A semblance of a monsoon pattern (dry winters/wet summers) is evident along the Atlantic coast from southern North Carolina (Wilmington, North Carolina area) south to Florida. The seasonal monsoon is much stronger on the Florida peninsula, as most locations in Florida have dry winters and wet summers.
In addition, areas in Texas that are slightly inland from the Gulf of Mexico, such as Austin and San Antonio that border the semi-arid climate zone, generally see a peak of precipitation in May, a drought-like nadir in mid-summer and a secondary, if not equal, precipitation peak in September or October. Areas further south along South Texas' Gulf Coast (Brownsville), which closely border tropical climate classification, typically have a strong September precipitation maximum, and a tendency toward dry conditions in winter with rain increasing in spring, with December or January often the driest months.
|Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Humid subtropical climates are found in a sizable portion of South America. The climate extends over a few states of southern Brazil, including Paraná, into sections of Paraguay, all of Uruguay, and the Río de la Plata region in Argentina. Major cities such as São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Porto Alegre, Montevideo and Campo Grande, have a humid subtropical climate, generally in the form of hot humid summers and mild to cool winters. These areas, which include the Pampas, generally feature a Cfa climate categorization.
The Cwa climate occurs in parts of tropical highlands of São Paulo state, Mato Grosso do Sul and near the Andean highland in northwestern Argentina. These highland areas feature summer temperatures that are warm enough to fall outside the subtropical highland climate category.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The humid subtropical climate zone predominantly lies in eastern Australia. The coastal strip from Mackay, Queensland to the southern coast of Sydney, where it transitions into the cooler and wet oceanic climates.
From Newcastle, approx 200 kilometers northeast of Sydney, the Cfa zone would extend to inland New South Wales, excluding the highland regions (which have an oceanic climate), stretching towards Dubbo to the northwest and Wagga Wagga to the south, ending at the New South Wales/Victoria border (Albury–Wodonga).To note, these places would have characteristics of the semi-arid and/or Mediterranean climates. Furthermore, the inland Cfa climates generally have drier summers, or at least summers with low humidity.
Extreme heat is more often experienced in Sydney than in other large cities in Australia's Cfa zone, especially in the western suburbs, where highs over 40 °C are not uncommon. Frost is prevalent in the more inland areas of Sydney, such as Richmond. Average annual rainfall in the Sydney region ranges between 800 mm and 1200 mm.
There is usually a distinct summer rainfall maximum that becomes more pronounced moving northwards. In Brisbane, the wettest month (February) receives five times the rainfall of the driest month (September). Temperatures are very warm to hot but are not excessive: the average maximum in February is usually around 29 °C (84 °F) and in July around 21 °C (70 °F). Frosts are extremely rare except at higher elevations, but temperatures over 35˚C (95˚F) are not common on the coast.
North of the Cfa climate zone there is a zone centred upon Rockhampton which extends north to the Köppen Cwa classified climate zone of the Atherton Tablelands region. This region has a very pronounced dry winter period with often negligible rainfall between June to October. Winter temperatures generally only fall slightly below 18°C, which would classify the region as a tropical savanna, or Aw, climate.
Annual rainfall within Australia's humid subtropical climate zone can reach as high as 2,000 mm (80 inches) in coastal locations and is generally 1,000 mm (40 inches) or above. The most intense 2-3 day rainfall periods that occur in this coastal zone however are the outcome of east coast lows forming to the north of a large high pressure system, there can be great variation in rainfall amounts from year to year as a result of these systems. As an example Lismore which lies in the centre of this zone, the annual rainfall can range from less than 550 mm (22 inches) in 1915 to more than 2,780 mm (110 inches) in 1950.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In Central Europe, a small area of humid subtropical climates are located in transitional areas between the oceanic and continental climates in areas where higher summer temperature do not quite qualify it for inclusion in the Oceanic climate schema (but, in the Trewartha climate classification, this type of climate is included in that typical of the other areas of central-west Europe, classified as Do -the Temperate Oceanic climate-) and mild winters do not allow their inclusion into continental climates, such as Serbia.Average summer temperatures in areas of Europe with this climate are generally not as hot as most other subtropical zones around the world.
The Po Valley, in Northern Italy, including major cities such as Milan, Turin, Bologna, and Verona, have a humid subtropical climate, featuring hot, humid summers with frequent thunderstorms; winters are foggy, damp and chilly, with sudden bursts of frost. Some parts of the valley have a mild continental climate. Places along the shores of Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como (Como and Verbania in Italy and Lugano in Switzerland) have a humid subtropical climate with a distinctive high amount of rainfall during summer. Budapest, Hungary is just warm enough to qualify, due to recent warming. At 46 degrees north, the city lies on the northern limit of the humid subtropical zone.
The coastal areas in the northern half of the Adriatic sea also fall within this climate zone. The cities include Trieste, Venice, and Rimini in Italy, Split in Croatia, Koper in Slovenia and Kotor in Montenegro. Other Southern European areas in the Cfa zone include the central valleys and coast of Catalonia of Girona and Barcelona in Spain, some on the north-east of Spain (Huesca), West Macedonia in Greece (Kozani), the Garonne Valley (Toulouse) and Rhone Valley (Avignon) in France.[ citation needed ] More recent data have included the most extreme south of Germany, being Balingen the limit of this climatic type, but with more oceanic characteristics.
Along the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria (Varna), coast of Romania (Constanta and Mamaia), Sochi, Russia and Crimea, have summers too warm (>22 °C in the warmest month) to qualify as oceanic, no freezing month, and enough summer precipitation and sometimes humid conditions, where they would be fit to be classed under Cfa, though they closely border the humid continental zone. All these areas are subject to occasional, in some cases repeated snowfalls and freezes during winter.
In the Azores, some islands have this climate, with very mild and rainy winters (> 13 °C) and no snowfall, warm summers (> 21 or 22 °C) but with no dry season during the warmest period, which means that they can be classified neither as oceanic, nor as Mediterranean, but only as humid subtropical climate, as with Corvo Island.
In many other climate classification systems outside of the Köppen, most of these locations would not be included in the humid subtropical grouping. The higher summer precipitation and poleward flow of tropical air-masses in summer are not present in Europe, as it is in eastern Australia or the southern United States.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. They typically feature four distinct seasons, Summer the warmest, Autumn the transitioning season to Winter, the colder season, and Spring the transitioning season from winter back into summer. On the northern hemisphere the year starts with winter, transitions in the first halfyear through spring into summer which is in mid-year, then at the second halfyear through autumn into winter at year-end. On the southern hemisphere seasons are swapped with summer in between years and winter in mid-year.
Missouri generally has a variety of seasonal humid subtropical climate, with cool winters and long, hot summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate borders on a more mild-type humid subtropical climate, and in the northern third, the state transitions into a humid continental climate. Because of its location in the interior United States, Missouri often experiences extremes in temperatures. Lacking either large mountains or oceans nearby to moderate its temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. As of late, Missouri has seen a drastic decline in annual snowfall, with some daily high winter temperatures sometimes dwindling in early summer/late spring temperatures.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles, and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator.
An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features mild summers and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) in the coldest month.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.
A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is usually distributed throughout the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The Dfb, Dwb and Dsb subtypes are also known as hemiboreal.
India has a large variation in climate from region to region, due to its vast size. India experiences climate from four major climate groups. These can be further subdivided into seven climatic types. For ecological regions, see Ecoregions of India, for Regions see List of regions of India.
The climate of California varies widely, from hot desert to polar, depending on latitude, elevation, and proximity to the coast. California's coastal regions, the Sierra Nevada foothills, and much of the Central Valley have a Mediterranean climate, with warmer, drier weather in summer and cooler, wetter weather in winter. The influence of the ocean generally moderates temperature extremes, creating warmer winters and substantially cooler summers in coastal areas.
The characteristics of United States rainfall climatology differ significantly across the United States and those under United States sovereignty. Late summer and fall extratropical cyclones bring a majority of the precipitation which falls across western, southern, and southeast Alaska annually. During the winter, and spring, Pacific storm systems bring Hawaii and the western United States most of their precipitation. Nor'easters moving down the East coast bring cold season precipitation to the Carolinas, Mid-Atlantic and New England states. Lake-effect snows add to precipitation potential downwind of the Great Lakes, as well as Great Salt Lake and the Finger Lakes during the cold season. The snow to liquid ratio across the contiguous United States averages 13:1, meaning 13 inches (330 mm) of snow melts down to 1 inch (25 mm) of water.
The climate of the United States varies due to differences in latitude, and a range of geographic features, including mountains and deserts. Generally, on the mainland, the climate of the U.S. becomes warmer the further south one travels, and drier the further west, until one reaches the West Coast.
North Carolina's climate varies from the Atlantic coast in the east to the Appalachian Mountain range in the west. The mountains often act as a "shield", blocking low temperatures and storms from the Midwest from entering the Piedmont of North Carolina. Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, except in the higher elevations of the Appalachians which have a subtropical highland climate. The USDA hardiness zones for the state range from zone 5a in the mountains to zone 8b along the coast. For most areas in the state, the temperatures in July during the daytime are approximately 90 °F (32 °C). In January the average temperatures range near 50 °F (10 °C).
South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, with hot summers and mild winters. On average, between 40 inches (1,000 mm) and 80 inches (2,000 mm) of precipitation falls annually across the state. Tropical cyclones, and afternoon thunderstorms due to hot and humid conditions, contribute to precipitation during the summer and sometimes fall months, while extratropical cyclones contribute to precipitation during the fall, winter, and spring months. Tornadoes happen mostly in the spring with a secondary peak in November. Hail and damaging winds often occur in summertime thunderstorms. Tornadoes are very uncommon in the summer unless a tropical disturbance were to spawn one.
The climate of Mexico is highly varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences lower temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. The north of the country generally receives less precipitation than the south.
Vietnam's climate, being located in the tropics and strongly influenced by the South China Sea has a monsoon-influenced tropical climate typical of that of mainland Southeast Asia. In the north, the climate is monsoonal with four distinct seasons while in the south, the climate is tropical monsoon with two seasons. In addition temperate climate exists in mountainous areas, which are found in Sa Pa, Da Lat while a more continental climate exists in Lai Chau Province and Son La Province. The diverse topography, wide range of latitudes, and influences from the South China Sea lead to climatic conditions varying significantly between regions. 20% of Vietnam's total surface area is low-elevation coastal area making the country highly vulnerable to climate change effects and the rising sea levels in particular.
Earth rainfall climatology Is the study of rainfall, a sub-field of Meteorology. Formally, a wider study includes water falling as ice crystals, i.e. hail, sleet, snow. The aim of rainfall climatology is to measure, understand and predict rain distribution across different regions of planet Earth, a factor of air pressure, humidity, topography, cloud type and raindrop size, via direct measurement and remote sensing data acquisition. Current technologies accurately predict rainfall 3–4 days in advance using numerical weather prediction. Geostationary orbiting satellites gather IR and visual wavelength data to measure realtime localised rainfall by estimating cloud albedo, water content, and the corresponding probability of rain. Geographic distribution of rain is largely governed by climate type, topography and habitat humidity. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes. The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Global warming may also cause changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions at high latitudes and in some wet tropical areas, and drier conditions in parts of the subtropics and middle latitudes. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres (121,000 cu mi) of water falls as precipitation each year; 398,000 cubic kilometres (95,000 cu mi) of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres (39 in). Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
The climate of Seoul features a humid continental/subtropical climate with dry winter, called "Dwa"/"Cwa" in the Köppen climate classification. Seoul is classed as having a temperate climate with four distinct seasons, but temperature differences between the hottest part of summer and the depths of winter are extreme. In summer the influence of the North Pacific high-pressure system brings hot, humid weather with temperatures soaring as high as 35 °C (95 °F) on occasion. In winter the city is topographically influenced by expanding Siberian High-pressure zones and prevailing west winds, temperatures dropping almost as low as -20 °C (-4 °F) in severe cold waves. The bitterly cold days tend to come in three-day cycles regulated by rising and falling pressure systems, during winter snowfall can cause frosty weather in the city. The most pleasant seasons, for most people in the city are spring and autumn, when azure blue skies and comfortable temperatures are regular. Most of Seoul's precipitation falls in the summer monsoon period between June and September, as a part of East Asian monsoon season.
The climate in Spain varies across the country. Spain is the most climatically diverse country in Europe with 13 different Köppen climates, excluding the Canary Islands, and is within the 10 most climatically diverse countries in the world. Five main climatic zones can be distinguished, according to Guzman geographical situation and orographic conditions: