Gorgan

Last updated
Gorgan

گرگان

Esterabad
City
Gorgan in one.png
Iran location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Gorgan
Coordinates: 36°50′19″N54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472 Coordinates: 36°50′19″N54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472
Country Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Province Golestan
County Gorgan
Bakhsh Central
Government
  MayorAbdolreza Dadboud [1]
  City Council ChairmanFaezeh Abdollahi
Area
  City1,700 km2 (656 sq mi)
Elevation
155 m (509 ft)
Population
 (2016 Census)
   Urban
350,676 [2]
Time zone UTC+03:30 (IRST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+04:30 (IDST)
Climate Csa
Gorgan at GEOnet Names Server

Gorgan (Persian : گرگان [ɡoɾˈɡɒːn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); also romanized as Gorgān, Gurgān, and Gurgan), formerly Astarabad (استرآباد [ʔæsˌtæɾɒːˈbɒːd] ; also romanized as Astarābād, Asterabad, and Esterābād), [3] is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately 400 km (250 mi) to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km (19 mi) away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census; its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families. [4]

Contents

History

There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras. Some other important Neolithic sites in the area are Yarim Tepe, and Sange Chaxmaq. Also, the nearby Shahroud Plain has many such sites. The number of confirmed Neolithic sites on the Gorgan Plain now totals more than fifty. [5]

Historic wall of Gorgan signs `lym btwny dywr trykhy grgn khh zyr khkh mdfwn shdh st.jpg
Historic wall of Gorgan signs

According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace". [6] The term means "the yellow city", and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city. [7]

Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559–530 BC), its founder, or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC).

The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.

At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province. [8]

Gorgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by the Muslim Arabs in the 8th century.

In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli. [9] [10]

"Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", which is currently called "Gorgan".

Gorgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Tabaristan region.

Astarabad was an important political and religious city during the Qajar dynasty.

Linguistic Map of Golestan province Linguistic Map of Golestan Province.jpg
Linguistic Map of Golestan province

Geography and climate

The wide Dasht-e Gorgan (Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 170 square kilometres (66 sq mi).

Some 150 km (93 mi) east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park, home to a large portion of the fauna of Iran.

Gorgan has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa). In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) and the annual rainfall is 601 millimetres (23.7 in).

Climate data for Gorgan
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)29
(84)
32.4
(90.3)
35
(95)
39
(102)
43
(109)
45
(113)
44
(111)
44
(111)
41.6
(106.9)
39
(102)
36
(97)
29.2
(84.6)
45
(113)
Average high °C (°F)12.4
(54.3)
13.1
(55.6)
15.3
(59.5)
21.2
(70.2)
26.9
(80.4)
30.9
(87.6)
32.6
(90.7)
32.7
(90.9)
29.9
(85.8)
24.8
(76.6)
18.8
(65.8)
14.3
(57.7)
22.7
(72.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.9
(46.2)
8.5
(47.3)
10.7
(51.3)
16.0
(60.8)
21.2
(70.2)
25.4
(77.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.8
(82.0)
24.8
(76.6)
19.4
(66.9)
13.9
(57.0)
9.8
(49.6)
17.8
(64.0)
Average low °C (°F)3.4
(38.1)
3.8
(38.8)
6.1
(43.0)
10.7
(51.3)
15.5
(59.9)
19.9
(67.8)
22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
19.6
(67.3)
13.9
(57.0)
8.9
(48.0)
5.2
(41.4)
12.7
(54.9)
Record low °C (°F)−10
(14)
−6
(21)
−3.2
(26.2)
0
(32)
2.8
(37.0)
10
(50)
15
(59)
13
(55)
9
(48)
3
(37)
−2
(28)
−7
(19)
−10
(14)
Average precipitation mm (inches)55.0
(2.17)
55.8
(2.20)
79.4
(3.13)
52.8
(2.08)
44.1
(1.74)
33.4
(1.31)
22.2
(0.87)
27.3
(1.07)
38.9
(1.53)
66.1
(2.60)
68.5
(2.70)
57.5
(2.26)
601
(23.66)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)7.48.010.58.06.14.23.74.25.25.76.76.876.5
Average relative humidity (%)73737472676465686970737470
Mean monthly sunshine hours 135.3128.1132.3164.6207.6220.4221.9220.5196.3196.4151.1132.82,107.3
Source: Synoptic Stations Statistics

Notable people

Historical figures

Picture showing Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi in pink clothes and Nader Shah Afshar on horseback. Astarabadi and Nader.JPG
Picture showing Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi in pink clothes and Nader Shah Afshar on horseback.

Contemporary figures

Mohammad Reza Lotfi Mohammad reza Lotfi-Young2.jpg
Mohammad Reza Lotfi

Education

Mirdamad Cultural Institute (MCI) Mirdamad102.jpg
Mirdamad Cultural Institute (MCI)

Sports

Shahrdari Gorgan competes in the Iranian Basketball Super League.

Currently the main football team of Gorgan is Etka Gorgan F.C., which competes in the Azadegan League.

Sister cities

See also

Related Research Articles

Mazandaran Province Province of Iran

Mazandaran Province and, is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.

Hyrcania Historical region in the south-east of the Caspian sea

Hyrcania is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran and Turkmenistan, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.

Golestan Province Province of Iran

Golestān Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in the north-east of the country south of the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Gorgan.

Razavi Khorasan Province Province of Iran

Razavi Khorasan Province is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the center and capital of the province. Other cities are Quchan, Dargaz, Chenaran, Sarakhs, Shahr Jadid-e Golbahar, Fariman, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Torbat-e Jam, Salehabad, Taybad, Khaf, Roshtkhar, Kashmar, Rivash, Bardaskan, Nishapur, Sabzevar, Gonabad, Kalat. Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan Province in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 with Mashhad as the location of the region's secretariat.

Great Wall of Gorgan

The Great Wall of Gorgan is a Sasanian-era defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. The western, Caspian Sea, end of the wall is near the remains of the fort at: 37.13981°N 54.1788733°E; the eastern end of the wall, near the town of Pishkamar, is near the remains of the fort at: 37.5206739°N 55.5770498°E. The title coordinate is for the location of the remains of a fort midway along the wall.

Zayn al-Din Sayyed Isma‘il ibn Husayn Gorgani, also spelled al-Jurjani, was a Persian 12th century royal Islamic physician from Gurganj, Khwarazm. In addition to medical and pharmaceutical sciences, he was also an adept in theological, philosophic and ethical sciences. Jurjani was a pupil of Ibn Abi Sadiq and Ahmad ibn Farrokh. He arrived at the court in the Persian province of Khwarazm in the year 1110 when he was already a septuagenarian. There he became a court physician to the governor of the province, Khwarazm-Shah Qutb al-Din Muhammad I, who ruled from 1097 to 1127. It was to him that he dedicated his most comprehensive and influential work, the Persian-language compendium Zakhirah-i Khvarazm'Shahi.

Astarabadi is an Iranian surname, derived from the city of "Astarabad" in northern Iran. It may refer to:

Gonbad-e Kavus City in Golestān Province, Iran

Gonbad-e Kavus is the Iranian city known historically as Gorgan/Hyrcania. The modern name, meaning "the tower of Kavus", is a reference to the most imposing ancient monument in the city. The historic name cannot now be restored, as it was oddly and carelessly assigned to the neighboring historical city of Astarabad in the 1930s by the Iranian government. At one point, it was even known as the city of Dashte Gorgan, meaning "the Plains of Gorgan".

Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, also spelled as Fakhraddin Asaad Gorgani, was an 11th-century Persian poet. He versified the story of Vis and Rāmin, a story from the Arsacid (Parthian) period. The Iranian scholar Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, however, disagrees with this view, and concludes that the story has its origins in the 5th-century Sasanian era. Besides Vis and Rāmin, he composed other forms of poetry. For example, some of his quatrains are recorded in the Nozhat al-Majales.

Bibi Khānoom Astarābādi ‎ was a notable Iranian writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures in the women's movement of Iran.

Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi Historian, ambassador and confidant to the King

Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, also known by his title of Monshi-ol-Mamalek, was the chief secretary, historian, biographer, advisor, strategist, friend and confidant of King Nader Shah Afshar. He who wrote and accepted the different decisions and files related to the Empire.

Fenderesk is a district (bakhsh) in Golestan Province in northern Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 34,326, in 8,206 families. The District has one city: Khan Bebin. The District has two rural districts (dehestan): Fenderesk-e Jonubi Rural District and Fenderesk-e Shomali Rural District.

Al-Jurjani or simply Jurjani may refer to any of several historical Persian scholars:

Ali ibn Mohammed al-Jurjani (1339–1414) was a Persian encyclopedic writer and traditionalist theologian. He was born in the village of Ṭāḡu near Astarabad in Gorgan, and became a professor in Shiraz. When this city was plundered by Timur in 1387, he moved to Samarkand, but returned to Shiraz in 1405, and remained there until his death.

Gorgani means "of or related to Gorgan", a city in north of Iran.

Tureng Tepe

Tureng Tepe is a Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeological site in northeastern Iran, in the Gorgan plain, approximately 17 km northeast of the town of Gorgan. Nearby is a village of Turang Tappeh.

Gorgan is a city in Golestan Province, Iran.

The Gorgan Plain, or Dasht-e Gorgan, is situated in northeastern Iran in Golestan Province. It extends from the lower slopes of the Alborz and Kopet Dag mountain ranges to the steppes of Turkmenistan. The River Gorgan flows through the plain from east to west, emptying into the Caspian Sea. The provincial capital Gorgan lies to the south of the plain, which covers an area of about 170 square kilometres (66 sq mi) and is situated between 37°00' and 37°30' north latitude, and between 54°00' and 54°30' east longitude. The annual precipitation in the south of the plain is about 600 mm (24 in) which is much higher than the 200 mm (8 in) just 60 km (37 mi) to the north. The southern part is very fertile, being watered by the many streams that flow from the Alborz Mountains.

Golestan University of Medical Sciences is a public university in Gorgan, Iran. The University has six faculties including medicine, dentistry, health care, nursing, paramedicine, and Medical Modern Technologies.

References

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  2. "Statistical Center of Iran > Home". www.amar.org.ir.
  3. Gorgan can be found at GEOnet Names Server , at this link , by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3064853" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  4. "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
  5. Kourosh Roustaei (2017), Neolithic developments in the Gorgan Plain, south-east of the Caspian Sea. academia.edu
  6. Arrian (1884). "Chapter XXV: March to Bactra.—Bessus Aided by Satibaezanes."  . The Anabasis of Alexander  . 3. Translated by E.J. Chinnock. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p.  191–193  .
  7. electricpulp.com. "GORGAN v. Pre-Islamic history – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
  8. Bivar, A.D.H. "Gorgan" Encyclopædia Iranica online
  9. Yar-Shater, Ehsan (2010). Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2, Parts 5-8. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 892.
  10. Brosset, Marie-Felicite (1858). Histoire de la Géorgie depuis l'Antiquité jusqu'au XIXe siècle. France: imprimerie de l'Académie Impériale des sciences. pp. 468–472.
  11. "بزرگداشت دکتر ایرج اعتصام، پیشکسوت آموزش معماری ایران" [Tribute to Dr. Iraj Etesam, a pioneer in Iranian architecture education]. Iran Building Information Network. 2013-04-24. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  12. "Golestan University of Medical Sciences- دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان - Golestan University of Medical Sciences - دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان". GOUMS. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
  13. KZ-Today Archived 2008-06-04 at the Wayback Machine September 11, 2006