Belgrade

Last updated

Belgrade
Београд
Beograd
Град Београд
Grad Beograd

City of Belgrade
Anthem: Химна Београду
Himna Beogradu
"Anthem to Belgrade"
Reliefkarte Serbien.png
Red pog.svg
Belgrade
Location within Serbia
Europe relief laea location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Belgrade
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 44°49′04″N20°27′25″E / 44.81778°N 20.45694°E / 44.81778; 20.45694
CountryFlag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
City Belgrade
Municipalities 17
EstablishmentPrior to 279 B.C. (Singidunum) [1]
Government
  Body City Assembly of Belgrade
   Mayor Vacant
  Deputy MayorVacant
   Ruling parties SNSSPS
Area
[2]
   Capital city 389.12 km2 (150.24 sq mi)
  Urban
1,035 km2 (400 sq mi)
  Metro
3,234.96 km2 (1,249.03 sq mi)
Elevation
[2]
117 m (384 ft)
Population
 (2022)
   Capital city 1,197,714 [3]
  Density3,078/km2 (7,970/sq mi)
   Urban
1,383,875 [4]
  Urban density1,337/km2 (3,460/sq mi)
   Metro
1,681,405 [5]
  Metro density520/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Belgradian (en)
Beograđanin (m.) / Beograđanka (f.) (sr)
GDP
[6]
  Metro€24.25 billion (2022)
  Per capita (nominal)€14,397 (2022)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
11000
Area code +381(0)11
ISO 3166 code RS-00
Vehicle registration BG
International Airport Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport (BEG)
Website beograd.rs

Belgrade [lower-alpha 2] is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. [9] The population of the Belgrade metropolitan area is 1,681,405 according to the 2022 census. [5] It is one of the major cities of Southeast Europe and the third most populous city on the Danube river.

Contents

Belgrade is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Europe and the world. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco-Dacians inhabited the region and, after 279 BC, Celts settled the city, naming it Singidūn . [10] It was conquered by the Romans under the reign of Augustus and awarded Roman city rights in the mid-2nd century. [11] It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, and changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire, and the Kingdom of Hungary before it became the seat of the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin in 1284. Belgrade served as capital of the Serbian Despotate during the reign of Stefan Lazarević, and then his successor Đurađ Branković returned it to the Hungarian king in 1427. Noon bells in support of the Hungarian army against the Ottoman Empire during the siege in 1456 have remained a widespread church tradition to this day. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottomans and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo. [12] It frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Ottoman–Habsburg wars.

Following the Serbian Revolution, Belgrade was once again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918, when it was attached to the city, due to former Austro-Hungarian territories becoming part of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes after World War I. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918 to its dissolution in 2006. [note 1] In a fatally strategic position, the city has been battled over in 115 wars and razed 44 times, being bombed five times and besieged many times. [13]

Being Serbia's primate city, Belgrade has special administrative status within Serbia. [14] It is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and government ministries, as well as home to almost all of the largest Serbian companies, media, and scientific institutions. Belgrade is classified as a Beta-Global City. [15] The city is home to the University Clinical Centre of Serbia, a hospital complex with one of the largest capacities in the world; the Church of Saint Sava, one of the largest Orthodox church buildings; and the Štark Arena, one of the largest capacity indoor arenas in Europe.

Belgrade hosted major international events such as the Danube River Conference of 1948, the first Non-Aligned Movement Summit (1961), the first major gathering of the OSCE (1977–1978), the Eurovision Song Contest (2008), as well as sports events such as the first FINA World Aquatics Championships (1973), UEFA Euro (1976), Summer Universiade (2009) and EuroBasket three times (1961, 1975, 2005). On 21 June 2023, Belgrade was confirmed host of the BIE- Specialized Exhibition Expo 2027. [16]

History

Prehistory

Vinca culture figurine, 4000-4500 BC. Vinca clay figure 02.jpg
Vinča culture figurine, 4000–4500 BC.

Chipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras. Some of these tools are of Mousterian industry—belonging to Neanderthals rather than modern humans. Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have also been discovered near the area, indicating some settlement between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. [17] The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC. [18] There are several Starčevo sites in and around Belgrade, including the eponymous site of Starčevo. The Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture (5500–4500 BC), a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements and also named for a site in the Belgrade region (Vinča-Belo Brdo). The Vinča culture is known for its very large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe. [19] Also associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe, [20] and a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC. [21] Within the city proper, on Cetinjska Street, a skull of a Paleolithic human dated to before 5000 BC was discovered in 1890. [22]

Antiquity

Belgrade Fortress, built during a long period of time from the 2nd to the 18th century, located on the confluence of the two rivers Sava and Danube Guardian of the city.jpg
Belgrade Fortress, built during a long period of time from the 2nd to the 18th century, located on the confluence of the two rivers Sava and Danube

Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from a variety of ancient myths and legends. The ridge overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, for example, has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. [23] [24] In the time of antiquity, too, the area was populated by Paleo-Balkan tribes, including the Thracians and the Dacians, who ruled much of Belgrade's surroundings. [25] Specifically, Belgrade was at one point inhabited by the Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi; [10] following Celtic invasion in 279 BC, the Scordisci wrested the city from their hands, naming it Singidūn (d|ūn, fortress). [10] In 34–33 BC, the Roman army reached Belgrade. It became the romanised Singidunum in the 1st century AD and, by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia (the highest city class) by the end of the century. [11] While the first Christian Emperor of RomeConstantine I, also known as Constantine the Great [26] —was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus (Jovian), was born in Singidunum. [27] Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. [28] Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum (Zemun); the two were connected with a bridge throughout Roman and Byzantine times. [29]

Middle Ages

In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun. [30] In 471, it was taken by Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, who continued into Italy. [31] As the Ostrogoths left, another Germanic tribe, the Gepids, invaded the city. In 539, it was retaken by the Byzantines. [32] In 577, some 100,000 Slavs poured into Thrace and Illyricum, pillaging cities and more permanently settling the region. [33]

The Avars, under Bayan I, conquered the whole region and its new Slavic population by 582. [34] Following Byzantine reconquest, the Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio mentions the White Serbs, who had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands; they received provinces in the west, towards the Adriatic, which they would rule as subjects to Heraclius (610–641). [35] In 829, Khan Omurtag was able to add Singidunum and its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire. [36] [37] The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in a Papal missive [38] to Bulgarian ruler Boris I. This name would appear in several variants: Alba Bulgarica in Latin, Griechisch Weissenburg in High German, Nándorfehérvár in Hungarian, and Castelbianco in Venetian, among other names, all variations of 'white fortress'. For about four centuries, the city would become a battleground between the Byzantine Empire, the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, and the Bulgarian Empire. [39] Basil II (976–1025) installed a garrison in Belgrade. [40] The city hosted the armies of the First and the Second Crusade, [41] but, while passing through during the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa and his 190,000 crusaders saw Belgrade in ruins. [42]

Eugene of Savoy during the Battle of Belgrade 1717.jpg
Battle of Belgrade 1717 was a successful attempt by Austrian troops under the command of Imperial Field Marshall Prince Eugene of Savoy, battle was Prince Eugene's last great battle

King Stefan Dragutin (r. 1276–1282) received Belgrade from his father-in-law, Stephen V of Hungary, in 1284, and it served as the capital of the Kingdom of Syrmia, a vassal state to the Kingdom of Hungary. Dragutin (Hungarian: Dragutin István) is regarded as the first Serbian king to rule over Belgrade. [43]

Following the battles of Maritsa (1371) and Kosovo field (1389), Moravian Serbia, to Belgrade's south, began to fall to the Ottoman Empire. [44] [45]

The northern regions of what is now Serbia persisted as the Serbian Despotate, with Belgrade as its capital. The city flourished under Stefan Lazarević, the son of Serbian prince Lazar Hrebeljanović. Lazarević built a castle with a citadel and towers, of which only the Despot's tower and the west wall remain. He also refortified the city's ancient walls, allowing the Despotate to resist Ottoman conquest for almost 70 years. During this time, Belgrade was a haven for many Balkan peoples fleeing Ottoman rule, and is thought to have had a population ranging between 40,000 and 50,000 people. [43]

In 1427, Stefan's successor Đurađ Branković, returning Belgrade to the Hungarian king, made Smederevo his new capital. Even though the Ottomans had captured most of the Serbian Despotate, Belgrade, known as Nándorfehérvár in Hungarian, was unsuccessfully besieged in 1440 [41] and 1456. [46] As the city presented an obstacle to the Ottoman advance into Hungary and further, over 100,000 Ottoman soldiers [47] besieged it in 1456, in which the Christian army led by the Hungarian General John Hunyadi successfully defended it. [48] The noon bell ordered by Pope Callixtus III commemorates the victory throughout the Christian world to this day. [41] [49]

Ottoman rule and Austrian invasions

Seven decades after the initial siege, on 28 August 1521, the fort was finally captured by Suleiman the Magnificent with 250,000 Turkish soldiers and over 100 ships. Subsequently, most of the city was razed to the ground and its entire Orthodox Christian population was deported to Istanbul [41] [50] to an area that has since become known as the Belgrade forest. [51]

Belgrade in 1684 Belgrade 1684.jpg
Belgrade in 1684

Belgrade was made the seat of the Pashalik of Belgrade (also known as the Sanjak of Smederevo), and quickly became the second largest Ottoman town in Europe at over 100,000 people, surpassed only by Constantinople. [47] Ottoman rule introduced Ottoman architecture, including numerous mosques, and the city was resurrected—now by Oriental influences. [52]

In 1594, a major Serb rebellion was crushed by the Ottomans. In retribution, Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha ordered the relics of Saint Sava to be publicly torched on the Vračar plateau; in the 20th century, the church of Saint Sava was built to commemorate this event. [53]

Occupied by the Habsburgs three times (1688–1690, 1717–1739, 1789–1791), headed by the Holy Roman Princes Maximilian of Bavaria and Eugene of Savoy, [54] and field marshal Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon, respectively, Belgrade was quickly recaptured by the Ottomans and substantially razed each time. [52] During this period, the city was affected by the two Great Serbian Migrations, in which hundreds of thousands of Serbs, led by two Serbian Patriarchs, retreated together with the Austrian soldiers into the Habsburg Empire, settling in today's Vojvodina and Slavonia. [55]

Principality and Kingdom of Serbia

View of Belgrade in 1890 Belgrade Cathedral & Landing Place 1.jpg
View of Belgrade in 1890

At the beginning of the 19th century, Belgrade was predominantly inhabited by a Muslim population. Traces of Ottoman rule and architecture—such as mosques and bazaars, were to remain a prominent part of Belgrade's townscape into the 19th century; several decades, even, after Serbia was granted autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. [56]

During the First Serbian Uprising, Serbian revolutionaries held the city from 8 January 1807 until 1813, when it was retaken by the Ottomans. [57] After the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, Serbia achieved some sort of sovereignty, which was formally recognised by the Porte in 1830. [58]

The May Coup in Royal Palace in Belgrade, a coup d'etat involving the assassination of the Serbian King Alexander Obrenovic and his consort Queen Draga inside the Royal Palace on the night of 10-11 June 1903. Majski prevrat 1903.jpg
The May Coup in Royal Palace in Belgrade, a coup d'état involving the assassination of the Serbian King Alexander Obrenović and his consort Queen Draga inside the Royal Palace on the night of 10–11 June 1903.

The development of Belgrade architecture after 1815 can be divided into four periods. In the first phase, which lasted from 1815 to 1835, the dominant architectural style was still of a Balkan character, with substantial Ottoman influence. At the same time, an interest in joining the European mainstream allowed Central and Western European architecture to flourish. Between 1835 and 1850, the amount of neoclassicist and baroque buildings south of the Austrian border rose considerably, exemplified by St Michael's Cathedral (Serbian: Saborna crkva), completed in 1840. Between 1850 and 1875, new architecture was characterised by a turn towards the newly popular Romanticism, along with older European architectural styles. Typical of Central European cities in the last quarter of the 19th century, the fourth phase was characterised by an eclecticist style based on the Renaissance and Baroque periods. [59]

In 1841, Prince Mihailo Obrenović moved the capital of the Principality of Serbia from Kragujevac to Belgrade. [60] [61] During his first reign (1815–1839), Prince Miloš Obrenović pursued expansion of the city's population through the addition of new settlements, aiming and succeeding to make Belgrade the centre of the Principality's administrative, military and cultural institutions. His project of creating a new market space (the Abadžijska čaršija), however, was less successful; trade continued to be conducted in the centuries-old Donja čaršija and Gornja čaršija. Still, new construction projects were typical for the Christian quarters as the older Muslim quarters declined; from Serbia's autonomy until 1863, the number of Belgrade quarters even decreased, mainly as a consequence of the gradual disappearance of the city's Muslim population. An Ottoman city map from 1863 counts only 9 Muslim quarters (mahalas). The names of only five such neighbourhoods are known today: Ali-pašina, Reis-efendijina, Jahja-pašina, Bajram-begova, and Laz Hadži-Mahmudova. [62] Following the Čukur Fountain incident, Belgrade was bombed by the Ottomans. [63]

Belgrade 1912 De Eerste Balkanoorlog 1912, SFA022816172.jpg
Belgrade 1912

On 18 April 1867, the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, which had been since 1826 the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from Kalemegdan. The forlorn Porte's only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event. [64] In the following years, urban planner Emilijan Josimović had a significant influence on Belgrade. He conceptualised a regulation plan for the city in 1867, in which he proposed the replacement of the town's crooked streets with a grid plan. Of great importance also was the construction of independent Serbian political and cultural institutions, as well as the city's now-plentiful parks. Pointing to Josimović's work, Serbian scholars have noted an important break with Ottoman traditions. However, Istanbul—the capital city of the state to which Belgrade and Serbia de jure still belonged—underwent similar changes. [65]

In May 1868, knez Mihailo was assassinated with his cousin Anka Konstantinović while riding in a carriage in his country residence. [66]

With the Principality's full independence in 1878 and its transformation into the Kingdom of Serbia in 1882, Belgrade once again became a key city in the Balkans, and developed rapidly. [57] [67] Nevertheless, conditions in Serbia remained those of an overwhelmingly agrarian country, even with the opening of a railway to Niš, Serbia's second city. In 1900, the capital had only 70,000 inhabitants [68] (at the time Serbia numbered 2.5 million). Still, by 1905, the population had grown to more than 80,000 and, by the outbreak of World War I in 1914, it had surpassed the 100,000 citizens, disregarding Zemun, which still belonged to Austria-Hungary. [69]

The first-ever projection of motion pictures in the Balkans and Central Europe was held in Belgrade in June 1896 by André Carr, a representative of the Lumière brothers. He shot the first motion pictures of Belgrade in the next year; however, they have not been preserved. [70] The first permanent cinema was opened in 1909 in Belgrade. [71]

World War I: Austro–German invasion

German Emperor Wilhelm II and German troops at the Kalemegdan Belgrade, during the Serbian Campaign of 1915. WilhelmII-Kalemegdan-Citadel-Belgrade1916.jpg
German Emperor Wilhelm II and German troops at the Kalemegdan Belgrade, during the Serbian Campaign of 1915.

The First World War began on 28 July 1914 when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Most of the subsequent Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade. Austro-Hungarian monitors shelled Belgrade on 29 July 1914, and it was taken by the Austro-Hungarian Army under General Oskar Potiorek on 30 November. On 15 December, it was re-taken by Serbian troops under Marshal Radomir Putnik. After a prolonged battle which destroyed much of the city, starting on 6 October 1915, Belgrade fell to German and Austro-Hungarian troops commanded by Field Marshal August von Mackensen on 9 October of the same year. The city was liberated by Serbian and French troops on 1 November 1918, under the command of Marshal Louis Franchet d'Espèrey of France and Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia. Belgrade, devastated as a front-line city, lost the title of largest city in the Kingdom to Subotica for some time. [72]

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

After the war, Belgrade became the capital of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. The Kingdom was split into banovinas and Belgrade, together with Zemun and Pančevo, formed a separate administrative unit. [73]

Belgrade City Courts Complex, 1930 Belgrade City Courts Complex c. 1930.jpg
Belgrade City Courts Complex, 1930

During this period, the city experienced fast growth and significant modernisation. Belgrade's population grew to 239,000 by 1931 (with the inclusion of Zemun), and to 320,000 by 1940. The population growth rate between 1921 and 1948 averaged 4.08% a year. [74]

In 1927, Belgrade's first airport opened, and in 1929, its first radio station began broadcasting. The Pančevo Bridge, which crosses the Danube, was opened in 1935, [75] while King Alexander Bridge over the Sava was opened in 1934. On 3 September 1939 the first Belgrade Grand Prix, the last Grand Prix motor racing race before the outbreak of World War II, was held around the Belgrade Fortress and was followed by 80,000 spectators. [76] The winner was Tazio Nuvolari. [77]

World War II: German invasion

On 25 March 1941, the government of regent Crown Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact, joining the Axis powers in an effort to stay out of the Second World War and keep Yugoslavia neutral during the conflict. This was immediately followed by mass protests in Belgrade and a military coup d'état led by Air Force commander General Dušan Simović, who proclaimed King Peter II to be of age to rule the realm. As a result, the city was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe on 6 April 1941, killing up to 2,274 people. [78] [79] [80] Yugoslavia was then invaded by German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces. Belgrade was captured by subterfuge, with six German soldiers led by their officer Fritz Klingenberg feigning threatening size, forcing the city to capitulate.

Ruins in Belgrade after German bombing of 1941. Bombing of Belgrade 1941.jpg
Ruins in Belgrade after German bombing of 1941.

[81] Belgrade was more directly occupied by the German Army in the same month and became the seat of the puppet Nedić regime, headed by its namesake general. [82] Some of today's parts of Belgrade were incorporated in the Independent State of Croatia in occupied Yugoslavia, another puppet state, where Ustashe regime carried out the Genocide of Serbs. [83]

During the summer and autumn of 1941, in reprisal for guerrilla attacks, the Germans carried out several massacres of Belgrade citizens; in particular, members of the Jewish community were subject to mass shootings at the order of General Franz Böhme, the German Military Governor of Serbia. Böhme rigorously enforced the rule that for every German killed, 100 Serbs or Jews would be shot. [84] Belgrade became the first city in Europe to be declared by the Nazi occupation forces to be judenfrei . [85] The resistance movement in Belgrade was led by Major Žarko Todorović from 1941 until his arrest in 1943. [86]

Just like Rotterdam, which was devastated twice by both German and Allied bombing, Belgrade was bombed once more during World War II, this time by the Allies on 16 April 1944, killing at least 1,100 people. This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter. [87] Most of the city remained under German occupation until 20 October 1944, when it was liberated by the Red Army and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans.

On 29 November 1945, Marshal Josip Broz Tito proclaimed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in Belgrade (later renamed to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 7 April 1963). [88]

Socialist Yugoslavia

The First Non-Aligned Movement Summit Conference took place in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in September 1961 Konferencija Pokreta nesvrstanih 1961. godine.jpg
The First Non-Aligned Movement Summit Conference took place in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in September 1961

When the war ended, the city was left with 11,500 demolished housing units. [89] During the post-war period, Belgrade grew rapidly as the capital of the renewed Yugoslavia, developing as a major industrial centre. [67]

In 1948, construction of New Belgrade started. In 1958, Belgrade's first television station began broadcasting. In 1961, Belgrade hosted the first and founding conference of the Non-Aligned Movement under Tito's chairmanship. [90] In 1962, Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport was built. In 1968, major student protests led to several street clashes between students and the police. [91]

In 1972, Belgrade faced smallpox outbreak, the last major outbreak of smallpox in Europe since World War II. [92] Between October 1977 and March 1978, the city hosted the first major gathering of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with the aim of implementing the Helsinki Accords from, while in 1980 Belgrade hosted the UNESCO General Conference. [93] Josip Broz Tito died in May 1980 and his funeral in Belgrade was attended by high officials and state delegations from 128 of the 154 members of the United Nations from all over the world, based on which it became one of the largest funerals in history. [94]

Breakup of Yugoslavia

Former Ministry of Defence building damaged in the 1999 NATO bombing Beograd - Zgrade Generalstaba Vojske Srbije i Crne Gore i Ministarstva odbrane (43221947840).jpg
Former Ministry of Defence building damaged in the 1999 NATO bombing

On 9 March 1991, massive demonstrations led by Vuk Drašković were held in the city against Slobodan Milošević. [95] According to various media outlets, there were between 100,000 and 150,000 people on the streets. [96] Two people were killed, 203 were injured and 108 were arrested during the protests, and later that day tanks were deployed onto the streets to restore order. [97] Many anti-war protests were held in Belgrade, with the largest protests being dedicated to solidarity with the victims from the besieged Sarajevo. [98] [99] Further anti-government protests were held in Belgrade from November 1996 to February 1997 against the same government after alleged electoral fraud in local elections. [100] These protests brought Zoran Đinđić to power, the first mayor of Belgrade since World War II who did not belong to the League of Communists of Yugoslavia or its later offshoot, the Socialist Party of Serbia. [101]

Belgrade Waterfront 2024. Beograd na vodi2.jpg
Belgrade Waterfront 2024.

In 1999, during the Kosovo War, NATO bombings caused severe damage to the city. Among the sites bombed were various ministry buildings, the RTS building, hospitals, Hotel Jugoslavija, the Central Committee building, Avala Tower, and the Chinese embassy. [102] Approximately 2,000 civilians were killed as a result of the NATO bombings. [103] After the Yugoslav Wars, Serbia became home to the highest number of refugees and internally displaced persons in Europe, with more than a third of these refugees having settled in Belgrade. [104] [105] [106] [107] After the 2000 presidential elections, Belgrade was the site of major public protests, with over half a million people taking part. These demonstrations resulted in the ousting of president Milošević as a part of the Otpor movement. [108] [109]

Development

Sava Square Main Railway Station Predrag Vuckovic.jpg
Sava Square

In 2014, Belgrade Waterfront, an urban renewal project, was initiated by the Government of Serbia and its Emirati partner, Eagle Hills Properties. Around €3.5 billion was to be jointly invested by the Serbian government and their Emirati partners. [110] [ needs update ] The project includes office and luxury apartment buildings, five-star hotels, a shopping mall and the envisioned 'Belgrade Tower'. The project is, however, quite controversial—there are a number of uncertainties regarding its funding, necessity, and its architecture's arguable lack of harmony with the rest of the city. [111]

In addition to Belgrade Waterfront, the city is under rapid development and reconstruction, especially in the area of Novi Beograd, where (as of 2020) apartment and office buildings were under construction to support the burgeoning Belgrade IT sector, now one of Serbia's largest economic players. In September 2020, there were around 2000 active construction sites in Belgrade. [112]

Geography

Topography

The confluence of the Sava into the Danube at Belgrade.jpg
The confluence of the Sava into the Danube at Belgrade. Pictured from Kalemegdan Fortress.

Belgrade lies 116.75 m (383.0 ft) above sea level and is located at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers. [13] The historical core of Belgrade, Kalemegdan, lies on the right banks of both rivers. Since the 19th century, the city has been expanding to the south and east; after World War II, New Belgrade was built on the left bank of the Sava river, connecting Belgrade with Zemun. Smaller, chiefly residential communities across the Danube, like Krnjača, Kotež and Borča, also merged with the city, while Pančevo, a heavily industrialised satellite city, remains separate. The city has an urban area of 360 km2 (140 sq mi), while together with its metropolitan area it covers 3,223 km2 (1,244 sq mi). [10]

On the right bank of the Sava, central Belgrade has a hilly terrain, while the highest point of Belgrade proper is Torlak hill at 303 m (994 ft). The mountains of Avala (511 m (1,677 ft)) and Kosmaj (628 m (2,060 ft)) lie south of the city. Across the Sava and Danube, the land is mostly flat, consisting of alluvial plains and loessial plateaus. [113]

(Left) Stari dvor town hall of city of Belgrade, (center) Parliament of Serbia and (right) Presidency of Serbia administrative building Novi dvor Stari i Novi dvor.jpg
(Left) Stari dvor town hall of city of Belgrade, (center) Parliament of Serbia and (right) Presidency of Serbia administrative building Novi dvor

One of the characteristics of the city terrain is mass wasting. On the territory covered by the General Urban Plan there are 1,155 recorded mass wasting points, out of which 602 are active and 248 are labeled as 'high risk'. They cover almost 30% of the city territory and include several types of mass wasting. Downhill creeps are located on the slopes above the rivers, mostly on the clay or loam soils, inclined between 7 and 20%. The most critical ones are in Karaburma, Zvezdara, Višnjica, Vinča and Ritopek, in the Danube valley, and Umka, and especially its neighbourhood of Duboko, in the Sava valley. They have moving and dormant phases, and some of them have been recorded for centuries. Less active downhill creep areas include the entire Terazije slope above the Sava (Kalemegdan, Savamala), which can be seen by the inclination of the Pobednik monument and the tower of the Cathedral Church, and the Voždovac section, between Banjica and Autokomanda.

Kneza Milosa Street, Government of Serbia administrative headquarter and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Serbia. Beograd - Zgrada Ministarstva Finansija Srbije (43221952450).jpg
Kneza Miloša Street, Government of Serbia administrative headquarter and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Serbia.

Landslides encompass smaller areas, develop on the steep cliffs, sometimes being inclined up to 90%. They are mostly located in the artificial loess hills of Zemun: Gardoš, Ćukovac and Kalvarija.

However, the majority of the land movement in Belgrade, some 90%, is triggered by the construction works and faulty water supply system (burst pipes, etc.). The neighbourhood of Mirijevo is considered to be the most successful project of fixing the problem. During the construction of the neighbourhood from the 1970s, the terrain was systematically improved and the movement of the land is today completely halted. [114] [115]

Climate

Belgrade Fair in the sunset. Belgrade Fair Hall 1 exterior night.jpg
Belgrade Fair in the sunset.

Under the Köppen climate classification, Belgrade has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) bordering on a humid continental climate (Dfa) with four seasons and uniformly spread precipitation. Monthly averages range from 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) in January to 23.0 °C (73.4 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.5 °C (54.5 °F). There are, on average, 44.6 days a year when the maximum temperature is at or above 30 °C (86 °F), [116] and 95 days when the temperature is above 25 °C (77 °F), On the other hand Belgrade experiences 52.1 days per year in which the minimum temperature falls below 0 °C (32 °F), with 13.8 days having a maximum temperature below freezing as well. [116] Belgrade receives about 691 mm (27 in) of precipitation a year, with late spring being wettest. The average annual number of sunny hours is 2,112.

Belgrade may experience thunderstorms at any time of the year, experiencing 31 days annually, but it's much more common in spring and summer months. Hail is rare and occurs exclusively in spring or summer. [116]

The highest officially recorded temperature in Belgrade was 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) on 24 July 2007, [117] while on the other end, the lowest temperature was −26.2 °C (−15 °F) on 10 January 1893. [118] The highest recorded value of daily precipitation was 109.8 millimetres (4.32 inches) in 15 May 2014. [116]

Climate data for Belgrade (1991–2020, extremes 1936–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.7
(69.3)
23.9
(75.0)
30.0
(86.0)
32.4
(90.3)
34.9
(94.8)
37.4
(99.3)
43.6
(110.5)
40.0
(104.0)
41.8
(107.2)
33.7
(92.7)
28.4
(83.1)
22.6
(72.7)
43.6
(110.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)5.2
(41.4)
7.8
(46.0)
13.1
(55.6)
18.9
(66.0)
23.6
(74.5)
27.1
(80.8)
29.3
(84.7)
29.7
(85.5)
24.3
(75.7)
18.7
(65.7)
12.2
(54.0)
6.1
(43.0)
18.0
(64.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.9
(35.4)
3.8
(38.8)
8.3
(46.9)
13.6
(56.5)
18.2
(64.8)
21.9
(71.4)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
18.5
(65.3)
13.3
(55.9)
8.1
(46.6)
3.0
(37.4)
13.2
(55.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)−0.7
(30.7)
0.6
(33.1)
4.2
(39.6)
8.8
(47.8)
13.2
(55.8)
16.7
(62.1)
18.4
(65.1)
18.5
(65.3)
14.1
(57.4)
9.4
(48.9)
5.1
(41.2)
0.5
(32.9)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F)−24.5
(−12.1)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−12.4
(9.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.4
(32.7)
4.6
(40.3)
8.3
(46.9)
6.7
(44.1)
0.6
(33.1)
−6.9
(19.6)
−8.3
(17.1)
−15.8
(3.6)
−24.5
(−12.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)47.9
(1.89)
43.5
(1.71)
48.7
(1.92)
51.5
(2.03)
72.3
(2.85)
95.6
(3.76)
66.5
(2.62)
55.1
(2.17)
58.6
(2.31)
54.8
(2.16)
49.6
(1.95)
54.8
(2.16)
698.9
(27.52)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)13.512.311.312.413.512.210.08.49.510.510.813.8138.2
Average snowy days9.77.34.20.70.00.00.00.00.00.13.07.832.8
Average relative humidity (%)77.971.462.759.961.962.559.859.565.871.475.179.567.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.796.2146.7186.7224.7253.9278.8262.6192.6155.092.160.32,020.3
Average ultraviolet index 1235788753214
Source 1: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia [119]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV), [120] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows) [121]

Average temperatures in Belgrade are rising and they are about 1 °C higher in last 15 years than in period from 1991-2020. Number of snow days and days with frost is decreasing, since there is no month with average lows below 0 °C.

Climate data for Belgrade, Serbia (2009.-2023.)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily maximum °C5.58.713.419.023.227.630.230.525.519.213.27.018.6
Daily mean °C2.95.49.214.118.422.724.924.920.414.89.94.614.3
Mean daily minimum °C0.32.15.09.313.517.719.519.415.410.36.62.210.1
Mean daily maximum °F41.947.756.166.273.881.786.486.977.966.655.844.665.5
Daily mean °F37.241.748.657.465.172.976.876.868.758.649.840.357.7
Mean daily minimum °F32.535.841.048.756.363.967.166.959.750.543.936.050.2
Source: "www.weatheronline.co.uk" . Retrieved 16 April 2024.

Administration

Belgrade is a separate territorial unit in Serbia, with its own autonomous city authority. [14] The Assembly of the City of Belgrade has 110 members, elected on four-year terms. [122] A 13-member City Council, elected by the Assembly and presided over by the mayor and his deputy, has the control and supervision of the city administration, [123] which manages day-to-day administrative affairs. It is divided into 14 Secretariats, each having a specific portfolio such as traffic or health care, and several professional services, agencies and institutes. [124]

The 2022 Belgrade City Assembly election was won by the Serbian Progressive Party, which formed a ruling coalition with the Socialist Party of Serbia. Between 2004 and 2013, the Democratic Party was in power. [125] Due to the importance of Belgrade in political and economic life of Serbia, the office of city's mayor is often described as the third most important office in the state, after the President of the Government and the President of the Republic. [126] [127] [128]

As the capital city, Belgrade is seat of all Serbian state authorities – executive, legislative, judiciary, and the headquarters of almost all national political parties as well as 75 diplomatic missions. [129] This includes the National Assembly, the Presidency, the Government of Serbia and all the ministries, Supreme Court of Cassation and the Constitutional Court.

Municipalities

View of Belgrade and bridges over the Sava river. Sava River and Gazela Bridge (Belgrade).jpg
View of Belgrade and bridges over the Sava river.
Monument to the Unknown Hero on the mountain Avala, Avala Tower and city of Belgrade in distance. DJI 0387-12.jpg
Monument to the Unknown Hero on the mountain Avala, Avala Tower and city of Belgrade in distance.

The city is divided into 17 municipalities. [130] Previously, they were classified into 10 urban (lying completely or partially within borders of the city proper) and 7 suburban municipalities, whose centres are smaller towns. [131] With the new 2010 City statute, they were all given equal status, with the proviso that suburban ones (except Surčin) have certain autonomous powers, chiefly related with construction, infrastructure and public utilities. [130]

Most of the municipalities are situated on the southern side of the Danube and Sava rivers, in the Šumadija region. Three municipalities (Zemun, Novi Beograd, and Surčin), are on the northern bank of the Sava in the Syrmia region and the municipality of Palilula, spanning the Danube, is in both the Šumadija and Banat regions.

Municipalities of Belgrade map Belgrade municipalities02.png
Municipalities of Belgrade map
MunicipalityClassificationArea (km2)Population (census 2022)Population density (per km2)
Barajevo suburban213.1026,431110
Čukarica urban156.99175,7931,120
Grocka suburban299.5582,810276
Lazarevac suburban383.5155,146144
Mladenovac suburban33948,683144
Novi Beograd urban40.71209,7635,153
Obrenovac suburban410.1468,882168
Palilula urban450.59182,624405
Rakovica urban30.11104,4563,469
Savski Venac urban14.0636,6992,610
Sopot suburban270.7119,12671
Stari Grad urban5.4044,7378,285
Surčin urban288.4745,452158
Voždovac urban148.52174,8641,177
Vračar urban2.8755,40619,305
Zemun urban149.74177,9081,188
Zvezdara urban31.49172,6255,482
Total3,234.961,681,405520
Source: Sector for statistics, Belgrade [2]

Demographics

Belgrade oblast population pyramid in 2021 Belgrade oblast population pyramid in 2021.svg
Belgrade oblast population pyramid in 2021

According to the 2022 census, the statistical city proper has a population of 1,197,714, the urban area (with adjacent urban settlements like Borča, Ovča, Surčin, etc.) has 1,383,875 inhabitants, while the population of the administrative area of the City of Belgrade (often equated with Belgrade's metropolitan area) stands at 1,681,405 people. However, Belgrade's metropolitan area has not been defined, either statistically or administratively, and it sprawls into the neighboring municipalities like Pančevo, Opovo, Pećinci or Stara Pazova.

Belgrade is home to many ethnicities from across the former Yugoslavia and the wider Balkans region. The main ethnic group comprising over 86% of the metropolitan population of Belgrade are Serbs (1,449,241). Some significant minorities include Roma (23,160), Yugoslavs (10,499), Gorani (5,249), Montenegrins (5,134), Russians (4,659), Croats (4,554), Macedonians (4,293), and ethnic Muslims (2,718). [132] Many people came to the city as economic migrants from smaller towns and the countryside, while tens of thousands arrived as refugees from Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, as a result of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s. [133] The most recent wave of immigration following the Russian invasion of Ukraine saw tens of thousands of Russians and Ukrainians register their residence in Serbia, majority of them in Belgrade. [134]

Between 10,000 and 20,000 [135] Chinese people are estimated to live in Belgrade and, since their arrival in the mid-1990s, Block 70 in New Belgrade has been known colloquially as the Chinese quarter. [136] [137] Many Middle Easterners, mainly from Syria, Iran, Jordan and Iraq, arrived in order to pursue their studies during the 1970s and 1980s, and have remained in the city. [138] Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, small communities of Aromanians, Czechs, Greeks, Germans, Hungarians, Jews, Turks, Armenians and Russian White émigrés also existed in Belgrade. There are two suburban settlements with significant minority population today: Ovča and the village of Boljevci, both with about one quarter of their population being Romanians and Slovaks, respectively.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
142650,000    
1683100,000+0.27%
180025,000−1.18%
18347,033−3.66%
185918,860+4.02%
186314,760−5.94%
186624,768+18.83%
187427,605+1.36%
188435,483+2.54%
189054,763+7.50%
189559,790+1.77%
190068,481+2.75%
190577,235+2.44%
191082,498+1.33%
1921111,739+2.80%
1931238,775+7.89%
1948397,911+3.05%
1953477,982+3.73%
1961657,362+4.06%
1971899,094+3.18%
19811,087,915+1.92%
19911,133,146+0.41%
20021,119,642−0.11%
20111,166,763+0.46%
20221,197,714+0.24%
Source: 1426-1683 data; [139] 1800 data; [140] 1834-1931 [141]
SettlementsPopulation
[142]
Belgrade1,197,714
Borča 51,862
Kaluđerica 28,483
Lazarevac 27,635
Obrenovac 25,380
Mladenovac 22,346
Surčin 20,602
Sremčica 19,434
Ugrinovci 11,859
Leštane 10,454
Ripanj 10,084

Although there are several historic religious communities in Belgrade, the religious makeup of the city is relatively homogeneous. The Serbian Orthodox community is by far the largest, with 1,475,168 adherents. There are also 31,914 Muslims, 13,720 Roman Catholics, and 3,128 Protestants.

There once was a significant Jewish community in Belgrade but, following the World War II Nazi occupation of the city and subsequent Jewish emigration, their numbers have fallen from over 10,000 to just 295. [143] Belgrade also used to have one of the largest Buddhist colonies in Europe outside Russia when some 400 mostly Buddhist Kalmyks settled on the outskirts of Belgrade following the Russian Civil War. The first Buddhist temple in Europe was built in Belgrade in 1929. Most of them moved away after the World War II and their temple, Belgrade pagoda, was abandoned, claimed by the new Communist regime and eventually demolished. [144]

Economy

Serbian Railways headquarters in Belgrade Zgrada Ministarstva saobracaja u Beogradu 2006.jpg
Serbian Railways headquarters in Belgrade

Belgrade is the financial centre of Serbia and Southeast Europe, with a total of 17×10^6 m2 (180×10^6 sq ft) of office space. [145] It is also home to the country's Central Bank. 750,550 people are employed (July 2020) [146] in 120,286 companies, [147] 76,307 enterprises and 50,000 shops. [146] [148] The City of Belgrade itself owns 267,147 m2 (2,875,550 sq ft) of rentable office space. [149] As of 2019, Belgrade contained 31.4% of Serbia's employed population and generated over 40.4% of its GDP. [150] [151] [152] City GDP in 2023 at purchasing power parity is estimated at $73 bn USD, which is $43,400 per capita in terms of purchasing power parity. Nominal GDP in 2023 is estimated at $ 31.5 bn USD, which is $ 18.700 per capita. [153]

New Belgrade is the country's Central business district and one of Southeastern Europe's financial centres. It offers a range of facilities, such as hotels, congress halls (e.g. Sava Centar), Class A and B office buildings, and business parks (e.g. Airport City Belgrade). Over 1.2×10^6 m2 (13×10^6 sq ft) of land is under construction in New Belgrade, with the value of planned construction over the next three years estimated at over 1.5 billion euros. The Belgrade Stock Exchange is also located in New Belgrade, and has a market capitalisation of €6.5 billion (US$7.1 billion).

With 6,924 companies in the IT sector (according to 2013 data), Belgrade is one of the foremost information technology hubs in Southeast Europe. [147] Microsoft's Development Center Serbia, located in Belgrade, was, at the time of its establishment, the fifth such programme on the globe. [154] Many global IT companies choose Belgrade as their European or regional centre of operations, such as Asus, [155] Intel, [156] Dell, [157] Huawei, Nutanix, [158] NCR etc. [159] The most famous Belgrade IT startups, among others, are Nordeus, ComTrade Group, MicroE, FishingBooker, and Endava. IT facilities in the city include the Mihajlo Pupin Institute and the ILR, [160] as well as the brand-new IT Park Zvezdara. [161] Many prominent IT innovators began their careers in Belgrade, including Voja Antonić and Veselin Jevrosimović.

In December 2021, the average Belgrade monthly net salary stood at 94,463 RSD ($946) in net terms, with the gross equivalent at 128,509 RSD ($1288), while in New Belgrade CBD is Euros 1,059. [162] 88% of the city's households owned a computer, 89% had a broadband internet connection and 93% had pay television services. [163]

According to Cushman & Wakefield, Knez Mihajlova street is 36th most expensive retail street in the world in terms of renting commercial space. [164]

Culture

Republic Square, Left: National Museum of Serbia - Centre: Hotel Marriott Belgrade - Right: National Theatre. Republic Square (27420599076).jpg
Republic Square, Left: National Museum of Serbia – Centre: Hotel Marriott Belgrade – Right: National Theatre.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, national learned society founded in 1841 KnezMihailova ped.jpg
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, national learned society founded in 1841

According to the BBC, Belgrade is one of the five most creative cities in the world. [165] Belgrade hosts many annual international cultural events, including the Film Festival, Theatre Festival, Summer Festival, BEMUS, Belgrade Early Music Festival, Book Fair, Belgrade Choir Festival, Eurovision Song Contest 2008, and the Beer Fest. [166] In 2022 Belgrade was also home to the Europride event, even though the president Aleksandar Vučić tried to cancel it. [167] The Nobel Prize winning author Ivo Andrić wrote his most famous work, The Bridge on the Drina , in Belgrade. [168] Other prominent Belgrade authors include Branislav Nušić, Miloš Crnjanski, Borislav Pekić, Milorad Pavić and Meša Selimović. [169] [170] [171] The most internationally prominent artists from Belgrade are Charles Simic, Marina Abramović and Milovan Destil Marković.

Most of Serbia's film industry is based in Belgrade. FEST is an annual film festival that held since 1971, and, through 2013, had been attended by four million people and had presented almost 4,000 films. [172]

The city was one of the main centres of the Yugoslav new wave in the 1980s: VIS Idoli, Ekatarina Velika, Šarlo Akrobata and Električni Orgazam were all from Belgrade. Other notable Belgrade rock acts include Riblja Čorba, Bajaga i Instruktori and Partibrejkers. [173] [174] Today, it is the centre of the Serbian hip hop scene, with acts such as Beogradski Sindikat, Bad Copy, Škabo, Marčelo, and most of the Bassivity Music stable hailing from or living in the city. [175] [176] There are numerous theatres, the most prominent of which are National Theatre, Theatre on Terazije, Yugoslav Drama Theatre, Zvezdara Theatre, and Atelier 212. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is also based in Belgrade, as well as the National Library of Serbia. Other major libraries include the Belgrade City Library and the Belgrade University Library. Belgrade's two opera houses are: National Theatre and Madlenianum Opera House. [177] [178] Following the victory of Serbia's representative Marija Šerifović at the Eurovision Song Contest 2007, Belgrade hosted the Contest in 2008. [179]

There is more than 1650 public sculptures on the territory of Belgrade. [180] [181]

Museums

National Museum of Serbia National Museum of Serbia (DSC04610).jpg
National Museum of Serbia

The most prominent museum in Belgrade is the National Museum, founded in 1844 and reconstructed from 2003 until June 2018. The museum houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits (over 5600 paintings and 8400 drawings and prints, including many foreign masters like Bosch, Juan de Flandes, Titian, Tintoretto, Rubens, Cézanne, G.B. Tiepolo, Renoir, Monet, Lautrec, Matisse, Picasso, Gauguin, Chagall, Van Gogh, Mondrian etc.) and also the famous Miroslav's Gospel. [182] The Ethnographic Museum, established in 1901, contains more than 150,000 items showcasing the rural and urban culture of the Balkans, particularly the countries of former Yugoslavia. [183]

The Museum of Contemporary Art was the first contemporary art museum in Yugoslavia and one of the first museums of this type in the world. [184] Following its foundation in 1965, has amassed a collection of more than 8,000 works from art produced across the former Yugoslavia. [185] The museum was closed in 2007, but has since been reopened in 2017 to focus on the modern as well as on the Yugoslav art scenes. [186] Artist Marina Abramović, who was born in Belgrade, held an exhibition in the Museum of Contemporary Art, which the New York Times described as one of the most important cultural happenings in the world in 2019. [187] [188] The exhibition was seen by almost 100,000 visitors. Marina Abramović made a stage speech and performance in front of 20,000 people. [189] In the heart of Belgrade you can also find the Museum of Applied Arts, a museum that has been awarded for the Institution of the Year 2016 by ICOM. [190]

Museum of Contemporary Art Muzej savremene umetnosti, Park Ushtshe, Novi Beograd 06.jpg
Museum of Contemporary Art

The Military Museum, established in 1878 in Kalemegdan, houses a wide range of more than 25,000 military objects dating from the prehistoric to the medieval to the modern eras. Notable items include Turkish and oriental arms, national banners, and Yugoslav Partisan regalia. [191] [192]

The Museum of Aviation in Belgrade located near Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport has more than 200 aircraft, of which about 50 are on display, and a few of which are the only surviving examples of their type, such as the Fiat G.50. This museum also displays parts of shot down US and NATO aircraft, such as the F-117 and F-16. [193]

The Nikola Tesla Museum, founded in 1952, preserves the personal items of Nikola Tesla, the inventor after whom the Tesla unit was named. It holds around 160,000 original documents and around 5,700 personal other items including his urn. [194] The last of the major Belgrade museums is the Museum of Vuk and Dositej, which showcases the lives, work and legacy of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and Dositej Obradović, the 19th century reformer of the Serbian literary language and the first Serbian Minister of Education, respectively. [195] Belgrade also houses the Museum of African Art, founded in 1977, which has a large collection of art from West Africa. [196]

With around 95,000 copies of national and international films, the Yugoslav Film Archive is the largest in the region and among the 10 largest archives in the world. [197] The institution also operates the Museum of Yugoslav Film Archive, with movie theatre and exhibition hall. The archive's long-standing storage problems were finally solved in 2007, when a new modern depository was opened. [198] The Yugoslav Film Archive also exhibits original Charlie Chaplin's stick and one of the first movies by Auguste and Louis Lumière. [199]

Palace of Serbia, one of Belgrade's most impressive buildings from the communist era . Palace of Serbia.jpg
Palace of Serbia, one of Belgrade's most impressive buildings from the communist era .
New Belgrade, a large purpose-built residential district with examples of communist brutalist architecture built after the Second World War. Bezanijski Blokovi EDIT.jpg
New Belgrade, a large purpose-built residential district with examples of communist brutalist architecture built after the Second World War.

The Belgrade City Museum moved into a new building in downtown in 2006. [200] The museum hosts a range of collections covering the history of urban life since prehistory. [201] The Museum of Yugoslav History has collections from the Yugoslav era. Beside paintings, the most valuable are Moon rocks donated by Apollo 11 crew Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins while visiting Belgrade in 1969 and from mission Apollo 17 donated by Richard Nixon in 1971. [202] Museum also houses Joseph Stalin's sabre with 260 brilliants and diamonds, donated by Stalin himself. [203] Museum of Science and Technology moved to the building of the first city's power plant in Dorćol in 2005. [204]

Architecture

House of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia Skupstina Belgrade 3.JPG
House of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia
Russian Czar Tavern Fsnydsrasssv.jpg
Russian Czar Tavern

Belgrade has wildly varying architecture, from the centre of Zemun, typical of a Central European town, [205] to the more modern architecture and spacious layout of New Belgrade.

The oldest architecture is found in Kalemegdan Park. Outside of Kalemegdan, the oldest buildings date only from the 18th century, due to its geographic position and frequent wars and destructions. [206]

Kalemegdan Crkva Ruzica Kalemegdan.jpg
Kalemegdan

The oldest public structure in Belgrade is a nondescript Turkish türbe, while the oldest house is a modest clay house on Dorćol, from late 18th century. [207] Western influence began in the 19th century, when the city completely transformed from an oriental town to the contemporary architecture of the time, with influences from neoclassicism, romanticism, and academic art. Serbian architects took over the development from the foreign builders in the late 19th century, producing the National Theatre, Old Palace, Cathedral Church and later, in the early 20th century, the National Assembly and National Museum, influenced by art nouveau. [206] Elements of Serbo-Byzantine Revival are present in buildings such as House of Vuk's Foundation, old Post Office in Kosovska street, and sacral architecture, such as St. Mark's Church (based on the Gračanica monastery), and the Temple of Saint Sava. [206]

Panoramic of Vracar plateau with Saint Sava Cathedral and National Library of Serbia DJI 0807-12.jpg
Panoramic of Vračar plateau with Saint Sava Cathedral and National Library of Serbia

In the socialist period, housing was built quickly and cheaply for the huge influx of people fleeing the countryside following World War II, sometimes resulting in the brutalist architecture of the blokovi ('blocks') of New Belgrade; a socrealism trend briefly ruled, resulting in buildings like the Trade Union Hall. [206] However, in the mid-1950s, modernist trends took over, and still dominate the Belgrade architecture. [206] Belgrade has the second oldest sewer system in Europe. [208] The Clinical Centre of Serbia spreads over 34 hectares and consists of about 50 buildings, while also has 3,150 beds considered to be the highest number in Europe, [209] and among highest in the world. [210]

Tourism

Lying on the main artery connecting Europe and Asia, as well as, eventually, the Orient Express, Belgrade has been a popular place for travellers through the centuries. In 1843, on Dubrovačka Street (today Kralj Petar Street ), Serbia's knez Mihailo Obrenović built a large edifice which became the first hotel in Belgrade: Kod jelena ('at the deer's'), in the neighbourhood of Kosančićev Venac. Many criticised the move at the time due to the cost and the size of the building, and it soon became the gathering point of the Principality's wealthiest citizens. Colloquially, the building was also referred to as the staro zdanje, or the 'old edifice'. It remained a hotel until 1903 before being demolished in 1938. [211] [212] After the staro zdanje, numerous hotels were built in the second half of the 19th century: Nacional and Grand, also in Kosančićev Venac, Srpski Kralj, Srpska Kruna, Grčka Kraljica near Kalemegdan, Balkan and Pariz in Terazije, London , etc. [213]

Jevremovac Botanical Garden Botanicka basta Jevremovac, Beograd - Japanski vrt 07.jpg
Jevremovac Botanical Garden

As Belgrade became connected via steamboats and railway (after 1884), the number of visitors grew and new hotels were open with the ever luxurious commodities. In Savamala, the hotels Bosna and Bristol were opened. Other hotels included Solun and Orient, which was built near the Financial Park. Tourists which arrived by the Orient Express mostly stayed at the Petrograd Hotel in Wilson Square. Hotel Srpski Kralj, at the corner of Uzun Mirkova and Pariska Street was considered the best hotel in Belgrade during the Interbellum. It was destroyed during World War II. [213]

The historic areas and buildings of Belgrade are among the city's premier attractions. They include Skadarlija, the National Museum and adjacent National Theatre, Zemun, Nikola Pašić Square, Terazije, Students' Square, the Kalemegdan Fortress, Knez Mihailova Street, the Parliament, the Church of Saint Sava, and the Old Palace. On top of this, there are many parks, monuments, museums, cafés, restaurants and shops on both sides of the river. The hilltop Avala Monument and Avala Tower offer views over the city. According to The Guardian, Dorcol is the one of top ten coolest suburbs and in Europe. [214] Elite neighbourhood of Dedinje is situated near the Topčider and Košutnjak parks. The Beli dvor (White Palace), house of royal family Karađorđević, is open for visitors. The palace has many valuable artworks. [215] Nearby, Josip Broz Tito's mausoleum, called The House of Flowers , documents the life of the former Yugoslav president.

Ada Ciganlija is a former island on the Sava River, and Belgrade's biggest sports and recreational complex. Today it is connected with the right bank of the Sava via two causeways, creating an artificial lake. It is the most popular destination for Belgraders during the city's hot summers. There are 7 km (4 mi) of long beaches and sports facilities for various sports including golf, football, basketball, volleyball, rugby union, baseball, and tennis. [216] During summer there are between 200,000 and 300,000 bathers daily. [217]

The view of Kosancicev Venac. From the left to right: St. Michael's Cathedral, Serbian Orthodox Church Patriarchate building and Austrian embassy. Vue depuis Forteresse Kalemegdan.jpg
The view of Kosančićev Venac. From the left to right: St. Michael's Cathedral, Serbian Orthodox Church Patriarchate building and Austrian embassy.
Skadarlija, the city's old bohemian neighbourhood. Skadarlija-Beograd - panoramio - Dragan Jankovic Faza....jpg
Skadarlija, the city's old bohemian neighbourhood.

Extreme sports are available, such as bungee jumping, water skiing, and paintballing. [216] [218] There are numerous tracks on the island, where it is possible to ride a bike, go for a walk, or go jogging. [216] [218] Apart from Ada, Belgrade has total of 16 islands [219] on the rivers, many still unused. Among them, the Great War Island, at the confluence of Sava, stands out as an oasis of unshattered wildlife (especially birds). [220] These areas, along with nearby Small War Island, are protected by the city's government as a nature preserve. [221] There are 37 protected natural resources in the Belgrade urban area, among which eight are geo-heritage sites, i.e. Straževica profile, Mašin Majdan-Topčider, Profile at the Kalemegdan Fortress, Abandoned quarry in Barajevo, Karagača valley, Artesian well in Ovča, Kapela loess profile, and Lake in Sremčica. Other 29 places are biodiversity sites. [222]

Tourist income in 2016 amounted to nearly one billion euros; [223] with a visit of almost a million registered tourists. [224] Of those, in 2019 more than 100,000 tourists arrived by 742 river cruisers. [224] [225] Average annual growth is between 13% and 14%. [224]

As of 2018, there are three officially designated camp grounds in Belgrade. The oldest one is located in Batajnica, along the Batajnica Road. Named "Dunav", it is one of the most visited campsites in the country. Second one is situated within the complex of the ethno-household "Zornić's House" in the village of Baćevac, while the third is located in Ripanj, on the slopes of the Avala mountain. In 2017 some 15,000 overnights were recorded in camps. [226]

Belgrade is a common stop on the Rivers Route, European cycling route known as "Danube Bike Trail" in Serbia as well as on the Sultans Trail, a long-distance hiking footpath between Vienna and Istanbul.

Nightlife

Belgrade has a reputation for vibrant nightlife; many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. [227] The most recognisable nightlife features of Belgrade are the barges (splav) spread along the banks of the Sava and Danube Rivers. [228] [229] [230]

Belgrade nightlife Belgrade nightlife on riverclubs.jpg
Belgrade nightlife

Many weekend visitors—particularly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia—prefer Belgrade nightlife to that of their own capitals due to its perceived friendly atmosphere, plentiful clubs and bars, cheap drinks, lack of significant language barriers, and a lack of night life regulation. [231] [232] One of the most famous sites for alternative cultural happenings in the city is the SKC (Student Cultural Centre), located right across from Belgrade's highrise landmark, the Belgrade Palace tower. Concerts featuring famous local and foreign bands are often held at the centre. SKC is also the site of various art exhibitions, as well as public debates and discussions. [233]

A more traditional Serbian nightlife experience, accompanied by traditional music known as Starogradska (roughly translated as Old Town Music), typical of northern Serbia's urban environments, is most prominent in Skadarlija, the city's old bohemian neighbourhood where the poets and artists of Belgrade gathered in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Skadar Street (the centre of Skadarlija) and the surrounding neighbourhood are lined with some of Belgrade's best and oldest traditional restaurants (called kafanas in Serbian), which date back to that period. [234] At one end of the neighbourhood stands Belgrade's oldest beer brewery, founded in the first half of the 19th century. [235] One of the city's oldest kafanas is the Znak pitanja ('?'). [236]

The Times reported that Europe's best nightlife can be found in Belgrade. [237] In the Lonely Planet 1000 Ultimate Experiences guide of 2009, Belgrade was placed at the 1st spot among the top 10 party cities in the world. [238]

Sport and recreation

Ada Ciganlija Ada Ciganlija lake.jpg
Ada Ciganlija

There are approximately one-thousand sports facilities in Belgrade, many of which are capable of serving all levels of sporting events. [239]

Ada Ciganlija island, lake and beaches are one of the most important recreational areas in the city. With total of 8 km beaches, with lot of bars, caffe's, restaurants and sport facilities, Ada Ciganlija attracts many visitors especially in summertime.

Košutnjak park forest with numerous running and bike trails, sport facilities for all sports with indoor and outdoor pools is also very popular. Located only 2 km from Ada Ciganlija.

Rajko Mitic Stadium Fk Red Star stadium.jpg
Rajko Mitić Stadium
Belgrade Arena 2022-23 ABA League, Game 5 Partizan - Crvena Zvezda.jpg
Belgrade Arena

During the 60s and 70s Belgrade held a number of major international events such as the first ever World Aquatics Championships in 1973, 1976 European Football Championship and 1973 European Cup Final, European Athletics Championships in 1962 and European Indoor Games in 1969, European Basketball Championships in 1961 and 1975, European Volleyball Championship for men and women in 1975 and World Amateur Boxing Championships in 1978.

Since the early 2000s Belgrade again hosts major sporting events nearly every year. Some of these include EuroBasket 2005, European Handball Championship (men's and women's) in 2012, World Handball Championship for women in 2013, European Volleyball Championships for men in 2005 for men and 2011 for women, the 2006 and 2016 European Water Polo Championship, the European Youth Olympic Festival 2007 and the 2009 Summer Universiade. [240] More recently, Belgrade hosted European Athletics Indoor Championships in 2017 and the basketball EuroLeague Final Four tournaments in 2018 and 2022. Global and continental championships in other sports such as tennis, futsal, judo, karate, wrestling, rowing, kickboxing, table tennis, and chess have also been held in recent years.

The city is home to Serbia's two biggest and most successful football clubs, Red Star Belgrade and Partizan Belgrade. Red Star won the UEFA Champions League (European Cup) in 1991, and Partizan was runner-up in 1966. The two major stadiums in Belgrade are the Marakana (Red Star Stadium) and the Partizan Stadium. [241] The Eternal derby is between Red Star and Partizan.

Štark Arena with capacity of 19,384 spectators is one of the largest indoor arenas in Europe. [242] It is used for major sporting events and large concerts. In May 2008 it was the venue for the 53rd Eurovision Song Contest. [243] The Aleksandar Nikolić Hall is the main venue of basketball clubs KK Partizan, European champion of 1992, and KK Crvena zvezda. [244] [245] In recent years, Belgrade has also given rise to several world-class tennis players such as Ana Ivanovic, Jelena Janković and Novak Djokovic. Ivanovic and Djokovic are the first female and male Belgraders, respectively, to win Grand Slam singles titles and been ATP number 1 with Jelena Janković. The Serbian national team won the 2010 Davis Cup, beating the French team in the finals played in the Belgrade Arena. [246]

Belgrade Marathon is held annually since 1988. Belgrade was a candidate to host 1992 and 1996 Summer Olympic Games.

Fashion and design

Since 1996, [247] semiannual (autumn/winter and spring/summer seasons) fashion weeks are held citywide. Numerous Serbian and foreign designers and fashion brands have their shows during Belgrade Fashion Week. The festival, which collaborates with London Fashion Week, has helped launch the international careers of local talents such as George Styler and Ana Ljubinković. British fashion designer Roksanda Ilincic, who was born in the city, also frequently presents her runway shows in Belgrade.

In addition to fashion, there are two major design shows held in Belgrade every year which attract international architects and industrial designers such as Karim Rashid, Daniel Libeskind, Patricia Urquiola, and Konstantin Grcic. Both the Mikser Festival and Belgrade Design Week feature lectures, exhibits and competitions. Furthermore, international designers like Sacha Lakic, Ana Kraš, Bojana Sentaler, and Marek Djordjevic are originally from Belgrade.

Media

Belgrade is the most important media hub in Serbia. The city is home to the main headquarters of the national broadcaster Radio Television Serbia (RTS), which is a public service broadcaster. [248] The most popular commercial broadcaster is RTV Pink, a Serbian media multinational, known for its popular entertainment programmes. One of the most popular commercial broadcasters is B92, another media company, which has its own TV station, radio station, and music and book publishing arms, as well as the most popular website on the Serbian internet. [249] [250] Other TV stations broadcasting from Belgrade include 1Prva (formerly Fox televizija), Nova, N1 and others which only cover the greater Belgrade municipal area, such as Studio B.

High-circulation daily newspapers published in Belgrade include Politika , Blic , Alo! , Kurir and Danas . There are two sporting dailies, Sportski žurnal and Sport , and one economic daily, Privredni pregled . A new free distribution daily, 24 sata , was founded in the autumn of 2006. Also, Serbian editions of licensed magazines such as Harper's Bazaar , Elle , Cosmopolitan , National Geographic , Men's Health , Grazia and others have their headquarters in the city.

Education

Administration and governance building of the University of Belgrade Kapetan Misino Zdanje zgrada.JPG
Administration and governance building of the University of Belgrade

Belgrade has two state universities and several private institutions of higher education. The University of Belgrade, founded in 1808 as a grande école, is the oldest institution of higher learning in Serbia. [251] Having developed with much of the rest of the city in the 19th century, several university buildings are recognised as forming a constituent part of Belgrade's architecture and cultural heritage. With enrolment numbers of nearly 90,000 students, the university is one of Europe's largest. [252]

The city is also home to 195 primary (elementary) schools and 85 secondary schools. The primary school system has 162 regular schools, 14 special schools, 15 art schools, and 4 adult schools, while the secondary school system has 51 vocational schools, 21 gymnasiums, 8 art schools and 5 special schools. The 230,000 pupils are managed by 22,000 employees in over 500 buildings, covering around 1.1×10^6 m2 (12×10^6 sq ft). [253]

Transportation

Vukov Spomenik underground railway station Vukov spomenik Pavle Cikova.jpg
Vukov Spomenik underground railway station
The logo for the company GSP Logo.svg
The logo for the company
Trams in Belgrade CAF Tram Belgrade.jpg
Trams in Belgrade

Belgrade has an extensive public transport system consisting of buses (118 urban lines and more than 300 suburban lines), trams (12 lines), trolleybuses (8 lines) and S-Train BG Voz (6 lines). [254] [255] Buses, trolleybuses and trams are run by GSP Beograd and SP Lasta in cooperation with private companies on some bus routes. The S-train network, BG Voz, run by city government in cooperation with Serbian Railways, is a part of the integrated transport system, and has three lines (Batajnica-Ovča and Ovča-Resnik and Belgrade centre-Mladenovac), with more announced. [256] [257] As of 27 February 2024 tickets may be purchased either via SMS or in physical paper form via the Beograd plus (Serbian Cyrillic : Београд плус) system. [258] Daily connections link the capital to other towns in Serbia and many other European destinations through the city's central bus station.

Beovoz was the suburban/commuter railway network that provided mass-transit services in the city, similar to Paris's RER and Toronto's GO Transit. The main usage of system was to connect the suburbs with the city centre. Beovoz was operated by Serbian Railways. [259] However, this system was abolished back in 2013, mostly due to introduction of more efficient BG Voz. Belgrade is one of the last big European capitals and cities with over a million people to have no metro or subway or other rapid transit system. As of November 2021, Belgrade Metro is currently under construction, which will have 2 lines. The first line is expected to be operational by August 2028. [260] [261]

The new Belgrade Centre railway station is the hub for almost all the national and international trains.

The high-speed rail that connects Belgrade with Novi Sad started its service at 19 March 2022. [262] The extension towards Subotica and Budapest is under construction, [263] and there are plans for southwards extension towards Niš and North Macedonia. [264] The city is placed along the Pan-European corridors X and VII. [9] The motorway system provides for easy access to Novi Sad and Budapest to the north, Niš to the south, and Zagreb to the west. Expressway is also toward Pančevo and new Expressway construction toward Obrenovac (Montenegro) is scheduled for March 2017. Belgrade bypass is connecting the E70 and E75 motorways and is under construction. [265]

Situated at the confluence of two major rivers, the Danube and the Sava, Belgrade has 11 bridges, the most important of which are Branko's bridge, the Ada Bridge, Pupin Bridge and the Gazela Bridge, the last two of which connect the core of the city to New Belgrade. In addition, an 'inner magistral semi-ring' is almost done and include a new Ada Bridge across the Sava river and a new Pupin Bridge across Danube river, which eased commuting within the city and unload the Gazela and Branko's bridge traffic. [266]

The Port of Belgrade is on the Danube, and allows the city to receive goods by river. [267] The city is also served by Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, 12 km (7.5 mi) west of the city centre, near Surčin. At its peak in 1986, almost 3 million passengers travelled through the airport, though that number dwindled to a trickle in the 1990s. [268] Following renewed growth in 2000, the number of passengers reached approximately 2 million in 2004 and 2005, [269] over 2.6 million passengers in 2008, [270] reaching over 3 million passengers. [271] A record with over 4 million passengers was broken in 2014, when Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport became the second fastest growing major airport in Europe. [272] The numbers continued to grow steadily and the all-time peak of over 6 million passengers was reached in 2019. [273]

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Because of the heroic strength of its defenders, French marshal Louis Franchet d'Esperey decorated Belgrade with the Legion of Honor in 1920. Chevalier legion d'honneur 2.png
Because of the heroic strength of its defenders, French marshal Louis Franchet d'Espèrey decorated Belgrade with the Legion of Honor in 1920.

List of Belgrade's sister and twin cities: [274]

Partner cities

Other friendships and cooperations, protocols, memorandums: [274]

  • Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 2018, Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation
  • Flag of Morocco.svg Rabat, Morocco, since 2017, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement
  • Flag of South Korea.svg Seoul, South Korea, since 2017, Memorandum of Understanding on Friendly Exchanges and Cooperation
  • Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Astana, Kazakhstan, since 2016, Agreement on Cooperation [283]
  • Flag of Iran.svg Tehran, Iran, since 2016, Agreement on Cooperation [284]
  • Flag of Greece.svg Corfu, Greece, since 2010, Protocol on Cooperation
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shenzhen, China, since 2009, Agreement on Cooperation [285]
  • Flag of Croatia.svg Zagreb, Croatia, since 2003, Letter of Intent
  • Flag of Ukraine.svg Kyiv, Ukraine, since 2002, Agreement on Cooperation
  • Flag of Algeria.svg Algiers, Algeria, since 1991 declaration of mutual interests
  • Flag of Israel.svg Tel Aviv, Israel, since 1990, Agreement on Cooperation
  • Flag of Romania.svg Bucharest, Romania, since 1999, Agreement on Cooperation
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Beijing, China, since 1980, Agreement on Cooperation [286]
  • Flag of Italy.svg Rome, Italy, since 1971, Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation
  • Flag of Greece.svg Athens, Greece, since 1966, Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation

Some of the city's municipalities are also twinned to small cities or districts of other big cities; for details see their respective articles.

Belgrade has received various domestic and international honours, including the French Légion d'honneur (proclaimed 21 December 1920; Belgrade is one of four cities outside France, alongside Liège, Luxembourg and Volgograd, to receive this honour), the Czechoslovak War Cross (awarded 8 October 1925), the Yugoslavian Order of the Karađorđe's Star (awarded 18 May 1939) and the Yugoslavian Order of the People's Hero (proclaimed on 20 October 1974, the 30th anniversary of the overthrow of Nazi German occupation during World War II). [287] All of these decorations were received for the war efforts during World War I and World War II. [288] In 2006, Financial Times' magazine Foreign Direct Investment awarded Belgrade the title of City of the Future of Southern Europe. [289] [290]

See also

Notes

  1. also US: /bɛlˈɡrɑːd,-ˈɡræd/ bel-GRAHD, -GRAD, /ˈbɛlɡrɑːd,-ɡræd/ BEL-grahd, -grad [7] [8]
  2. /bɛlˈɡrd/ bel-GRAYD, /ˈbɛlɡrd/ BEL-grayd; [lower-alpha 1] Serbian: Београд / Beograd, lit. 'White City', pronounced [beǒɡrad] ; names in other languages
  1. Yugoslavia itself actually collapsed in 1992, at which point the resultant successor state of Serbia and Montenegro declared itself the legal successor of the republic. It is this polity that dissolved in 2006, not Yugoslavia proper.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zemun</span> Municipality in Belgrade, Serbia

Zemun is a municipality in the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Zemun was a separate town that was absorbed into Belgrade in 1934. It lies on the right bank of the Danube river, upstream from downtown Belgrade. The development of New Belgrade in the late 20th century expanded the continuous urban area of Belgrade and merged it with Zemun.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belgrade Fortress</span> Fortress in Serbia

The Belgrade Fortress, consists of the old citadel and Kalemegdan Park on the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, in an urban area of modern Belgrade, Serbia. Located in Belgrade's municipality of Stari Grad, the fortress constitutes the specific historical core of the city. As one of the most important representatives of Belgrade's cultural heritage, it was originally protected right after World War II, among the first officially declared cultural monuments in Serbia. The fortress was declared a Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and is protected by the Republic of Serbia. It is the most visited tourist attraction in Belgrade, with Skadarlija being the second. Since the admission is free, it is estimated that the total number of visitors is over 2 million yearly.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New Belgrade</span> Municipality in Belgrade, Serbia

New Belgrade is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. It was a planned city and now is the central business district of Serbia and South East Europe. Construction began in 1948 in a previously uninhabited area on the left bank of the Sava river, opposite old Belgrade. In recent years, it has become the central business district of Belgrade and its fastest developing area, with many businesses moving to the new part of the city, due to more modern infrastructure and larger available space. With 209,763 inhabitants, it is the second most populous municipality of Serbia after Novi Sad.

Palilula is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. It has the largest area of all municipalities of Belgrade. The core of Palilula is close to the center of the city, but the municipality also includes sparsely populated land left of the Danube.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Great War Island</span> Island at the confluence of Sava into Danube

Great War Island is a river island in Belgrade, capital of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers. Though uninhabited, the island is part of the Belgrade City proper, and belongs to the city municipality of Zemun.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hotel Jugoslavija</span> Hotel in Belgrade, Serbia

Hotel Jugoslavija in Belgrade is one of the oldest luxurious Serbian hotels. It is located in the Zemun municipality. The hotel was opened in 1969 as "one of the most comfortable and most luxurious" hotels in Yugoslavia, and "among top 5 largest and most beautiful hotels in Europe." It was closed for visitors in 2006, but one half of the hotel was reopened in 2013 in the form of three-star hotel garni.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bežanija</span> Urban neighbourhood in New Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Bežanija is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Novi Beograd, in the Syrmia region.

Staro Sajmište is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of New Belgrade, and it was the site of the World War II Sajmište concentration camp from 1941 to 1944, when the area was under control of the Nazi puppet state Independent State of Croatia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ušće, Belgrade</span> Urban neighbourhood in New Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Ušće is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Novi Beograd. Ušće is located on the mouth of the Sava river into the Danube, thus the name. It occupies Novi Beograd's Blocks 10, 13, 14, 15 and 16 on the Sava's left and the Danube's right bank, covering a tip of land that overlooks the islands of Little War Island and Great War Island to the north and the old core of Belgrade, the fortress of Kalemegdan to the west. Ušće borders the neighborhoods of Staro Sajmište and Savograd on the south. As a compact grassy and forested area it stretches along the bank of the Danube into the Block 10, to the Zemun municipality and the Hotel Jugoslavija and the ENJUB shopping mall.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Višnjica, Serbia</span> Urban neighbourhood in Palilula, Belgrade, Serbia

Višnjica is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Palilula.

Belgrade is the capital of Serbia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zemunski Kej</span> Urban neighbourhood in Zemun, Belgrade, Serbia

Zemunski Kej is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Zemun.

The history of Belgrade dates back to at least 5700 BC. One of the largest prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved from the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco-Dacians inhabited the region, and after 279 BC Celts conquered the city, naming it Singidūn. It was conquered by the Romans during the reign of Augustus, and awarded city rights in the mid 2nd century. It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, and changed hands several times before it became the capital of King Stefan Dragutin (1282–1316). In 1521 Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of a sanjak. It frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. The north of Belgrade remained an Habsburg outpost until 1918, when it was merged into the capital city. As a strategic location, the city was battled over in 115 wars and razed to the ground 44 times. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918, to its final dissolution in 2006.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kalemegdan Park</span> Park in Belgrade, Serbia

The Kalemegdan Park, or simply Kalemegdan is the largest park and the most important historical monument in Belgrade. It is located on a 125-metre-high (410 ft) cliff, at the junction of the River Sava and the Danube.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belgrade Main railway station</span> Former railway station in Belgrade, Serbia

The Belgrade Main railway station is a former train station in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It was built between 1882 and 1885 according to the designs of the architect Dragutin Milutinović, and it has the status of a сultural monument of great importance. Until the opening of the new Belgrade Center station (Prokop) in 2016, it was the city's main station, and the busiest in the country. In order to free up the space for the Belgrade Waterfront project, the station was closed on 1 July 2018, and repurposed to become a museum.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belgrade Waterfront</span> Urban development project in Belgrade, Serbia

Belgrade Waterfront, known in Serbian as Belgrade on Water, is an urban renewal development project headed by the Government of Serbia aimed at improving Belgrade's cityscape and economy by revitalizing the Sava amphitheater, a neglected stretch of land on the right bank of the Sava river, between the Belgrade Fair and Branko's bridge. It was started in 2014 with the reconstruction of the Belgrade Cooperative building, which was finished in June of the same year. It is the second largest mixed use complex under construction in Europe, just after Minsk Mir, worth $3.5 billion. Belgrade Waterfront complex will include 10,000 residential units, bilingual elementary school and kindergartens, luxury hotels including St. Regis, the largest shopping mall in southeast Europe Galerija, and public buildings. In total, about 1.8 million square meters will be built.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism in Serbia</span> Overview of tourism in Serbia

Tourism in Serbia is officially recognized as a primary area for economic and social growth. The hotel and catering sector accounted for approximately 2.2% of GDP in 2015. Tourism in Serbia employs some 120 000 people, about 4.5% of the country's workforce. In recent years the number of tourists is increasing. In 2019, tourism generated an income of nearly $1.698 billion, hosting 1.85 million tourists. Chinese tourists were the most numerous visitors, followed by tourists from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Germany. In 2022, tourism earnings surged to $2.71 billion and almost 2 million tourists visited the country. Major destinations for foreign tourists are Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš, while domestic tourists prefer spas and mountain resorts. Eco-friendly and sustainable tourism has also become very popular among domestic tourists, with many visiting various nature reserves and parks in the western and southern part of the country. Serbia is also known for gastronomic tourism, with Belgrade being the central meeting point with over 2000 restaurants, coffee shops, bars and nightlife venues.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bridges of Belgrade</span>

Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, is located on two major rivers, the Danube and the Sava which are spanned by 11 bridges in total.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Old Post Office (Belgrade, Serbia)</span>

The Old Post Office, is a former building in Belgrade, modern-day Serbia. Located next to Belgrade Main railway station, it was considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings and symbols of the city. Built in Serbo-Byzantine Revival style upon plans by Momir Korunović, Post Office was mostly destroyed by Allied bombing of Yugoslavia in World War II and later reconstructed in 1947 in a functionalist style.

Do not let Belgrade drown, previously stylised as Do not let Belgrade d(r)own, was a green political organisation in Serbia.

References

  1. "Ancient Period". City of Belgrade. 5 October 2000. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  2. 1 2 3 Statistički godišnjak Beograda (PDF). Zavod za statistiku grada Beograda. ISSN   0585-1912 . Retrieved 10 March 2024.[ permanent dead link ]
  3. Ethnicity - data by municipalities and cities (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade. 2023. p. 38. ISBN   978-86-6161-228-2.
  4. Ethnicity – data by municipalities and cities (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade. 2023. p. 30. ISBN   978-86-6161-228-2.
  5. 1 2 "First results of the 2022 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings". stat.gov.rs. Archived from the original on 21 December 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  6. Ковачевић, Миладин. "Регионални бруто домаћи производ, 2022" (PDF). Radni dokument. Republički zavod za statistiku Srbije. ISSN   1820-0141 . Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  7. "Belgrade". Collins English Dictionary (13th ed.). HarperCollins. 2018. ISBN   978-0-008-28437-4.
  8. "Definition of Belgrade | Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  9. 1 2 "Why invest in Belgrade?". City of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
  10. 1 2 3 4 "Discover Belgrade". City of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  11. 1 2 Rich, John (1992). The City in Late Antiquity. CRC Press. p. 113. ISBN   978-0-203-13016-2. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  12. "The History of Belgrade". BelgradeNet Travel Guide. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  13. 1 2 Nurden, Robert (22 March 2009). "Belgrade has risen from the ashes to become the Balkans' party city". Independent. London. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  14. 1 2 "Assembly of the City of Belgrade". City of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  15. "The World According to GAWC 2012". GAWC. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  16. "About" . Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  17. Saric, J. (2008). "Paleolithic and mesolithic finds from profile of the Zemun loess". Starinar (58): 9–27. doi: 10.2298/STA0858009S .
  18. Chapman, John (2000). Fragmentation in Archaeology: People, Places, and Broken Objects. London: Routledge. p. 236. ISBN   978-0-415-15803-9.
  19. Chapman, John (1981). The Vinča culture of south-east Europe: Studies in chronology, economy and society (2 vols). BAR International Series. Vol. 117. Oxford: BAR. ISBN   0-86054-139-8.
  20. Radivojević, M.; Rehren, T.; Pernicka, E.; Šljivar, D. A.; Brauns, M.; Borić, D. A. (2010). "On the origins of extractive metallurgy: New evidence from Europe". Journal of Archaeological Science. 37 (11): 2775. Bibcode:2010JArSc..37.2775R. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012.
  21. Haarmann, Harald (2002). Geschichte der Schrift (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 20. ISBN   978-3-406-47998-4.
  22. Mikić, Radivoje, ed. (2006). Српска породична енциклопедија, књига 3, Ба-Би[Serbian family encynclopedia, Vol. 3, Ba-Bi]. Narodna Knjiga, Politika. p. 116. ISBN   86-331-2732-6.
  23. Belgrade A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. 29 October 2008. ISBN   9780199704521. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  24. "Jason and the Argonauts sail again" . The Telegraph . Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  25. "Belgrade Fortress history". Public Enterprise "Belgrade Fortress". Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  26. "Constantine I – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  27. "Philologic Results-". The ARTFL Project. Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  28. "History (Ancient Period)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  29. "City of Belgrade – Ancient Period". Beograd.rs. 5 October 2000. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  30. Friell, Gerard; Williams, Stephen (1999). The Rome that Did Not Fall: The Survival of the East in the Fifth Century. Psychology Press. p. 67. ISBN   978-0-415-15403-1. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  31. Roy E. H. Mellor (1975). Eastern Europe: a geography of the Comecon countries. Macmillan. p. 43. ISBN   9780333173114. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  32. Procopius, De Bello Gothico, III:34, quoted in Pohl 1997, pp. 89–90
  33. Bury, J. B. (2009) [1889]. History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene Vol. II. New York: Cosimo Classics. p. 117. ISBN   978-1-60520-405-5. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  34. Warriors of the Steppe: a military history of Central Asia, 500 B.C. to 1700, p. 76 Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  35. Bohlau, 1964, Slavistische Forschungen, Volume 6, p. 103. University of California.
  36. A Concise History of Bulgaria, R. J. Crampton, Edition 2, revised, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN   1139448234, p. 10.
  37. Земя на световен кръстопът, Борис Стоев Чолпанов, Изд. на Българската академия на науките, 1993, стр. 39.
  38. "LIBI, t. II (1960) (2_151.jpg)". promacedonia.org. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  39. "The History of Belgrade". Belgradenet.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  40. Byzantium in the year 1000,p. 121
  41. 1 2 3 4 "How to Conquer Belgrade – History". Beligrad.com. 16 December 1934. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  42. "The History of Belgrade". Belgradenet.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  43. 1 2 "History (Medieval Serbian Belgrade)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  44. "Battle of Maritsa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  45. "Battle of Kosovo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  46. Ćorović, Vladimir (1997). "V. Despot Đurađ Branković". Istorija srpskog naroda (in Serbian). Banja Luka / Belgrade: Project Rastko. ISBN   86-7119-101-X. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  47. 1 2 "The History of Belgrade". Belgradenet.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  48. Kovach, Tom R. "Ottoman-Hungarian Wars: Siege of Belgrade in 1456". Military History. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  49. "Hungary: A Brief History". Mek.oszk.hu. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  50. Serbia, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of. "Ко су потомци Београђана које је Сулејман Величанствени пре пет векова одвео у Истанбул". www.rts.rs. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  51. "The Rough Guide to Turkey: Belgrade Forest". Rough Guides. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  52. 1 2 "History (Turkish and Austrian Rule)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  53. Aleksov, Bojan (December 2003). "Nationalism In Construction: The Memorial Church of St. Sava on Vračar Hill In Belgrade". Balkanologie. VII (47): 52–53. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  54. "Belgrade Fortress: History". Razgledanje.tripod.com. 23 August 2004. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  55. Medaković, Dejan (1990). "Tajne poruke svetog Save" Svetosavska crkva i velika seoba Srba 1690. godine". Oči u oči. Belgrade: BIGZ (online reprint by Serbian Unity Congress library). ISBN   978-86-13-00903-0. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  56. Mišković, Nataša (2008). Basare und Boulevards: Belgrad im 19. Jahrhundert. Vienna. p. 16.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  57. 1 2 "History (Liberation of Belgrade)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  58. Pavkovic, Aleksandar (19 October 2001). "Nations into States: National Liberations in Former Yugoslavia" (PDF). National Europe Centre Paper No. 5. The Australian National University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  59. Antonić, Zdravko, ed. (1995). Istorija Beograda. Belgrade. pp. 263–264.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  60. "History". City of Kragujevac. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  61. "History (Important Years Through City History)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  62. Radović, Srđan (2014). Beogradski odonimi. Belgrade. pp. 47–48.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  63. Vesković, Ivana (2010). Čukur česma=Čukur fountain. Belgrade: The Cultural Heritage Protection Institute of the City of Belgrade. ISBN   978-86-81157-45-9.
  64. Stanford J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 2: Reform, Revolution and Republic—The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808–1975 (Cambridge University Press, 1977), p. 148.
  65. Quek, Raymond, ed. (2012). Nationalism and Architecture. Farnham. p. 97.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  66. Hawkesworth, Celia (2000), Voices in the Shadows: Women and Verbal Art in Serbia and Bosnia, Budapest and New York: Central European University Press, p. 101, ISBN   963-9116-62-9
  67. 1 2 "History (The Capital of Serbia and Yugoslavia)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  68. Lahmeyer, Jan (3 February 2003). "The Yugoslav Federation: Historical demographical data of the urban centers". populstat.info. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  69. Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Belgrade and Smederevo"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  70. Kosanovic, Dejan (1995). "Serbian Film and Cinematography (1896–1993)". The history of Serbian Culture. Porthill Publishers. ISBN   1-870732-31-6. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  71. Деретић, Јован (2005). Културна историја Срба: предавања. Народна књига. p. 312. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  72. "Serbia :: Vojvodina". Balkanology. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  73. ISBN   86-17-09287-4: Kosta Nikolić, Nikola Žutić, Momčilo Pavlović, Zorica Špadijer: Историја за трећи разред гимназије, Belgrade, 2002, p. 144.
  74. Petrović, Dragan; Arold, R (2001). "Industrija i urbani razvoj Beograda". Industrija. 21 (1–4): 87–94. ISSN   0350-0373. 0350-03730101087P. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  75. "Twentieth Century – Innovations in Belgrade". Serbia-info.com (Government of Serbia website). Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
  76. "Poslednji Grand Prix u Beogradu", Auto Magazin (in Serbian), 2 September 2011, archived from the original on 11 December 2012, retrieved 12 December 2012
  77. Krivokapić, Branislav (22 September 2009), Preteča formule 1 na Balkanu (in Serbian), archived from the original on 20 May 2013, retrieved 12 December 2012
  78. "DA NIJE BILO 6. APRILA Najlepše srušene zgrade Beograda". 25 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  79. Aslani, Samir (1 June 2004). Lovački avioni Drugog svetskog rata. Samir Aslani. ISBN   9788690553501. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2017 via Google Books.
  80. "Part Two the Yugoslav Campaign". The German campaign in the Balkans (Spring 1941). United States Army Center of Military History. 1986 [1953]. CMH Pub 104-4. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  81. Taking Belgrade by bluff. By: Heaton, Colin D., World War II, 08984204, Jan98, Vol. 12, Issue 5
  82. "Axis Invasion of Yugoslavia". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  83. Barić, Nikica (2011). "Politika Nezavisne Države Hrvatske prema Srbiji". Istorija 20. Veka. 29 (1). Institut za savremenu istoriju: 115–126. doi: 10.29362/ist20veka.2011.1.bar.115-126 .
  84. Rubenstein, Richard L; Roth, John King (2003). Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and Its Legacy. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 170. ISBN   0-664-22353-2. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008.
  85. Morton, J.; Forage, P.; Bianchini, S.; Nation, R. (2004). Reflections on the Balkan Wars: Ten Years After the Break-Up of Yugoslavia. Springer. p. 5. ISBN   978-1-40398-020-5. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  86. Zbornik dokumenata vojnoistorijskog instituta: TOM XIV, Knjiga 1 Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine , znaci.net; accessed 15 March 2016.
  87. "Anniversary of the Allied Bomb Attacks Against Belgrade". Radio-Television of Serbia. 17 April 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  88. "Tekstovi (Texts)". Napredniklub.org. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  89. "Rastao je na ruševinama (reprint on 20 October 2017)" [(Belgrade) rose on the ruins], Politika (in Serbian), 20 October 1967
  90. Norris 2008, p. 134.
  91. Popov, Nebojša, "Belgrade, June 1968" (PDF), 1968 Revisited: 40 Years of Protest Movements, Heinrich Böll Foundation: 49, archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2013
  92. Trifunović, Vesna (July 2018). "Temporality and discontinuity as aspects of smallpox outbreak in Yugoslavia". Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU. 65 (1): 127–145. doi: 10.2298/GEI1701127T . hdl: 21.15107/rcub_dais_7666 .
  93. Bilandžić, Vladimir; Dahlmann, Dittmar; Kosanović, Milan (2012). From Helsinki to Belgrade: The First CSCE Follow-up Meeting and the Crisis of Détente. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 163–184. ISBN   9783899719383.
  94. Ridley, Jasper (1996). Tito: A Biography. Constable. p. 19. ISBN   0-09-475610-4.
  95. "Prvi udarac Miloševićevom režimu". Danas (in Serbian). 9 March 2006. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  96. Graff, James L. (25 March 1991). "Yugoslavia: Mass bedlam in Belgrade". Time . Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  97. "Srbija na mitinzima (1990–1999)". Vreme (in Serbian). 21 August 1999. Archived from the original on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  98. Udovicki, Jasminka; Ridgeway, James (2000). Burn This House: The Making and Unmaking of Yugoslavia . Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. pp.  255-266. ISBN   9781136764820.
  99. Fridman, Orli (2010). "'It was like fighting a war with our own people': anti-war activism in Serbia during the 1990s". The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 39 (4): 507–522. doi:10.1080/00905992.2011.579953. S2CID   153467930.
  100. "History (Disintegration Years 1988–2000)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  101. Perlez, Jane (23 February 1997). "New Mayor of Belgrade: A Serbian Chameleon". The New York Times . Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  102. "NATO bombing". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 16 August 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  103. "220. Bombing to Bring Peace | Wilson Center". www.wilsoncenter.org. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  104. "Serbia: Europe's largest proctracted refugee situation". OSCE. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  105. S. Cross; S. Kentera; R. Vukadinovic; R. Nation (7 May 2013). Shaping South East Europe's Security Community for the Twenty-First Century: Trust, Partnership, Integration. Springer. p. 169. ISBN   9781137010209. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  106. "U.S. Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 1998 – Yugoslavia". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  107. Mikelić, Veljko (2005). Housing and Property Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia, and Montenegro. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. p. 120. ISBN   9789211317848.
  108. "Parties, citizens mark October 5". B92. 5 October 2007. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  109. "October 5, 2000". City of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  110. "Ovako će izgledati "Beograd na vodi"". Blic.rs. 19 January 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.
  111. "A Look at Abu Dhabi's 'Bad Joke': The Belgrade Waterfront Project". Forbes . Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  112. Online, Piše: Danas (19 September 2020). "Vesić: U Beogradu se ove godine gradi više nego lane". Dnevni list Danas (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  113. "Natural Features". City of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  114. Belić, Nikola (8 November 2011), "Klizišta nisu samo hir prirode", Politika (in Serbian), archived from the original on 18 September 2017, retrieved 12 June 2017
  115. Belić, Nikola (22 February 2012), "Otapanje pokreće i klizišta", Politika (in Serbian), archived from the original on 26 September 2017, retrieved 12 June 2017
  116. 1 2 3 4 "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991-2020: Beograd" (XLS). ncei.noaa.gov. NOAA . Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  117. "Record-breaking heat measured in Belgrade". Monsters and Critics. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 24 July 2007. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
  118. "Climate". City of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  119. "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1991–2020" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Archived from the original on 15 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  120. "Belgrade, Serbia – Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  121. "Station Belgrade–Triche" (in French). Meteo Climat. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  122. "Assembly of the City of Belgrade". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  123. "City Council". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  124. "City Administration". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  125. Councilors vote to remove Belgrade mayor from office, B92, 24 September 2013, archived from the original on 28 November 2013, retrieved 4 November 2013
  126. Aleksić, Dejan (27 February 2022). Главни град – изборна неизвесност у кампањи 2022.[Capital city – electoral uncertainty in the 2022. campaign]. Politika (in Serbian). p. 18.
  127. Jelena Mitrović, Anica Telesković (23 February 2022). "Ko će biti beogradski pobednik?" [Who will be the Belgrade's winner?] (in Serbian). Radio Television Serbia. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  128. Skrozza, Tamara (12 August 2004). "Prvi ljudi velike varoši" [First citizens of great town]. Vreme, No. 710 (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  129. Ambasade i konzularna predstavništva u Beogradu (in Serbian), Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Serbia, archived from the original on 28 January 2013, retrieved 12 December 2012
  130. 1 2 "Urban Municipalities". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  131. Bačić, B. Č. (1 October 2008), Najveći problem izjednačavanje statusa gradskih i prigradskih opština (in Serbian), Danas, archived from the original on 10 June 2015, retrieved 9 February 2010
  132. "2022 Census" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  133. Refugee Serbs Assail Belgrade Government Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine : The Washington Post , Tuesday, 22 June 1999.
  134. "Srbiju naselilo Rusa koliko Kragujevac ima stanovnika Od početka rata u Ukrajini ljudi traže spas kod nas: Broj izbeglica raste svakog dana". www.blic.rs (in Serbian). 8 December 2022. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  135. "Stranci tanje budžet". Novosti.rs. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  136. "Kinezi Marko, Miloš i Ana". Kurir (in Serbian). 20 February 2005. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
  137. Vasić, Biljana (15 January 2001). "Kineska četvrt u bloku 70". Vreme (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
  138. Zimonjic, Vesna Peric (7 December 2005). "A unique friendship club in Belgrade". Dawn . Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  139. Belgradenet.com. "The History of Belgrade: Middle Ages – Turkish Conquest – Liberation of Belgrade". belgradenet.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
  140. "The YUGOSLAV FEDERATION : urban population". populstat.info. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  141. Stanovništvo Narodne Republike Srbije od 1834-1953 [Population of the National Republic of Serbia from 1834-1953 data](PDF) (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Zavod za statistiku i evidenciju Narodne Republike Srbije. 1953. p. 54. OCLC   441731968.
  142. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN   978-86-6161-109-4 . Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  143. "2011 Census" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  144. "Drugi budistički hram u Evropi nalazio se u Beogradu". Gradnja (in Serbian). 16 December 2020. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  145. "Lokale neće ni džabe". novosti.rs. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  146. 1 2 "Prosečna plata za jul u Beogradu 628 evra". biznis.telegraf.rs. 27 September 2020. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  147. 1 2 "U Beogradu radi 120.000 firmi". Večernje Novosti. 23 April 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  148. "Privredna komora Beograda". Docstoc.com. 4 October 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  149. "Tržni centri zatvorili lokale". Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  150. "Regionalni računi". stat.gov.rs. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  151. "Privreda Beograda" (in Serbian). Economic Chamber of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  152. Regional GDP of the Republic of Serbia – preliminary data, 2012, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, archived from the original on 31 October 2013, retrieved 4 November 2013
  153. "Спољнотрговинска робна размена Републике Србије, септембар 2014". Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  154. "Microsoft Development Center Serbia". Microsoft.com. 1 April 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  155. "Asus otvorio regionalni centar u Beogradu". Emportal.rs. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  156. "Centar kompanije 'Intel' za Balkan u Beogradu – Srbija deo 'Intel World Ahead Program'". E kapija. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  157. Beograd, Ana Vlahović (25 September 2011). "Srbija centar IT industrije". Pressonline.rs. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  158. "Američki Nutanix širi posao u Srbiji: Otvorene kancelarije u Beogradu, potpisan memorandum s Vladom". biznis.telegraf.rs. 20 December 2019. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  159. NCR planira da udvostruči broj zaposlenih u Srbiji u 2014 (in Serbian), eKapija, 24 July 2013, archived from the original on 3 April 2017, retrieved 4 November 2013
  160. "LOLA CNC sistemi – Lola institut". li.rs. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  161. "Naučno-tehnološki park Beograd". Naučno-tehnološki park Beograd. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  162. M. S. "PROSEČNA PLATA U BEOGRADU 803 EVRA: Najveće zarade na Vračaru i Novom Beogradu". Novosti.rs. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  163. "Upotreba Informaciono-Komunikacionih Tehnologija U Republici Srbiji, 2015" (PDF). 30 August 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 August 2016.
  164. "Zakup Lokala U Knez Mihailovoj Među Najskupljim Na Svetu: U regionu jedino Budimpešta ispred Beograda". Serbian Times. 18 November 2019. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  165. Banks, Libby (16 July 2019). "The five most creative cities in the world?". The Collection. BBC. Archived from the original on 7 May 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  166. "Culture and Art (Cultural Events)". Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  167. "EuroPride will not be cancelled, and any 'ban' would be illegal". EPOA. 24 August 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  168. "The biography of Ivo Andrić". The Ivo Andrić Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
  169. "Borislav Pekić – Biografija" (in Serbian). Project Rastko. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
  170. Tabbi, Joseph (26 July 2005). "Miloš Crnjanski and his descendents". Electronic Book Review. Archived from the original on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  171. "Meša Selimović – Biografija" (in Bosnian). Kitabhana.net. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  172. Belgrade Film Festival – FEST, VoiceOfSerbia.org, 22 February 2013, archived from the original on 6 March 2013, retrieved 23 February 2013
  173. "Beogradska rock scena je otišla u ilegalu" (in Serbian). Glas.ba. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  174. Shepherd, John (2005). Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world. Vol. 3–7. Continuum. p. 142. ISBN   978-0-8264-7436-0.
  175. Pavlić, Aleksandar (9 February 2005). "Beogradski Sindikat: Svi Zajedno". Popboks (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
  176. Todorović, S. S. (30 January 2004). "Liričar među reperima" (in Serbian). Balkanmedia. Archived from the original on 17 June 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
  177. "National Theatre Belgrade – Opera". Narodnopozoriste.rs. 1 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  178. "About Madlenianum". Madlenianum.rs. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  179. "Serbian ballad wins Eurovision Song Contest – Belgrade hosts in 2008". Helsingin Sanomat . 14 May 2007. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  180. "NEDA KOVAČEVIĆ: Nek učini svako koliko je kadar, pa neće narod propasti". presscentar.uns.org.rs (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  181. Kovačević, Neda (2016). Beogradski spomenarnik: putovanje srpskom istorijom putem spomenika u Beogradu. Ličnosti u beogradskim spomenicima. Deo prvi. Neda Kovačević. ISBN   978-86-919895-0-7. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  182. Cvjetićanin, Tatjana. "From the history of the National Museum in Belgrade". National Museum of Serbia. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  183. "Museums 3". Discover Belgrade. Beograd.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2008.
  184. Lompar, Milo (2018). Knjiga o Lubardi. Beograd: Serbian Literary Guild. p. 181.
  185. "About the Museum". eng.msub.org.rs. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  186. "Art gathers dust as Serbia museums kept shut". BBC News. 27 August 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  187. Farago, Jason (9 September 2019). "28 Art Shows Worth Traveling For" . The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  188. Dickson, Andrew (25 September 2019). "Marina Abramovic Comes Home, and Comes Clean" . The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  189. "Marina Abramovic-Javno predavanje "CISTAC/CLEANER"-Beograd-MSU 29.09.2019.-Deo 1". YouTube. 3 October 2019. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.