Non-Aligned Movement

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Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
NAM Members.svg
  Member countries
  Observer countries
Location Jakarta, Indonesia (Headquarters)
Coordinating Bureau New York City, New York, U.S.
Membership [1]
  • 120 member states
  • 17 states (observers)
  • 10 international organisations
Leaders
 Principal decision-
making organ
Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries [2]
 Presidency
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
 Secretary-General
Ilham Aliyev
Establishment1961 in Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Belgrade, Yugoslavia as the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries
Website
mnoal.org

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide. [1] [3]

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.

Contents

Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru [4] and the Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito. This led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries. [5] The term non-aligned movement first appears in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement".

Bandung Conference convention

The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference —was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on 18-24 April 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia. The twenty-nine countries that participated at the Bandung Conference represented nearly one-quarter of the Earth's land surface and a total population of 1.5 billion people, roughly 54% of the Earth's population at the time. The conference was organised by Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, Ceylon, and India and was coordinated by Ruslan Abdulgani, secretary general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia.

Belgrade City in Serbia

Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia socialist republic in Southeast Europe between 1943 and 1992

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.

The purpose of the organization was enumerated by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979 as to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics." [6] The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement also has a number of developed nations.

Fidel Castro Former First Secretary of the Communist Party and President of Cuba

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. A Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, Castro also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration, Cuba became a one-party communist state, while industry and business were nationalized and state socialist reforms were implemented throughout society.

Imperialism creation of an unequal relationship between states through domination

Imperialism is policy or ideology of extending a nation's rule over foreign nations, often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Imperialism was both normal and common worldwide throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC, diminishing only in the late 20th century. In recent times, it has been considered morally reprehensible and prohibited by international law. Therefore, the term is used in international propaganda to denounce an opponent's foreign policy.

Colonialism Creation, and maintenance of colonies by people from another territory

Colonialism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of opening trade opportunities. The colonizing country seeks to benefit from the colonized country or land mass. In the process, colonizers imposed their religion, economics, and medicinal practices on the natives. Some argue this was a positive move toward modernization, while other scholars refute this theory as being biased and Eurocentric, noting that modernization is a concept introduced by Europeans. Colonialism is largely regarded as a relationship of domination of an indigenous majority by a minority of foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of its interests.

Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were actually quite closely aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War, even despite several conflicts between members which also threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world, especially those within the Global South.

Superpower Very powerful nation

A superpower is a state with a dominant position characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale. This is done through the combined-means of economic, military, technological, and cultural strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence. Traditionally, superpowers are preeminent among the great powers.

Cold War State of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and the Truman Doctrine of 1947, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars.

Global South term used in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to developing countries

The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Developing World", "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions." It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries. The Global South is more than the extension of a "metaphor for underdeveloped countries." In general, it refers to these countries' "interconnected histories of colonialism, neo-imperialism, and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained."

History

Origins and the Cold War

The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement were Josip Broz Tito of Socialist Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'.

Josip Broz Tito Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman

Josip Broz, commonly known as Tito, was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, most Yugoslavs considered him popular and a benevolent dictator. He was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. He gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Nicolae Ceaușescu of Romania, Sukarno of Indonesia, and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

Jawaharlal Nehru first Prime Minister of India

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. He was also known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

The Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers". [7]

Brijuni island group

The Brijuni or the Brijuni Islands are a group of fourteen small islands in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea, separated from the west coast of the Istrian peninsula by the narrow Fažana Strait. The largest island, Veliki Brijun Island, (5.6 km2), lies 2 kilometres off the coast. The second largest island is Mali Brijun with an area of 1.07 km², and twelve much smaller islands. Famous for their scenic beauty, the islands are a holiday resort and a Croatian National Park.

Gamal Abdel Nasser Second president of Egypt

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Following a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, he cracked down on the organization, put President Mohamed Naguib under house arrest and assumed executive office. He was formally elected president in June 1956.

Rejaul Karim Laskar

Rejaul Karim Laskar is an Indian politician from the Indian state of Assam belonging to Indian National Congress. He is a Congress ideologue. He has written extensively in favour of UPA Government's policies.. He is also a prominent author and scholar of India’s foreign policy and diplomacy.

The Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations. [8] [ unreliable source? ]

But it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961. The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Zhou Enlai and Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel (five restraints); these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:

A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Nkrumah and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, and Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Zhou Enlai and Nehru's five principles, and a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War. Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade. [9] The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement. [10]

Belgrade Conference, September 1961 with representatives from Afghanistan, Algeria, Burma, Cambodia, Cuba, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Lebanon, Mali, Morocco, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tunisia, the United Arab Republic, Yemen, and Yugoslavia. Belgrade Conference, 1961.jpg
Belgrade Conference, September 1961 with representatives from Afghanistan, Algeria, Burma, Cambodia, Cuba, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Lebanon, Mali, Morocco, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tunisia, the United Arab Republic, Yemen, and Yugoslavia.

At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries. [11]

Some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India and Pakistan, Iran and Iraq).

Cuba's role

In the 1970s, Cuba made a major effort to assume a leadership role in the world's nonalignment movement, which represented over 90 Third World nations. Cuban combat troops in Angola greatly impressed fellow non-aligned nations. Cuba also established military advisory missions, and economic and social reform programs. The 1976 world conference of the Nonaligned Movement applauded Cuban internationalism, "which assisted the people of Angola in frustrating the expansionist and colonialist strategy of South Africa's racist regime and its allies." The next nonaligned conference was scheduled for Havana in 1979, to be chaired by Fidel Castro, with his becoming the de facto spokesman for the Movement. The conference in September 1979 marked the zenith of Cuban prestige. Most, but not all, attendees believed that Cuba was not aligned with the Soviet camp in the Cold War. [12] However in December 1979, the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan's civil war. At the time, Afghanistan was also an active member of the Nonaligned Movement. At the United Nations, Nonaligned members voted 56 to 9, with 26 abstaining, to condemn the Soviet Union. Cuba in fact was deeply in debt financially and politically to Moscow, and voted against the resolution. It lost its reputation as nonaligned in the Cold War. Castro, instead of becoming a high profile spokesman for the Movement, remain quiet and inactive, and in 1983 leadership passed to India, which had abstained on the UN vote. Cuba lost its bid to become a member of the United Nations Security Council and its ambitions for a role in global leadership had totally collapsed. [13] More broadly the Movement was deeply split over the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. Although Moscow's allies supported the Soviet intervention, other members of the movement (particularly predominantly Muslim states) condemned it. [14]

Post-Cold War

Because the Non-Aligned Movement was formed as an attempt to thaw out the Cold War, [11] it has struggled to find relevance since the Cold War ended. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, a founding member, its membership was suspended [15] in 1992 at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. [16] [17] The successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have expressed little interest in membership, though Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina have observer status. In 2004, Malta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union. Belarus is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan and Fiji are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011. The applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998, respectively. [17]

Since the end of the Cold War, the Non-Aligned Movement has been forced to redefine itself and reinvent its purpose in the current world system. A major question has been whether many of its foundational ideologies, principally national independence, territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism, can be applied to contemporary issues. The movement has emphasised its principles of multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South, and an instrument that can be utilised to promote the needs of member nations at the international level and strengthen their political leverage when negotiating with developed nations. In its efforts to advance Southern interests, the movement has stressed the importance of cooperation and unity amongst member states, [18] but as in the past, cohesion remains a problem since the size of the organisation and the divergence of agendas and allegiances present the ongoing potential for fragmentation. While agreement on basic principles has been smooth, taking definitive action vis-à-vis particular international issues has been rare, with the movement preferring to assert its criticism or support rather than pass hard-line resolutions. [19]

The movement continues to see a role for itself, as in its view, the world's poorest nations remain exploited and marginalised, no longer by opposing superpowers, but rather in a uni-polar world, [20] and it is Western hegemony and neo-colonialism that the movement has really re-aligned itself against. It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies. The Non-Aligned Movement has identified economic underdevelopment, poverty, and social injustices as growing threats to peace and security. [21]

The 16th NAM summit took place in Tehran, Iran, from 26 to 31 August 2012. According to Mehr News Agency, representatives from over 150 countries were scheduled to attend. [22] Attendance at the highest level includes 27 presidents, two kings and emirs, seven prime ministers, nine vice presidents, two parliament spokesmen and five special envoys. [23] At the summit, Iran took over from Egypt as Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement for the period 2012 to 2015. [24] and latest one held in Venezuela 2016.[ citation needed ]

In 2019 Colombia and Peru suspended their participation in the Movement under the presidency of Venezuela, because their governments did not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolás Maduro's regime.

Organizational structure and membership

The movement stems from a desire not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structure. [2] Some organizational basics were defined at the 1996 Cartagena Document on Methodology [25] The Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned States is "the highest decision making authority". The chairmanship rotates between countries and changes at every summit of heads of state or government to the country organizing the summit. [25]

Requirements for membership of the Non-Aligned Movement coincide with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The current requirements are that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with the ten "Bandung principles" of 1955: [25]

Policies and ideology

The South Africa Conference NAM logo Non-Aligned Movement (emblem - South Africa Conference).png
The South Africa Conference NAM logo

Secretaries General of the NAM had included such diverse figures as Suharto, [26] militaristic [27] anti-communist, and Nelson Mandela, a democratic socialist and famous anti-apartheid activist. Consisting of many governments with vastly different ideologies, the Non-Aligned Movement is unified by its declared commitment to world peace and security. At the seventh summit held in New Delhi in March 1983, the movement described itself as "history's biggest peace movement". [28] The movement places equal emphasis on disarmament. NAM's commitment to peace pre-dates its formal institutionalisation in 1961. The Brioni meeting between heads of governments of India, Egypt and Yugoslavia in 1956 recognized that there exists a vital link between struggle for peace and endeavours for disarmament. [28]

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the NAM also sponsored campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, namely the New International Economic Order (NIEO), and its cultural offspring, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO). The latter, on its own, sparked a Non-Aligned initiative on cooperation for communications, the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, created in 1975 and later converted into the NAM News Network in 2005.

The Non-Aligned Movement espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved. Many of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement are also members of the United Nations. Both organisations have a stated policy of peaceful cooperation, yet the successes the NAM has had with multilateral agreements tend to be ignored by the larger, western and developed nation dominated UN. [29] African concerns about apartheid were linked with Arab-Asian concerns about Palestine [29] and multilateral cooperation in these areas has enjoyed moderate success. The Non-Aligned Movement has played a major role in various ideological conflicts throughout its existence, including extreme opposition to apartheid governments and support of guerrilla movements in various locations, including Rhodesia and South Africa. [30]

Current activities and positions

Criticism of US policy

In recent years the organization has criticized certain aspects of US foreign policy. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and the War on Terrorism, its attempts to stifle Iran and North Korea's nuclear plans, and its other actions have been denounced by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement as attempts to run roughshod over the sovereignty of smaller nations; at the most recent summit, Kim Yong-nam, the head of North Korea's parliament, stated, "The United States is attempting to deprive other countries of even their legitimate right to peaceful nuclear activities." [31]

Self-determination of Puerto Rico

Since 1961, the organization has supported the discussion of the case of Puerto Rico's self-determination before the United Nations. A resolution on the matter was to be proposed on the XV Summit by the Hostosian National Independence Movement.[ needs update ] [32]

Self-determination of Western Sahara

Since 1973, the group has supported the discussion of the case of Western Sahara's self-determination before the United Nations. [33] The movement reaffirmed in its last meeting (Sharm El Sheikh 2009) the support to the Self-determination of the Sahrawi people by choosing between any valid option, welcomed the direct conversations between the parties, and remembered the responsibility of the United Nations on the Sahrawi issue. [34]

Sustainable development

The movement is publicly committed to the tenets of sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, but it believes that the international community has not created conditions conducive to development and has infringed upon the right to sovereign development by each member state. Issues such as globalization, the debt burden, unfair trade practices, the decline in foreign aid, donor conditionality, and the lack of democracy in international financial decision-making are cited as factors inhibiting development. [35]

Reforms of the UN

The movement has been outspoken in its criticism of current UN structures and power dynamics, stating that the organisation has been utilised by powerful states in ways that violate the movement's principles. It has made a number of recommendations that it says would strengthen the representation and power of "non-aligned" states. The proposed UN reforms are also aimed at improving the transparency and democracy of UN decision-making. The UN Security Council is the element it considers the most distorted, undemocratic, and in need of reshaping. [36]

South-South cooperation

The movement has collaborated with other organisations of the developing world  primarily the Group of 77   forming a number of joint committees and releasing statements and documents representing the shared interests of both groups. This dialogue and cooperation can be taken as an effort to increase the global awareness about the organisation and bolster its political clout.[ citation needed ]

Cultural diversity and human rights

The movement accepts the universality of human rights and social justice, but fiercely resists cultural homogenisation.[ citation needed ] In line with its views on sovereignty, the organisation appeals for the protection of cultural diversity, and the tolerance of the religious, socio-cultural, and historical particularities that define human rights in a specific region. [37] [ not in citation given ]

Working groups, task forces, committees [38]

Summits

1st summit, Belgrade Konferencija Pokreta nesvrstanih 1961. godine.jpg
1st summit, Belgrade
16th summit of the NAM, Tehran Meeting of the heads of state at the 16th summit of the NAM (1).jpg
16th summit of the NAM, Tehran

The conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, often referred to as Non-Aligned Movement Summit is the main meeting within the movement and are held every few years: [39]

DateHost countryHost city
1st1–6 September 1961Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia Belgrade
2nd5–10 October 1964Flag of the United Arab Republic.svg  United Arab Republic Cairo
3rd8–10 September 1970Flag of Zambia (1964-1996).svg  Zambia Lusaka
4th5–9 September 1973Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Algiers
5th16–19 August 1976Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Colombo
6th3–9 September 1979Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Havana
7th7–12 March 1983Flag of India.svg  India New Delhi
8th1–6 September 1986Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe Harare
9th4–7 September 1989Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia Belgrade
10th1–6 September 1992Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Jakarta
11th18–20 October 1995Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Cartagena
12th 2–3 September 1998Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Durban
13th 20–25 February 2003Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
14th 15–16 September 2006Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Havana
15th 11–16 July 2009Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh
16th 26–31 August 2012Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Tehran
17th 13–18 September 2016Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Porlamar
18th 14–15 June 2019Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Baku

A variety of ministerial meetings are held between the summit meetings. Some are specialist, such as the meeting on "Inter-Faith Dialogue and Co-operation for Peace", held in Manila, the Philippines, 16–18 March 2010. There is a general Conference of Foreign Ministers every three years. The most recent were in Bali, Indonesia, 23–27 May 2011 and Algiers, Algeria, 26–29 May 2014.

The Non-Aligned Movement celebrated its 50th anniversary in Belgrade on 5–6 September 2011. [40] [41]

Secretary general

Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement is run by the secretary general elected at the last summit meeting. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.

ImageSecretary-General [42] Country (holding the Presidency)PartyFromTo
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980)Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 19611964
Nasser portrait2.jpg Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918–1970)Flag of the United Arab Republic.svg  United Arab Republic Arab Socialist Union 19641970
Kenneth David Kaunda detail DF-SC-84-01864.jpg Kenneth Kaunda (1924–)Flag of Zambia (1964-1996).svg  Zambia United National Independence Party 19701973
Houari Boumediene's Portrait.jpg Houari Boumediène (1932–1978)Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Revolutionary Council 19731976
William Gopallawa.jpg William Gopallawa (1896–1981)Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Independent 19761978
Junius Richard Jayawardana (1906-1996).jpg Junius Richard Jayewardene (1906–1996) United National Party 19781979
Fidel Castro - MATS Terminal Washington 1959.jpg Fidel Castro (1926–2016)Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 19791983
NeelamSanjeevaReddy.jpg Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1913–1996)Flag of India.svg  India Janata Party 1983
Giani Zail Singh 1995 stamp of India.jpg Zail Singh (1916–1994) Indian National Congress 19831986
Robert Mugabe May 2015 (cropped).jpg Robert Mugabe (1924–)Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe ZANU-PF 19861989
Drnovsek.png Janez Drnovšek (1950–2008)Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 19891990
Borisav Jovic.jpg Borisav Jović (1928–) Socialist Party of Serbia 19901991
StipeMesic1.jpg Stjepan Mesić (1934–) Croatian Democratic Union 1991
Branko Kostic.jpg Branko Kostić (1939–) Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro 19911992
S.Kragujevic, Dobrica Cosic 1961.JPG Dobrica Ćosić (1921–2014)Flag of Yugoslavia (1992-2003).svg  FR Yugoslavia Independent 1992
President Suharto, 1993.jpg Suharto (1921–2008)Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Golkar 19921995
Ernesto Samper (cropped).jpg Ernesto Samper (1950–)Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Colombian Liberal Party 19951998
Andrespastranaarango.png Andrés Pastrana Arango (1954–) Colombian Conservative Party 1998
Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit) (cropped).jpg Nelson Mandela (1918–2013)Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa African National Congress 19981999
SthAfrica.ThaboMbeki.01.jpg Thabo Mbeki (1942–)19992003
Mahathir 2007.jpg Mahathir Mohamad (1925–)Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia United Malays National Organisation 2003
AB April 2008.jpg Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (1939–)20032006
Fidel Castro.jpg Fidel Castro [43] (1926–2016)Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 20062008
Raul Castro, July 2012.jpeg Raúl Castro (1931–)20082009
Hosni Mubarak ritratto.jpg Hosni Mubarak (1928–)Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt National Democratic Party 20092011
Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi 2002.jpg Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (1935–) Independent 20112012
Mohamed Morsi-05-2013.jpg Mohamed Morsi (1951–) Freedom and Justice Party 2012
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad crop.jpg Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (1956–)Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran 20122013
Hassan Rouhani.jpg Hassan Rouhani (1948–) Moderation and Development Party 20132016
Nicolas Maduro, president of Venezuela (2016) cropped.jpg Nicolás Maduro (1962–)Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela United Socialist Party 20162019
Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev - President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.jpg Ilham Aliyev (1961–)Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan New Azerbaijan Party 2019present

Members, observers and guests

Current members

The following countries are members of the NAM, arranged by continent, showing their year of admission: [1] [42]

Africa

Currently every African country (except South Sudan and Western Sahara) is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

  1. Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria (1961)
  2. Flag of Angola.svg  Angola (1976)
  3. Flag of Benin.svg  Benin (1964)
  4. Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana (1970)
  5. Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso (1973)
  6. Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi (1964)
  7. Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon (1964)
  8. Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde (1976)
  9. Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic (1964)
  10. Flag of Chad.svg  Chad (1964)
  11. Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros (1976)
  12. Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo (1961)
  13. Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti (1983)
  14. Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt (1961)
  15. Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea (1970)
  16. Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea (1995)
  17. Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini (1970)
  18. Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia (1961)
  19. Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon (1970)
  20. Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia (1973)
  21. Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana (1961)
  22. Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea (1961)
  23. Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau (1976)
  24. Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire (1973)
  25. Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya (1964)
  26. Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho (1970)
  27. Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia (1964)
  28. Flag of Libya.svg  Libya (1964)
  29. Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar (1973)
  30. Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi (1964)
  31. Flag of Mali.svg  Mali (1961)
  32. Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania (1964)
  33. Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius (1973)
  34. Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco (1961)
  35. Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique (1976)
  36. Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia (1979)
  37. Flag of Niger.svg  Niger (1973)
  38. Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria (1964)
  39. Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo (1964)
  40. Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda (1970)
  41. Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe (1976)
  42. Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal (1964)
  43. Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles (1976)
  44. Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone (1964)
  45. Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia (1961)
  46. Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa (1994)
  47. Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan (1961)
  48. Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania (1964)
  49. Flag of Togo.svg  Togo (1964)
  50. Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia (1961)
  51. Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda (1964)
  52. Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia (1964)
  53. Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe (1979)

Americas

  1. Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda (2006)
  2. Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas (1983)
  3. Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados (1983)
  4. Flag of Belize.svg  Belize (1976)
  5. Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia (1979)
  6. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile (1973)
  7. Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia (1983)
  8. Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba (1961)
  9. Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica (2006)
  10. Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic (2000)
  11. Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador (1983)
  12. Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada (1979)
  13. Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala (1993)
  14. Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana (1970)
  15. Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti (2006)
  16. Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras (1995)
  17. Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica (1970)
  18. Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua (1979)
  19. Flag of Panama.svg  Panama (1976)
  20. Flag of Peru.svg  Peru (1973)
  21. Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis (2006)
  22. Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia (1983)
  23. Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2003)
  24. Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname (1983)
  25. Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago (1970)
  26. Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela (1989)

Asia

  1. Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan (1961)
  2. Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain (1973)
  3. Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh (1973)
  4. Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan (1973)
  5. Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei (1993)
  6. Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia (1961)
  7. Flag of India.svg  India (1961)
  8. Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia (1961)
  9. Flag of Iran.svg  Iran (1979)
  10. Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq (1961)
  11. Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan (1964)
  12. Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait (1964)
  13. Flag of Laos.svg  Laos (1964)
  14. Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon (1961)
  15. Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia (1970)
  16. Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives (1976)
  17. Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia (1993)
  18. Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar (1961)
  19. Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal (1961)
  20. Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea (1976)
  21. Flag of Oman.svg  Oman (1973)
  22. Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan (1979)
  23. Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine (1976)
  24. Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines (1993)
  25. Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar (1973)
  26. Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia (1961)
  27. Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore (1970)
  28. Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka (1961)
  29. Flag of Syria.svg  Syria (1964)
  30. Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand (1993)
  31. Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor (2003)
  32. Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan (1995)
  33. Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates (1970)
  34. Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan (1993)
  35. Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam (1976)
  36. Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen (1990) [45]

Europe

  1. Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan (2011)
  2. Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus (1998)

Oceania

  1. Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji (2011)
  2. Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea (1993)
  3. Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu (1983)

Former members

  1. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus (1961–2004) [46] [47]
  2. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta (1973–2004) [47]
  3. Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia (1961–1992) [15] [48] [49]

Observers

The following countries and organizations have observer status: [1]

Countries

Organisations

Guests

There is no permanent guest status, [50] but often several non-member countries are represented as guests at conferences. In addition, a large number of organisations, both from within the UN system and from outside, are always invited as guests.[ citation needed ]

See also

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  14. H. V. Hodson, ed. The annual register : a record of world events 1979 (1980) pp 372-75.
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  16. Lai Kwon Kin (2 September 1992). "Yugoslavia casts shadow over non-aligned summit". The Independent . Retrieved 26 September 2009. Iran and several other Muslim nations want the rump state of Yugoslavia kicked out, saying it no longer represents the country which helped to found the movement.
  17. 1 2 Najam, Adil (2003). "Chapter 9: The Collective South in Multinational Environmental Politics". In Nagel, Stuard. Policymaking and prosperity: a multinational anthology. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 197–240 [233]. ISBN   0-7391-0460-8 . Retrieved 10 November 2009. Turkmenistan, Belarus and Dominican Republic are the most recent entrants. The application of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998.
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  26. "Suharto tops corruption rankings". BBC News. 25 March 2004. Retrieved 4 February 2006.
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  30. Grant, Cedric. "Equity in Third World Relations: a third world perspective". International Affairs 71, 3 (1995), 567–587.
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  32. [ clarification needed ]Transcript (14 July 2009). "No Alineados preparan apoyo a la libre determinación de Puerto Rico – El texto se presentaría al cierre de la cita del NOAL en Sharm el Sheij" (in Spanish). Radio Cooperativa . Retrieved 23 August 2012.
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  35. Statement on the implementation of the Right to Development Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine , 7 January 2008.
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  37. Declaration on the occasion of celebrating Human Rights Day Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine .
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  39. XV Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Sharm El Sheikh, 11–16 July 2009: Previous Summits Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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  43. Fidel Castro, having recently undergone gastric surgery, was unable to attend the conference and was represented by his younger brother, Cuba's acting president Raúl Castro. See "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement Nations". People's Daily . 16 September 2006.
  44. In a joint letter to the UN Secretary-General sent just prior to unification, the Ministers of Foreign affairs of North and South Yemen stated that "All treaties and agreements concluded between either the Yemen Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and other States and international organizations in accordance with international law which are in force on 22 May 1990 will remain in effect, and international relations existing on 22 May 1990 between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic and other States will continue."Bühler, Konrad (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.
  45. Flag of North Yemen.svg  North Yemen is one of the founders in 1961. Flag of South Yemen.svg  South Yemen joined in 1970. In 1990 both were unified into a single state which accepted responsibility for all treaties of its predecessors. [44]
  46. "Cyprus and the Non – Aligned Movement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Cyprus. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  47. 1 2 "XIV Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement". South Africa Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  48. "Final Document of the 7th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement -(New Delhi Declaration)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  49. Kin, Lai Kwok (2 September 1992). "Yugoslavia Casts Shadow over Non-Aligned Summit". The Independent . Reuters . Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  50. XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 4.4. Archived 9 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading