Timothy Garton Ash

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Timothy Garton Ash
2019-05-30 Timothy Garton Ash-6011.jpg
Timothy Garton Ash, Charlemagne Prize 2019
Born (1955-07-12) 12 July 1955 (age 63)
London
Nationality British
Alma mater University of Oxford

Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator. He is Professor of European Studies at Oxford University. Much of his work has been concerned with the late modern and contemporary history of Central and Eastern Europe.

Royal Society of Arts British organisation

The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges. Founded in 1754 by William Shipley as the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, it was granted a Royal Charter in 1847, and the right to use the term Royal in its name by King Edward VII in 1908. The shorter version, The Royal Society of Arts and the related RSA acronym, are used more frequently than the full name.

British people citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies, and their descendants

The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons. It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.

Historian person who studies and writes about the past

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.

Contents

He has written about the Communist regimes of that region, their experience with the secret police, the Revolutions of 1989 and the transformation of the former Eastern Bloc states into member states of the European Union. He has examined the role of Europe and the challenge of combining freedom and diversity, especially in relation to free speech.

In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

Revolutions of 1989 series of 1989-protests overthrowing communist governments in Eastern Europe

The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond. The period is sometimes called the Fall of Nations or the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations that is sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848.

European Union Economic and political union of European states

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

Education

Garton Ash was born to John Garton Ash (1919-2014) and Lorna Judith Freke. His father was educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge and was involved in finance, as well as being a Royal Artillery officer in the British Army during the Second World War. [1] Garton Ash was educated at St Edmund's School, Hindhead, Surrey, [2] before going on to Sherborne School, a well-known public school in Dorset in South West England, followed by Exeter College, Oxford where he studied Modern History.

Trinity Hall, Cambridge College of the University of Cambridge

Trinity Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It is the fifth-oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich.

Royal Artillery artillery arm of the British Army

The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army. The Royal Regiment of Artillery comprises thirteen Regular Army regiments, King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery and five Army Reserve regiments.

British Army land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces of the United Kingdom

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.

For post-graduate study, he went to St Antony's College, Oxford, and then, in the still divided Berlin, the Free University in West Berlin and the Humboldt University in East Berlin. During his studies in East Berlin, he was under surveillance from the Stasi, which served as the basis for his 1997 book The File. [3] Garton Ash cut a suspect figure to the Stasi, who regarded him as a "bourgeois-liberal" and potential British spy. [4] Although he denies being or having been a British intelligence operative, Garton Ash described himself as a "soldier behind enemy lines" and described the German Democratic Republic as a "very nasty regime indeed." [4]

St Antonys College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford

St Antony's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1950 as the result of the gift of French merchant Sir Antonin Besse of Aden, St Antony's specialises in international relations, economics, politics, and area studies relative to Europe, Russia, former Soviet states, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Japan, China, and South and South East Asia. It is consecutively ranked in the top five worldwide.

Free University of Berlin research university located in Berlin, Germany

The Free University of Berlin is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. One of Germany's most distinguished universities, it is known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural and life sciences.

West Berlin Political enclave that existed between 1949 and 1990

West Berlin was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War. There was no specific date on which the sectors of Berlin occupied by the Western Allies became "West Berlin", but 1949 is widely accepted as the year in which the name was adopted. West Berlin aligned itself politically with the Federal Republic of Germany and was directly or indirectly represented in its federal institutions.

Pavel Zacek, Timothy Garton Ash and Kristian Gerner (Tallinn, 2012) Pavel Zacek, Timothy Garton Ash ja Kristian Gerner.jpg
Pavel Žáček, Timothy Garton Ash and Kristian Gerner (Tallinn, 2012)

Life and career

In the 1980s, Garton Ash was Foreign Editor of The Spectator and a columnist for The Independent . He became a Fellow at St Antony's College in 1989, a senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution [5] in 2000, and Professor of European Studies at the University of Oxford [6] in 2004. He has written a weekly column in The Guardian since 2004 and is a long-time contributor to the New York Review of Books . [7] His column is also translated in the Turkish daily Radikal [8] and in the Spanish daily El País , as well as other papers.

<i>The Spectator</i> British weekly conservative magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs

The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs. It was first published in July 1828. It is owned by David and Frederick Barclay who also own The Daily Telegraph newspaper, via Press Holdings. Its principal subject areas are politics and culture. Its editorial outlook is generally supportive of the Conservative Party, although regular contributors include some outside that fold, such as Frank Field, Rod Liddle and Martin Bright. The magazine also contains arts pages on books, music, opera, and film and TV reviews.

<i>The Independent</i> British online daily newspaper

The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London. It was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010. The last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions.

Stanford University Private research university in Stanford, California

Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, selectivity, wealth, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world's top universities. Often ranking first among all universities both domestically and internationally has led Stanford to be known as America's "dream college".

In 2005 Garton Ash was listed in Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people. [9] There it is mentioned that "Shelves are where most works of history spend their lives. But the kind of history Garton Ash writes is more likely to lie on the desks of the world's decision makers."

Geopolitics

Garton Ash describes himself as a liberal internationalist. [10] He is a supporter of what he calls the free world and liberal democracy, represented in his view by the European Union, the United States as a super-power, and Angela Merkel's leadership of Germany. Garton Ash opposed Scottish independence and argued for Britishness, writing in The Guardian : "... being British has changed into something worth preserving, especially in a world of migration where peoples are going to become ever more mixed up together. As men and women from different parts of the former British empire have come to live here in ever larger numbers, the post-imperial identity has become, ironically but not accidentally, the most liberal, civic, inclusive one." [11]

Garton Ash first came to prominence during the Cold War as a supporter of free speech and human rights within countries which were part of the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc, paying particular attention to Poland and Germany. In more recent times he has represented a British liberal pro-EU viewpoint, nervous at the rise of Vladimir Putin, Donald Trump and Brexit. He is strongly opposed to conservative and populist leaders of EU nations such as Viktor Orbán of Hungary, arguing that Merkel should "freeze him out", evoking "appeasement." [12] Garton Ash was particularly upset about Orbán's move against George Soros' Central European University. [12] Anti-Soviet themes and Poland remain topics of interest for Garton Ash; once a promoter of the anti-Eastern Bloc movement in Poland, he notes with regret the move away from liberalism and globalism towards populism and authoritarianism under socially conservative political and religious leaders such as Jarosław Kaczyński, in a similar manner to his criticisms of Hungary's Orbán. [13]

Personal life

Garton and his Polish-born wife Danuta live primarily in Oxford, England, and also near Stanford University in California as part of his work with the Hoover Institution. [14] They have two sons, Tom Ash, a web-developer based in Canada, and Alec Ash, a writer living in China. [14] His older brother Christopher is a Church of England clergyman.[ citation needed ]

Bibliography

Awards and honours

See also

Notes

  1. "John Garton Ash - obituary". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  2. "St. Ed's - OSE". saintedmunds.co.uk. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  3. Ash, Timothy (31 May 2007). "The Stasi on Our Minds". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  4. 1 2 "Memoirs of an inadvertent spy". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  5. "Fellows: Timothy Garton Ash". Hoover Institution. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  6. "Governing Body Fellows: Professor Timothy Garton Ash". St. Anthony's College. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  7. "Timothy Garton Ash". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  8. "timothy garton ash son dakika gelişmeleri ve haberleri Radikal'de!". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  9. Ferguson, Niall (18 April 2005). "Timothy Garton Ash". TIME.com. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  10. "Liberal internationalists have to own up: we left too many people behind". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  11. "Independence for Scotland would not be good for England". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  12. 1 2 "We know the price of appeasement. That's why we must stand up to Viktor Orbán". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  13. "The pillars of Poland's democracy are being destroyed". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  14. 1 2 "Biography". timothygartonash.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  15. "Premio di Giornalismo". premionapoli.it.
  16. "Timothy Garton Ash :: Biography". timothygartonash.com.
  17. "Eredoctoraten voor Maria Nowak, Timothy Garton Ash en Claudio Magris". Dagkrant Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (in Dutch). 22 December 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  18. europeonline-magazine.eu, europe online publishing house gmbh -. "Historian Garton Ash receives Germany's Charlemagne Prize 2017 | EUROPE ONLINE". en.europeonline-magazine.eu. Retrieved 22 January 2017.

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