Eritrean War of Independence

Last updated

Eritrean War of Independence
Part of the Ethiopian Civil War, the Cold War, the Sino-Soviet split, and the conflicts in the Horn of Africa
Eritrean Independence War Map.png
Military situation during the Eritrean War of Independence
Date1 September 1961 – 24 May 1991
(29 years, 8 months and 4 weeks)

EPLF victory

Independence of Eritrea; Ethiopia becomes a landlocked country.
Flag of Eritrea (1952-1961).svg ELF (1961–1981)
Supported by:

Flag of the EPLF.svg EPLF (since 1970)
Supported by:
Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg Ethiopian Empire
Supported by:

Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia (1974–1987)
Flag of Ethiopia (1987-1991).svg People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1987–1991)
Supported by:
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Eritrea (1952-1961).svg Hamid Idris Awate  
Flag of Eritrea (1952-1961).svg Abdella Idris
Flag of the EPLF.svg Isaias Afewerki
Flag of the EPLF.svg Mohammed S. Bareh
Flag of the EPLF.svg Sebhat Ephrem
Flag of the EPLF.svg Petros Solomon
Flag of the EPLF.svg Gerezgher Andemariam
Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg Haile Selassie
Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg Aklilu Habte-Wold
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg Tafari Benti
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg Mengistu H. Mariam
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg Tariku Ayne
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg Atnafu Abate   Skull and Crossbones.svg [30]
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg Addis Tedla
Flag of Eritrea (1952-1961).svg 230 (1963)
Flag of the EPLF.svg 20,000 (1975)
Flag of the EPLF.svg 100,000 (1990)
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg 41,000 (1975)
Flag of Ethiopia (1975-1987).svg 300,000 (1985)
Casualties and losses
  • 60,000 soldiers [31]
  • 90,000 civilians [31]
75,000 soldiers [31]

The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between successive Ethiopian governments and Eritrean independence fighters from 1 September 1961 to 24 May 1991.


Eritrea was an Italian colony from the 1880s until the defeat of the Italians by the Allies of World War II in 1941, Eritrea then briefly became a British protectorate until 1951. The General Assembly of the United Nations held a meeting about the fate of Eritrea, in which the majority of the delegates voted for the federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia, and Eritrea became a constituent state of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea in 1952. The Federation was supposed to last for ten years in which Eritreans could have mini sovereign decisions such as a parliament and some autonomy, but under the Ethiopian crown for further ones. The Assembly also assigned commissioner Anzio Mattienzo to supervise the process. Eritreans were supposed to claim Eritrea as an independent sovereign state after the ten years of federation. However, Eritrea's declining autonomy and growing discontent with Ethiopian rule caused an independence movement led by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) in 1961. Hamid Idris Awate officially began the Eritrean armed struggle for independence on 1 September 1961 on the mountain of Adal, near the town of Agordat in south western Eritrea. Ethiopia annexed Eritrea the next year. [32]

Following the Ethiopian Revolution in 1974, the Derg abolished the Ethiopian Empire and established a Marxist-Leninist communist state. The Derg enjoyed support from the Soviet Union and other communist nations in fighting against the Eritreans. The ELF was supported diplomatically and militarily by various countries, particularly the People's Republic of China, which supplied the ELF with weapons and training until 1972, when Ethiopia recognized Beijing as the legitimate government of China. [4]

The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) became the main liberation group in 1977, expelling the ELF from Eritrea, then exploiting the Ogaden War to launch a war of attrition against Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government under the Workers Party of Ethiopia lost Soviet support at the end of the 1980s and were overwhelmed by Ethiopian anti-government groups, allowing the EPLF to defeat Ethiopian forces in Eritrea in May 1991. [33]

The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), with the help of the EPLF, defeated the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) when it took control of the capital Addis Ababa a month later. [34] In April 1993, the Eritrean people voted almost unanimously in favour of independence in the Eritrean independence referendum, with formal international recognition of an independent, sovereign Eritrea in the same year.


The Italians colonised Eritrea in 1890. In 1936, Italy invaded Ethiopia and declared it part of their colonial empire, which they called Italian East Africa. Italian Somaliland was also part of that entity. There was a unified Italian administration.[ citation needed ]

Conquered by the Allies in 1941, Italian East Africa was sub-divided. Ethiopia liberated its formerly Italian occupied land in 1941. Italian Somaliland remained under Italian rule, but as a United Nations protectorate not a colony, until 1960 when it united with British Somaliland, to form the independent state of Somalia. [35]

Eritrea was made a British protectorate from the end of World War II until 1951. However, there was debate as to what should happen with Eritrea after the British left. The British delegation to the United Nations proposed that Eritrea be divided along religious lines with the Christians to Ethiopia and the Muslims to Sudan. [35] In 1952, the United Nations decided to federate Eritrea to Ethiopia, hoping to reconcile Ethiopian claims of sovereignty and Eritrean aspirations for independence. About nine years later, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie dissolved the federation and annexed Eritrea, triggering a thirty-year armed struggle in Eritrea. [36]


During the 1960s, the Eritrean independence struggle was led by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF). The independence struggle can properly be understood as the resistance to the annexation of Eritrea by Ethiopia long after the Italians left the territory. Additionally, one may consider the actions of the Ethiopian Monarchy against Muslims in the Eritrean government as a contributing factor to the revolution. [37] At first, this group factionalized the liberation movement along ethnic and geographic lines. The initial four zonal commands of the ELF were all lowland areas and primarily Muslim. Few Christians joined the organization in the beginning, fearing Muslim domination. [38]

After growing disenfranchisement with Ethiopian occupation, highland Christians began joining the ELF. Typically these Christians were part of the upper class or university-educated. This growing influx of Christian volunteers prompted the opening of the fifth (highland Christian) command. Internal struggles within the ELF command coupled with sectarian violence among the various zonal groups splintered the organization.

The war started on 1 September 1961 with the Battle of Adal, when Hamid Idris Awate and his companions fired the first shots against the occupying Ethiopian Army and police. In 1962, Emperor Haile Selassie unilaterally dissolved the federation and the Eritrean parliament and annexed the country.

War (1961–1991)

In 1970 members of the group had a falling out, and several different groups broke away from the ELF. During this time, the ELF and the groups that later joined together to form the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) fought a bitter civil war. The two organizations were forced by popular will to reconcile in 1974 and participated in joint operations against Ethiopia.

In 1974, Emperor Haile Selassie was ousted in a coup. The new Ethiopian government, called the Derg, was a Marxist military junta, which eventually came to be controlled by strongman Mengistu Haile Mariam. The new Derg regime took an additional three to four years to get complete control of both Ethiopia, Eritrea, and parts of Somalia. After this change of government, followed by international recognition, Ethiopia began a strategic alliance with the Soviet Union.

Many of the groups that splintered from the ELF joined together in 1977 and formed the EPLF. By the late 1970s, the EPLF had become the dominant armed Eritrean group fighting against the Ethiopian government. The leader of the umbrella organization was Secretary-General of the EPLF Ramadan Mohammed Nour, while the Assistant Secretary-General was Isaias Afewerki. [39] Much of the equipment used to combat Ethiopia was captured from the Ethiopian Army.

During this time, the Derg could not control the population by force alone. To supplement its garrisons, forces were sent on missions to instill fear in the population, including massacres which took place in primarily Muslim parts of Eritrea, including the villages of She'eb, Hirgigo, Elabared, and the town of Om Hajer; massacres also took place in predominately Christian areas as well. [38] The advent of these brutal killings of civilians regardless of race, religion, or class was the final straw for many Eritreans who were not involved in the war, and at this point many either fled the country or went to the front lines. [40]

The War memorial square in Massawa, Eritrea. War Memory Square in Massawa.jpg
The War memorial square in Massawa, Eritrea.

From 1975 to 1977, the ELF and EPLF outnumbered the Ethiopian army and overran all of Eritrea except Asmara, Massawa, and Barentu. [41] By 1977, the EPLF was poised to drive the Ethiopians out of Eritrea, by utilizing a simultaneous military invasion from the east by Somalia in the Ogaden to siphon off Ethiopian military resources. But in a dramatic turnaround, the Derg managed to repulse the Somali incursion, thanks mainly to a massive airlift of Soviet arms. After that, using the considerable manpower and military hardware available from the Somali campaign, the Ethiopian Army regained the initiative and forced the EPLF to retreat. This was most notable in the Battle of Barentu and the Battle of Massawa.

Between 1978 and 1986, the Derg launched eight major offensives against the independence movements, but all failed to crush the guerrilla movement. In 1988, with the Battle of Afabet, the EPLF captured Afabet and its surroundings, then headquarters of the Ethiopian Army in northeastern Eritrea, prompting the Ethiopian Army to withdraw from its garrisons in Eritrea's western lowlands. EPLF fighters then moved into position around Keren, Eritrea's second-largest city. Meanwhile, other dissident movements were making headway throughout Ethiopia.

Throughout the conflict Ethiopia used "anti-personnel gas", [42] napalm, [43] and other incendiary devices.

At the end of the 1980s, the Soviet Union informed Mengistu that it would not be renewing its defence and cooperation agreement. With the cessation of Soviet support and supplies, the Ethiopian Army's morale plummeted, and the EPLF, along with other Ethiopian rebel forces, began to advance on Ethiopian positions. The joint effort to overthrow the Mengistu, Marxist regime was a joint effort of mostly EPLF forces, united with other Ethiopian faction groups primarily consisting of tribal liberation fronts (for example: the Oromo Liberation Front, the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front – who were jointly in battles against the ELF and other key battles where many Tigrayans were lost in the Eritrean Civil Wars – and the EPRDF, a conglomerate of the current TPLF regime and the marxist Oromo People's Democratic Organization who became prominent for recruiting Derg defectors as the EPLF and EPRDF occupied parts of the provinces of Wollo and Shewa in Ethiopia). [44]

Map of Eritrea while still attached to Ethiopia as a federation, and later as an annexation. Ethiopia in its region (before 1993).svg
Map of Eritrea while still attached to Ethiopia as a federation, and later as an annexation.

Peace talks

The former President of the United States, Jimmy Carter, with the help of some U.S. government officials and United Nation officials, attempted to mediate in peace talks with the EPLF, hosted by the Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta, Georgia in September 1989. Ashagre Yigletu, Deputy Prime Minister of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE), helped negotiate and signed a November 1989 peace deal with the EPLF in Nairobi, along with Jimmy Carter and Al-Amin Mohamed Seid. However, soon after the deal was signed, hostilities resumed. [45] [46] [47] [48] Yigletu also led the Ethiopian government delegations in peace talks with the TPLF leader Meles Zenawi in November 1989 and March 1990 in Rome. [49] [50] He also attempted again to lead the Ethiopian delegation in peace talks with the EPLF in Washington, D.C. until March 1991. [51]


Eritrea (green) and Ethiopia (orange) as separate states Eritrea Ethiopia locator.svg
Eritrea (green) and Ethiopia (orange) as separate states

After the end of the Cold War, the United States played a facilitative role in the peace talks in Washington, D.C. during the months leading up to the May 1991 fall of the Mengistu regime. In mid-May, Mengistu resigned as head of the Ethiopian government and went into exile in Zimbabwe, leaving a caretaker government in Addis Ababa. A high-level U.S. delegation was present in Addis Ababa for the 1–5 July 1991 conference that established a transitional government in Ethiopia. Having defeated the Ethiopian forces in Eritrea, the EPLF attended as an observer and held talks with the new transitional government regarding Eritrea's relationship to Ethiopia. The outcome of those talks was an agreement in which the Ethiopians recognized the right of the Eritreans to hold a referendum on independence. The referendum was held in April 1993 and the Eritrean people voted almost unanimously in favour of independence, with the integrity of the referendum being verified by the UN Observer Mission to Verify the Referendum in Eritrea (UNOVER). On 28 May 1993, the United Nations formally admitted Eritrea to its membership. [52] Below are the results from the referendum:

Invalid/blank votes328-
Registered voters/turnout1,156,28098.52
Source: African Elections Database
Referendum Results [53]
RegionDo you want Eritrea to be an independent and sovereign country?Total
Asmara 128,44314433128,620
Barka 4,4254704,472
Denkalia 25,907912926,027
Gash-Setit 73,236270073,506
Hamasien 76,65459376,716
Akkele Guzay 92,4651472292,634
Sahel 51,0151413151,187
Semhar 33,5961134133,750
Seraye 124,7257212124,809
Senhit 78,51326178,540
Freedom fighters77,512214677,579
Sudan 153,7063520154,058
Ethiopia 57,4662043657,706

See also

Related Research Articles

"Eritrea" is an ancient name, associated in the past with its Greek form Erythraia, Ἐρυθραία, and its derived Latin form Erythræa. This name relates to that of the Red Sea, then called the Erythræan Sea, from the Greek for "red", ἐρυθρός, erythros. The Italians created the colony of Eritrea in the 19th century around Asmara, and named it with its current name. After World War II Eritrea was annexed to Ethiopia. In 1991 the communist Ethiopian government was toppled by Eritrean forces and the TPLF and they earned their independence. Eritrea officially celebrated its 1st anniversary of independence on April 27, 1994.

Ethiopian National Defense Force Military force of Ethiopia

The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) is the military force of Ethiopia. Civil direction of the military is carried out through the Ministry of Defense, which oversees the ground forces, air force, as well as the Defense Industry Sector.

Mengistu Haile Mariam Ethiopian dictator and politician; the chairman of the Derg

Mengistu Haile Mariam is a former Ethiopian army officer and politician who was the head of state of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991 and General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Ethiopia from 1984 to 1991. He was the chairman of the Derg, the socialist military junta that governed Ethiopia, from 1977 to 1987, and the President of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) from 1987 to 1991.

Meles Zenawi President of Ethiopia from 1991 to 1995 and Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 to 2012

Meles Zenawi Asres was an Ethiopian soldier and politician who ruled Ethiopia as President from 1991 to 1995 and as Prime Minister from 1995 until his death in 2012. He was considered the founder of ethnic federalism, which is followed in modern Ethiopia.

Derg Military junta that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987

The Derg, officially the Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC), was the military junta that ruled present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea from 1974 to 1987, when the military leadership formally 'civilianized' the administration but stayed in power until 1991.

Tigray Peoples Liberation Front Left-wing ethnic nationalist revolutionary political party in Ethiopia

The Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) is a left-wing ethnic nationalist paramilitary group, now leading political party, and former ruling party of Ethiopia, established on 18 February 1975 in Dedebit, northwestern Tigray, according to official records. Within 16 years, it had grown from about a dozen men into the most powerful armed liberation movement in Ethiopia. It led a coalition of movements named the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) from 1989 to 2018. It fought a 15-year-long war against the Derg regime which was overthrown in 1991. Due largely to its war fighting capabilities, the TPLF was at the forefront in the defeat of the Derg. It is widely known as Woyane,Weyane,Wayana or Wayane in older texts and Amharic publications. With the help of its former ally, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), the TPLF overthrew the dictatorship of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) and established a new government on 28 May 1991 that ruled Ethiopia until it was ousted from power in the federal government in 2018.

Peoples Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1987–1991 socialist state in East Africa

The People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) was a communist state that existed in Ethiopia and Eritrea from 1987 to 1991.

Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Party Political party in Ethiopia

The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP), is the first modern political party in Ethiopia, established in April 1972. Its first political program called for the overthrow of the Ethiopian monarchy, the removal of the feudal system, and the creation of a socialist democratic republic. The party was forced underground because the monarchy, headed by Emperor Haile Selassie, did not allow political parties or legal dissent.

Dekemhare Place in Debub, Eritrea

Dekemhare mekeyefat (sometimes spelled Decamare, Golden city is a town in Eritrea, lying south east of Asmara. Developed as an industrial center, it became a large scale industrial and transportation city, known for its vineyards but was partly destroyed in the Eritrean War of Independence.

Ethiopian Civil War Civil war in Ethiopia between 1974 and 1991

The Ethiopian Civil War was a civil war in Ethiopia and present-day Eritrea, fought between the Ethiopian military junta communist governments and Ethio-Eritrean anti-government rebels from September 1974 to June 1991.

Articles related to Ethiopia include:

Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Wikipedia list article

Conflicts in the Horn of Africa have been occurring since the 17th century BCE. The Horn of Africa includes the nations of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Somaliland.

Ethiopian Air Force Aerial military force of Ethiopia

The Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF) is the air service branch of the Ethiopian National Defence Force. The ETAF is tasked with protecting the national air space, providing support to ground forces, as well as assisting civil operations during national emergencies.

Ethiopian Navy Former naval military force of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1955–1996)

The Ethiopian Navy, known as the Imperial Ethiopian Navy until 1974, was a branch of the Ethiopian National Defense Force founded in 1955. It was disestablished in 1996 after the independence of Eritrea in 1991 left Ethiopia landlocked.

Military history of Ethiopia Overview at Ethiopian Army involvement in military

The military history of Ethiopia dates back to the foundation of early Ethiopian Kingdoms in 980 BC. Ethiopia has been involved many of the major conflicts in the horn of Africa, and was one of the few native African nations which remained independent during the Scramble for Africa, managing to create a modern army. 19th and 20th century Ethiopian Military history is characterized by conflicts with the Dervish State, Mahdist Sudan, Egypt, and Italy, and later by a civil war.

Ethiopia–Russia relations Bilateral relations

Ethiopia–Russia relations is the relationship between the two countries, Ethiopia and Russia. Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 21, 1943. Russia currently has an embassy in Addis Ababa, and Ethiopia has an embassy in Moscow. The Ethiopian ambassador to Russia is also accredited to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

Ethiopia–Israel relations Bilateral relations

Ethiopia–Israel relations are foreign relations between Ethiopia and Israel. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations in 1992. Ethiopia has an embassy in Tel Aviv; the ambassador is also accredited to the Holy See, Greece and Cyprus. Israel has an embassy in Addis Ababa; the ambassador is also accredited to Rwanda and Burundi. Israel has been one of Ethiopia's most reliable suppliers of military assistance, supporting different Ethiopian governments during the Eritrean War of Independence.

Bereket Mengisteab Eritrean musician (born 1938)

Bereket Mengisteab is a well-known Eritrean songwriter, composer and singer and is known as the "Godfather of Eritrean music".

Transitional Government of Ethiopia Period of Ethiopia between 1991–1995

The Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) was an era established immediately after the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) seized power from the Marxist-Leninist People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) in 1991. During the transitional period, Meles Zenawi served as the president of the TGE while Tamrat Layne was prime minister. Among other major shifts in the country's political institutions, it was under the authority of the TGE that the realignment of provincial boundaries on the basis of ethnolinguistic identity occurred. The TGE was in power until 1995, when it transitioned into the reconstituted Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia that remains today.



  1. 1 2 3 Fauriol, Georges A; Loser, Eva (1990). Cuba: the international dimension. Transaction Publishers. ISBN   0-88738-324-6.
  2. 1 2 The maverick state: Gaddafi and the New World Order, 1996. Page 71.
  3. 1 2 3 Connell, Dan; Killion, Tom (2011). Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN   978-0-8108-5952-4.
  4. 1 2 Schmidt, Elizabeth (2013). Foreign intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror. Cambridge. p. 158. ISBN   9780521882385. China assisted the ELF with weapons and military training until 1972, when Ethiopian recognition of Beijing as the legitimate Chinese government led to China's abandonment of the Eritrean struggle.
  5. Chinese and African Perspectives on China in Africa 2009, Page 93
  6. Schoultz, Lars (2009). That infernal little Cuban republic: the United States and the Cuban Revolution. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN   978-0-8078-3260-8.
  7. 1 2 Historical Dictionary of Eritrea, 2010. Page 492
  8. 1 2 Oil, Power and Politics: Conflict of Asian and African Studies, 1975. Page 97.
  9. Eritrea: Even the Stones Are Burning, 1998. Page 110
  10. Eritrea – liberation or capitulation, 1978. Page 103
  11. Politics and liberation: the Eritrean struggle, 1961–86: an analysis of the political development of the Eritrean liberation struggle 1961–86 by help of a theoretical framework developed for analysing armed national liberation movements, 1987. Page 170
  12. Tunisia, a Country Study, 1979. Page 220.
  13. African Freedom Annual, 1978. Page 109
  14. Ethiopia at Bay: A Personal Account of the Haile Selassie Years, 2006. page 318.
  15. Historical Dictionary of Eritrea, 2010. page 460
  16. 1 2 Spencer C. Tucker, A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, 2009. page 2402
  17. The Pillage of Sustainablility in Eritrea, 1600s–1990s: Rural Communities and the Creeping Shadows of Hegemony, 1998. Page 82.
  18. Ethiopia and the United States: History, Diplomacy, and Analysis, 2009. page 84.
  19. [1] [2] [3] [18]
  20. "Toledo Blade - Google News Archive Search".
  21. Ethiopia Archived 10 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine , Peace Corps website (accessed 6 July 2010)
  22. File:Haille Sellasse and Richard Nixon 1969.png
  23. [20] [21] [22]
  24. 1 2 3 "Ethiopia-Israel". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  25. U.S. Requests for Ethiopian Bases Pushed Toledo Blade, 13 March 1957
  26. "Communism, African-Style". Time. 4 July 1983. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
  27. "Ethiopia Red Star Over the Horn of Africa". Time. 4 August 1986. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
  28. "Ethiopia a Forgotten War Rages On". Time. 23 December 1985. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
  29. [3] [26] [27] [28]
  30. Kaufman, Michael T. "Ethiopian Official Is Believed to Have Been Executed". The New York Times.
  31. 1 2 3 Cousin, Tracey L. "Eritrean and Ethiopian Civil War". ICE Case Studies. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  32. "Eritrea: Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea; Report of the Interim Committee of the General Assembly on the Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea". United Nations. 2 December 1950. A/RES/390(V). Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  33. "Ethiopia-Eritrea: A Troubled Relationship". The Washington Post.
  34. Krauss, Clifford (28 May 1991). "Ethiopian Rebels Storm the Capital and Seize Control". The New York Times.
  35. 1 2 Daniel Kendie, The Five Dimensions of the Eritrean Conflict 1941–2004: Deciphering the Geo-Political Puzzle. United States of America: Signature Book Printing, Inc., 2005, pp.17–8.
  36. "Ethiopia and Eritrea", Global Policy Forum
  37. "HISTORY OF ERITREA". Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  38. 1 2 Killion, Tom (1998). Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow. ISBN   0-8108-3437-5.
  39. "Discourses on Liberation and Democracy – Eritrean Self-Views". Archived from the original on 15 December 2004. Retrieved 25 August 2006.
  40. "List of massacres committed during the Eritrean War of Independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  41. Waal, Alexander De (1991). Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. Human Rights Watch. p. 50. ISBN   9781564320384.
  42. Johnson & Johnson 1981.
  43. Keller 1992.
  44. "Ethiopia - Eritrea: A tale of Two-Halves". TesfaNews. 21 August 2014.
  45. Fontrier, Marc. La chute de la junte militaire ethiopienne: (1987–1991) : chroniques de la Republique Populaire et Democratique d'Ethiopie . Paris [u.a.]: L' Harmattan, 1999. pp. 453–454
  46. AP Images. Former President Jimmy Carter tells a news conference that peace talks between delegations headed by Alamin Mohamed Saiyed, left, of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front and Ashegre Yigletu, right, of the Worker's Party of Ethiopia will be resumed in November in Nairobi, Kenya, at the Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta, Sept. 19, 1989. (AP Photo/Charles Kelly)
  47. New African . London: IC Magazines Ltd., 1990. p. 9
  48. The Weekly Review . Nairobi: Stellascope Ltd.], 1989. p. 199
  49. Haile-Selassie, Teferra. The Ethiopian Revolution, 1974–1991: From a Monarchical Autocracy to a Military Oligarchy . London [u.a.]: Kegan Paul Internat, 1997. p. 293
  50. [Regime Stability and Peace Negotiations]
  51. Iyob, Ruth. The Eritrean Struggle for Independence: Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941–1993 . Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p. 175
  52. "Eritrea". Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2006.
  53. "Eritrea: Birth of a Nation" . Retrieved 30 January 2007.


Further reading