First Liberian Civil War

Last updated
First Liberian Civil War
Part of the Liberian Civil Wars
Date24 December 1989 – 2 August 1997
(7 years, 7 months, 1 week and 2 days)
Location
Result

NPFL victory

Belligerents

Support:

Commanders and leaders
Strength
450,000 350,000
Casualties and losses
Total killed: 400,000 [1] –620,000 including civilians

The First Liberian Civil War was an internal conflict in Liberia from 1989 until 1997. The conflict killed about 250,000 people [2] and eventually led to the involvement of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and of the United Nations. The peace did not last long, and in 1999 the Second Liberian Civil War broke out.

Liberia republic in West Africa

Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest. It covers an area of 111,369 square kilometers (43,000 sq mi) and has a population of around 4,700,000 people. English is the official language and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, representing the numerous ethnic groups who make up more than 95% of the population. The country's capital and largest city is Monrovia.

Economic Community of West African States intergovernmental economic unnion

The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa. Collectively, these countries comprise an area of 5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi), and in 2015 had an estimated population of over 349 million.

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.

Contents

Samuel Doe had led a coup d'état that overthrew the elected government in 1980, and in 1985 held elections that were widely considered fraudulent. There had been one unsuccessful coup by a former military leader. In December 1989, former government minister Charles Taylor moved into the country from neighboring Côte d'Ivoire to start an uprising meant to topple the Doe government.

Samuel Doe 21st President of Liberia

Samuel Kanyon Doe was a Liberian politician who served as the Liberian leader from 1980 to 1990, first as a military leader and later as a politician. Then Master Sergeant Doe served as chairman of the People's Redemption Council and de facto head of state after staging a violent coup d'etat in 1980; he killed President William R. Tolbert, Jr., and executed much of the True Whig Party leadership. Samuel Doe in turn was murdered by his conqueror, Prince Johnson, one time ally of Charles Taylor, in an internationally televised display.

Coup détat Sudden deposition of a government; illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus

A coup d'état, also known as a putsch, a golpe, or simply as a coup, means the overthrow of an existing government; typically, this refers to an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a dictator, the military, or a political faction.

Taylor's forces, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) battled against Prince Johnson's rebel group, the Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL) – a faction of NPFL – for control in Monrovia. In 1990, Johnson seized the capital of Monrovia and executed Doe.

The National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) was a rebel group that initiated and participated in the First Liberian Civil War from 1989 to 1996.

Prince Yormie Johnson is a Liberian politician and the current Senior Senator from Nimba County. A former rebel leader, Johnson played a prominent role in the First Liberian Civil War, in particular capturing, torturing, mutilating and executing President Samuel Doe, who had himself overthrown and murdered the previous president William R. Tolbert Jr.

Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia

The Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL) was a rebel group that participated in the First Liberian Civil War under the leadership of Prince Johnson. It was a breakaway faction of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL).

Peace negotiations and foreign involvement led to a ceasefire in 1995 that was broken the next year before a final peace agreement and new national elections were held in 1997. Taylor was elected President of Liberia in July 1997.

President of Liberia Wikimedia list article

The President of the Republic of Liberia is the head of state and government of Liberia. The president serves as the leader of the executive branch and as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Liberia.

Background

Samuel Doe with then Secretary of Defense of the United States Caspar W. Weinberger outside of the Pentagon in 1982. Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger - Samuel K. Doe.jpg
Samuel Doe with then Secretary of Defense of the United States Caspar W. Weinberger outside of the Pentagon in 1982.

Samuel Doe takes power in coup (1980)

Samuel Doe had taken power in a popular coup in 1980 against William R. Tolbert, becoming the first Liberian President of non Americo-Liberian descent. Doe established a military regime called the People's Redemption Council and enjoyed early support from a large number of indigenous Liberian ethnic groups who had been excluded from power since the founding of the country in 1847 by freed American slaves.

The People's Redemption Council (PRC) was a governmental body that ruled Liberia during the early 1980s. It was established after the 1980 Liberian coup d'état wherein Samuel Doe seized power on 12 April 1980. The Council, with Doe as its chairman, promised a complete overhaul of Liberia's society, economy, and political system and the replacement of the corruption of previous regimes with respect for the rights of the Liberian people. The PRC had 17 founding members and was later expanded to 28. The PRC initially functioned as the executive and legislative body in Doe's government. However, over time Doe consolidated power as a central executive. In 1984, the PRC was dissolved and replaced by the Interim National Assembly.

Any hope that Doe would improve the way Liberia was run was put aside as he quickly clamped down on opposition, fueled by his paranoia of a counter-coup attempt against him. As promised, Doe held elections in 1985 and won the presidency by just enough of a margin to avoid a runoff. However, international monitors condemned this election as fraudulent. [3] [ citation needed ]

Coup attempt by Thomas Quiwonkpa (November 1985)

Thomas Quiwonkpa, the former Commanding General of the Armed Forces of Liberia whom Doe had demoted and forced to flee the country, attempted to overthrow Doe's regime from neighboring Sierra Leone. The coup attempt failed and Quiwonkpa was killed and allegedly eaten. [4] His body was publicly exhibited on the grounds of the Executive Mansion in Monrovia soon after his death. [5]

Crackdown on the Gio and Mano ethnic groups (1985)

Large scale government crackdowns followed in Nimba County, Zuleyee in the north of the country against the Gio and Mano ethnic groups where the majority of the coup plotters came from. The mistreatment of the Gio and Mano ethnic groups fueled ethnic tensions in Liberia, which had already been rising due to Doe's preferential treatment of his own group, the Krahn.

Charles Taylor builds insurgent forces (1985-1989)

Charles Taylor, who had left Doe's government after being accused of embezzlement, assembled a group of rebels in Côte d'Ivoire (mostly ethnic Gios and Manos who felt persecuted by Doe) who later became known as the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL). They invaded Nimba County on 24 December 1989. The Liberian Army retaliated against the whole population of the region, attacking unarmed civilians and burning villages. Many left as refugees for Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, but opposition to Doe was inflamed. Prince Johnson, an NPFL fighter, split to form his own guerrilla force soon after crossing the border, based on the Gio tribe and named Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL).

First Liberian Civil War (1989-1997)

Charles Taylor's force attacks (1989)

Charles Taylor organized and trained indigenous northerners in Ivory Coast. During Doe's regime Taylor had served in the Liberian Government's General Services Agency, acting 'as its de facto director'. [6] He fled to the United States in 1983 amid what Stephan Ellis describes as the 'increasingly menacing atmosphere in Monrovia' shortly before Thomas Quiwonkpa, Doe's chief lieutenant, fled into exile himself. Doe requested Taylor's extradition for embezzling $900,000 of Liberian government funds. Taylor was thus arrested in the United States and after sixteen months broke out of a Massachusetts jail in circumstances that are still unclear.

Krahn vs Gio and Mano ethnic groups

The NPFL initially encountered plenty of support within Nimba County, which had endured the majority of Samuel Doe's wrath after the 1985 attempted coup. When Taylor and his force of 100 rebels reentered Liberia in 1989, on Christmas Eve, thousands of Gio and Mano joined them. While these formed the core of his rebel army, there were many Liberians of other ethnic backgrounds who joined as well. Doe responded by sending two AFL battalions, including the 1st Infantry Battalion, [7] to Nimba in December 1989-January 1990, [8] apparently under then-Colonel Hezekiah Bowen. [9]

The AFL acted in a very brutal and scorched-earth fashion, which quickly alienated the local people. The rebel invasion soon pitted ethnic Krahn sympathetic to the Doe regime against those victimized by it, the Gio and the Mano. Thousands of civilians were massacred on both sides. Hundreds of thousands fled their homes. The Monrovia Church massacre was carried out by approximately 30 ethnic Krahn government soldiers, killing 600 civilians in St. Peter's Lutheran Church, Monrovia, on 29 July 1990, the worst single atrocity of the First Liberian Civil War. [10] [11]

By May 1990 the AFL had been forced back to Gbarnga, still under the control of Bowen's troops, but they lost the town to a NPFL assault on 28 May. [12] By June 1990, Taylor's forces were laying siege to Monrovia. In July 1990, Prince Yormie Johnson split from Taylor and formed the Independent National Patriotic Front (INPFL). The INPFL and NPFL continued their siege on Monrovia, which the AFL defended. Johnson quickly took control of parts of Monrovia prompting evacuation of foreign nationals and diplomats by the US Navy in August.

ECOWAS intervention force (August 1990)

In August 1990, the 16-member Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) agreed to deploy a joint military intervention force, the Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), and place it under Nigerian leadership. The mission later included troops from non-ECOWAS countries, including Uganda and Tanzania. ECOMOG's objectives were to impose a cease-fire; help Liberians establish an interim government until elections could be held; stop the killing of innocent civilians; and ensure the safe evacuation of foreign nationals.

ECOMOG also sought to prevent the conflict from spreading into neighboring states, which share a complex history of state, economic, and ethno-linguistic social relations with Liberia. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) attempted to persuade Doe to resign and go into exile, but despite his weak position – besieged in his mansion – he refused. ECOMOG, an ECOWAS intervention force, arrived at the Freeport of Monrovia on August 24, 1990, landing from Nigerian and Ghanaian vessels. [13]

Capture and killing of Samuel Doe (September 1990)

INPFL militiamen in 1990 after taking control of much of Monrovia. Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia in Monrovia 1990.png
INPFL militiamen in 1990 after taking control of much of Monrovia.

On 9 September 1990, Doe visited the barely established, newly arrived ECOMOG headquarters in the Free Port of Monrovia. Stephen Ellis says, [14] his motive was to lay a complaint that the ECOMOG commander had not paid a courtesy call to Doe, the Head of State, however, the exact circumstances that led to Doe's visit to the Free Port are still unclear. Doe had been under pressure to accept exile outside of Liberia. However, after Doe arrived, a large rebel force led by Prince Johnson's INPFL arrived at the headquarters and then attacked Doe's party. Doe was captured and taken to the INPFL's Caldwell base. He was brutally tortured before being killed and dismembered. His torture and execution was videotaped by his captors. [15] [16]

Johnson's INPFL and Taylor's NPFL continued to struggle for control of Monrovia in the months that followed. With military discipline absent and bloodshed throughout the capital region, members of ECOWAS created the Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) to restore order. The force comprised some 4,000 troops from Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, the Gambia and Guinea. ECOMOG succeeded in bringing Taylor and Johnson to agree to its intervention, but Taylor's forces engaged it in the port area of Monrovia.

Peace making attempts (1990)

A series of peacemaking conferences in regional capitals followed. There were meetings in Bamako in November 1990, Lome in January 1991, and Yamoussoukro in June–October 1991. But the first seven peace conferences, including the Yamoussoukro I-IV processes failed. In November 1990, ECOWAS invited the principal Liberian players to meet in Banjul, Gambia to form a government of national unity. The negotiated settlement established the Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU), led by Dr. Amos Sawyer, leader of the LPP. Bishop Ronald Diggs of the Liberian Council of Churches became vice president. However, Taylor's NPFL refused to attend the conference. Within days, hostilities resumed. ECOMOG was reinforced in order to protect the interim government. Sawyer was able to establish his authority over most of Monrovia, but the rest of Liberia was in the hands of various factions of the NPFL or of local gangs.

ULIMO

The United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) was formed in June 1991 by supporters of the late President Samuel K. Doe and former Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) fighters who had taken refuge in Guinea and Sierra Leone. It was led by Raleigh Seekie, a deputy Minister of Finance in the Doe government.

After fighting alongside the Sierra Leonean army against the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), ULIMO forces entered western Liberia in September 1991. The group scored significant gains in areas held by another rebel group – the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), notably around the diamond mining areas of Lofa and Bomi counties.

From its outset, ULIMO was beset with internal divisions and the group effectively broke into two separate militias in 1994: ULIMO-J, an ethnic Krahn faction led by General Roosevelt Johnson and ULIMO-K, a Mandingo-based faction led by Alhaji G.V. Kromah.

The group was alleged to have committed serious violations of human rights, both before and after its breakup.

Attack on Monrovia (1992)

Peace was still far off as both Taylor and Johnson claimed power. ECOMOG declared an Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU) with Amos Sawyer as their president, with the broad support of Johnson. Taylor launched an assault on Monrovia on October 15, 1992, named 'Operation Octopus.' [17] which may have been led by Burkina Faso soldiers. [18] The resulting siege lasted two months.

By late December, ECOMOG had pushed the NPFL back beyond Monrovia's suburbs.

UNOMIL

In 1993, ECOWAS brokered a peace agreement in Cotonou, Benin. Following this, on September 22, 1993, the United Nations (U.N.) Security Council established the UN Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL), to support ECOMOG in implementing this peace agreement. UNOMIL was deployed in early 1994 with 368 military observers and associated civilian personnel to monitor implementation of the Cotonou Peace Agreement, prior to elections originally planned for February/March 1994.

Renewed armed hostilities broke out in May 1994 and continued, becoming especially intense in July and August. ECOMOG, and later UNOMIL, members were captured and held hostage by some factions. By mid-1994, the humanitarian situation had become disastrous, with 1.8 million Liberians in need of humanitarian assistance. Conditions continued to deteriorate, but humanitarian agencies were unable to reach many in need due to hostilities and general insecurity.

Factional leaders agreed in September 1994 to the Akosombo Agreement, a supplement to the Cotonou agreement, named after the Ghanaian town where it was signed. The security situation in Liberia remained poor. In October 1994, in the face of ECOMOG funding shortfalls and a lack of will by the Liberian combatants to honor agreements to end the war, the UN Security Council reduced to about 90 the number of UNOMIL observers. It extended UNOMIL's mandate and subsequently extended it several times until September 1997.

In December 1994, the factions and other parties signed the Accra Agreement, a supplement to the Akosombo Agreement. Disagreements ensued and fighting continued.

Ceasefire (1995)

In August 1995, the main factions signed an agreement largely brokered by Ghanaian President Jerry Rawlings. At a conference sponsored by ECOWAS, the United Nations and the United States, the European Union, and the Organization of African Unity, Charles Taylor agreed to a cease-fire and a timetable to demobilize and disarm his troops.

At the beginning of September 1995, Liberia's three principal warlords – Taylor, George Boley and Alhaji Kromah – made theatrical entrances into Monrovia. A ruling council of six members under civilian Wilton G. S. Sankawulo and with the three factional heads Charles Taylor, Alhaji Kromah and George Boley, took control of the country preparatory to elections that were originally scheduled for 1996.

Fighting in Monrovia (1996)

NPFL fighters search for ULIMO militants in Monrovia. National Patriotic Liberation Front fighters in Monrovia 1996.png
NPFL fighters search for ULIMO militants in Monrovia.

Heavy fighting broke out again in April 1996. This led to the evacuation of most international non-governmental organizations and the destruction of much of Monrovia.

In August 1996, these battles were ended by the Abuja Accord in Nigeria, agreeing to disarmament and demobilization by 1997 and elections in July of that year. 3 September 1996, Sankawulo is followed by Ruth Perry as chairwoman of the ruling council, who served until 2 August 1997.

1997 Elections

Simultaneous elections for the presidency and national assembly were finally held in July 1997. In a climate hardly conducive to free movement and security of persons, Taylor and his National Patriotic Party won an overwhelming victory against 12 other candidates. Assisted by widespread intimidation, Taylor took 75 per cent of the presidential poll (no other candidate won more than 10 per cent) while the NPP won a similar proportion of seats in both parliamentary chambers. 2 August 1997, Ruth Perry handed power to elected president Charles Taylor.

Aftermath

In 1997, the Liberian people elected Charles Taylor as the President after he entered the capital city, Monrovia, by force. Liberians had voted for Taylor in the hope that he would end the bloodshed. The bloodshed did slow considerably, but it did not end. Violent events flared up regularly after the putative end of the war. Taylor, furthermore, was accused of backing guerrillas in neighboring countries and funneling diamond monies into arms purchases for the rebel armies he supported, and into luxuries for himself. The implicit unrest manifested during the late 1990s is emblematic in the sharp national economic decline and the prevalent sale of diamonds and timber in exchange for small arms.

After Taylor's victory, Liberia was peaceful enough so that refugees began to return. But other leaders were forced to leave the country, and some ULIMO forces reformed as the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD). LURD began fighting in Lofa County with the aim of destabilizing the government and gaining control of the local diamond fields, leading to the Second Liberian Civil War.

Impact

The Liberian civil war was one of Africa's bloodiest. From 1989-1996, it claimed the lives of more than 200,000 Liberians and further displaced a million others into refugee camps in neighboring countries. Child soldiers were used throughout the war.

The civil war claimed the lives of one out of every 17 people in the country, uprooted most of the rest, and destroyed a once-viable economic infrastructure. The strife also spread to Liberia's neighbors. It helped slow democratization in West Africa at the beginning of the 1990s and destabilized a region that already was one of the world's most unsteady.

Second Liberian Civil War

The Second Liberian Civil War began in 1999 and ended in October 2003, when ECOWAS intervened to stop the rebel siege on Monrovia and exiled Charles Taylor to Nigeria until he was arrested in 2006 and taken to The Hague for his trial. By the conclusion of the final war, more than 250,000 people had been killed and nearly 1 million displaced. Half that number remain to be repatriated in 2005, at the election of Liberia's first democratic President since the initial 1980 coup d'état of Samuel Doe.

Former president Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who initially was a strong supporter of Charles Taylor, was inaugurated in January 2006 and the National Transitional Government of Liberia terminated its power.

Lists

Armed groups that participated in the war

Peace agreements

Peace agreements signed included the: [19]

See also

General:

Related Research Articles

History of Liberia aspect of history

Liberia is a country in West Africa which was founded, established, colonized, and controlled by citizens of the United States and ex-Caribbean slaves as a colony for former African American slaves and their free black descendants. It is one of only two sovereign countries in the world that were started by citizens and ex-Caribbean slaves of a political power as a colony for former slaves of the same political power, the other being Sierra Leone, established by Great Britain. Settlement of former slaves was organised by the American Colonization Society (ACS). The mortality rate of these settlers was the highest in accurately recorded human history. Of the 4,571 emigrants who arrived in Liberia from 1820 to 1843, only 1,819 survived until 1843.

Politics of Liberia

Politics of Liberia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic modeled on the government of the United States, whereby the President is the head of state and head of government; unlike the United States, however, Liberia is a unitary state as opposed to a federation and has a pluriform multi-party system rather than the two-party system that characterizes US politics. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the legislature.

Krahn is an ethnic group of Liberia and Ivory Coast. This group belongs to the Kru language family and its people are sometimes referred to as the Wee, Guéré, Sapo, or Wobe. It is likely that Western contact with the Kru language is the primary reason for the development of these different names. The term Krahn may also be applied to denote the language spoken by this ethnic group.

Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group

The Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) was a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). ECOMOG was a formal arrangement for separate armies to work together. It was largely supported by personnel and resources of the Nigerian Armed Forces, with sub-battalion strength units contributed by other ECOWAS members — Ghana, Guinea, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and others.

Second Liberian Civil War 1999-2003 civil war in Liberia

The Second Liberian Civil War began in 1999 when a rebel group backed by the government of neighbouring Guinea, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), emerged in northern Liberia. In early 2003, a second rebel group, the Movement for Democracy in Liberia, emerged in the south, and by June–July 2003, Charles Taylor's government controlled only a third of the country.

Thomas Quiwonkpa (1955-1985), a Gio from Nimba County, was a Commanding General of the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) and founder of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia.

The United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) was a rebel group that participated in the First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996).

David Roosevelt Johnson was a Liberian who led a rebel group during the country's civil war. He was a member of the Krahn ethnic group.

A new civil war began in 1999 when a rebel group backed by the government of neighboring Guinea, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), emerged in northern Liberia. By the spring of 2001, they were posing a major threat to the Taylor government. Liberia was now engaged in a complex three-way conflict with Sierra Leone and the Guinea Republic. By the beginning of 2002, both of these countries were supporting the latest addition to the lexicon of Liberian guerrilla outfits – Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), while Taylor was supporting various opposition factions in both countries. By supporting Sierra Leonean rebels, Taylor also drew the enmity of the British and Americans.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 856 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 856, adopted unanimously on 10 August 1993, after reaffirming Resolution 813 (1993) and welcoming a peace agreement signed, under the auspices of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), between the Interim Government of National Unity of Liberia (IGNU), the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), and the United Liberation Movement for Democracy (ULIMO), the Council approved a dispatch of 30 military observers to Liberia.

United Nations Security Council resolution 950, adopted unanimously on 21 October 1994, after reaffirming resolutions 813 (1993), 856 (1993), 866 (1993) and 911 (1994), the Council noted the deteriorating situation in Liberia and extended the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) until 13 January 1995.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1014 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1014, adopted unanimously on 15 September 1995, after recalling all resolutions on the situation in Liberia, particularly 1001 (1995), the Council discussed various aspects of the civil war and extended the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) until 31 January 1996.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1059 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1059, adopted unanimously on 31 May 1996, after recalling all resolutions on the situation in Liberia, particularly Resolution 1041 (1996), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) until 31 August 1996 and discussed the security situation in the country.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1071 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1071, adopted unanimously on 30 August 1996, after recalling all resolutions on the situation in Liberia, particularly Resolution 1059 (1996), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) until 30 November 1996 and discussed matters relating to UNOMIL.

John Hezekiah Bowen was an officer of the Armed Forces of Liberia.

Mohammed Jabbateh, nom de guerre "Jungle Jabbah" is a Liberian native who stood trial in a US court beginning on October 2, 2017 for lying to United States (US) authorities about his role in the First Liberian Civil War (1989-1997) when he sought asylum in the late 1990s. On October 18, 2017, Jabbateh was charged in a Philadelphia federal courthouse with two counts of fraud in immigration documents and two counts of perjury stemming from statements he made to US authorities when filing for asylum and permanent residence. He is the first person convicted of crimes stemming from his war-related activities during the First Liberian Civil War.

References

  1. Edgerton, Robert B, Africa's armies: from honor to infamy: a history from 1791 to the present (2002)
  2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13729504
  3. "Fraud charged in Liberia's first one-man, one-vote election". Christian Science Monitor. 1985-10-25. ISSN   0882-7729 . Retrieved 2017-10-17.
  4. Dickovick, J. Tyler (2008). The World Today Series: Africa 2012. Lanham, Maryland: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN   978-1-61048-881-5.
  5. "How Quiwonkpa Was Killed". Daily Star 1985-11-18: 5.
  6. Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy, Hurst & Company, London, 2001, p.57, 67-68
  7. HRW, Flight from Terror, May 1990
  8. Charles Hartung, 'Peacekeeping in Liberia: ECOMOG and the Struggle for Order,' Liberian Studies Journal, Volume XXX, No.2, 2005
  9. Mark Huband, The Liberian Civil War, p.115, 118-119
  10. "Liberian church massacre survivors seek US justice". BBC News . 12 February 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  11. "Liberia Troops Accused Of Massacre in Church". The New York Times . 31 July 1990. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  12. Hubard, p.115
  13. Adebajo, 2002, p.75
  14. The Mask of Anarchy, by Stephen Ellis, 2001, p.1-9
  15. Armon, Jeremy; Andy Carl (1996). "Liberia: Chronology". Conciliation Resources. Retrieved 2007-02-26.
  16. Ellis, Stephen (2007) [1999]. The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of African Civil War. London, UK: Hurst & Company. pp. 1–16. ISBN   1850654174.
  17. See Ellis, Mask of Anarchy, 98-99.
  18. Herbert Howe, Ambiguous Order, 2005, 143.
  19. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program".

Further reading