Demobilization

Last updated
Demob papers issued to a South African sailor in February 1946 WWII South African demob papers (front).jpg
Demob papers issued to a South African sailor in February 1946
Back page of demob papers issued to a South African sailor in February 1946 WWII South African demob papers (reverse).jpg
Back page of demob papers issued to a South African sailor in February 1946

Demobilization or demobilisation (see spelling differences) is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war, or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary. The opposite of demobilization is mobilization. Forceful demobilization of a defeated enemy is called demilitarization.

Contents

The United Nations defined demobilization as "a multifaceted process that officially certifies an individual's change of status from being a member of a military grouping of some kind to being a civilian". [1] Persons undergoing demobilization are removed from the command and control of their armed force and group and the transformation from a military mindset to that of a civilian begins. Although combatants become civilians when they acquire their official discharge documents the mental connection and formal ties to their military command structure still exist. To prevent soldiers from rejoining their armed groups, important preparatory work must be done to ensure that combatants are ready to be reintegrated into society and capable of returning to their civilian lives. Civilians play an important role in supporting combatants to return to civilian life by exposing them to civilian lifestyles and mindsets that combat the rigid military mindset soldiers acquire during their time of service.

Demobilization can be partial or complete depending on the number of units removed from the command structure. The process is often a symbolic and significant part of the peace process during which the conflicting sides acknowledge their intent to consolidate peace.

The United Nations identifies demobilization as part of a three-pronged approach to conflict management. [2] This includes disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration to take combatants out of conflict situations as well as remove weapons and help former members of armed groups rejoin society.

In the final days of World War II, for example, the United States Armed Forces developed a demobilization plan which would discharge soldiers on the basis of a point system that favored length and certain types of service. The British armed forces were demobilized according to an "age-and-service" scheme. [3]

The phrase demob happy refers to demobilization and is broadly applied to the feeling of relief at imminent release from a time-serving burden, such as a career. [4] In the Russian language, it is known as dembel and has become a certain tradition in the Soviet and post-Soviet Armed Forces. A United States equivalent is "short-timer's disease", comparable to "senioritis" among United States high school students.

Two approaches to demobilization

The United Nations Peacekeeping Operational Manual lists two different approaches to demobilization. These approaches are the semi-permanent demobilization sites (cantonment) or the mobile method which means demobilization at the sites where ex-combatants are gathered. [1]

Other uses

In professional diving, demobilization is the dismantling, packing and transport back to storage of the diving spread, and where relevant, restoring the site to initial condition. Mobilization is the converse process. [5] [6] [7] [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone</span> United Nations peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone from 1999 to 2006

The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) was a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone from 1999 to 2006. It was created by the United Nations Security Council in October 1999 to help with the implementation of the Lomé Peace Accord, an agreement intended to end the Sierra Leonean civil war. UNAMSIL expanded in size several times in 2000 and 2001. It concluded its mandate at the end of 2005, the Security Council having declared that its mission was complete.

The Afghan New Beginnings Programme aimed to disarm, demobilise and reintegrate thousands of combatants from the Afghan Militia Forces/Afghan Army and provide them opportunities to join the Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police or an alternative line of work. The government of Afghanistan and the ANBP estimated that there might be 100,000 former combatants who could be integrated into civilian life.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda</span>

The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda is an armed rebel group active in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. As an ethnic Hutu group opposed to the ethnic Tutsi influence, the FDLR is one of the last factions of Rwandan rebels active in the Congo. It was founded through an amalgamation of other groups of Rwandan refugees in September 2000, including the former Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALiR), under the leadership of Paul Rwarakabije. It was active during the latter phases of the Second Congo War and the subsequent insurgencies in Kivu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Mission in Liberia</span>

The United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) was a peacekeeping operation established in September 2003 to monitor a ceasefire agreement in Liberia following the resignation of President Charles Taylor and the conclusion of the Second Liberian Civil War (1999–2003). At its peak it consisted of up to 15,000 U.N. military personnel and 1,115 police officers, along with civilian political advisors and aid workers.

Operation Accius is the Canadian military's contribution to the civilian-led United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA). On November 28, 2002, the Minister of National Defence John McCallum announced that a senior Canadian Forces officer by the name of Lieutenant Colonel David Ross would be deployed to Afghanistan to serve as the military advisor to UNAMA.

Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR), or disarmament, demobilisation, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement (DDRRR) are strategies used as a component of peace processes, and is generally the strategy employed by all UN Peacekeeping Operations following civil wars.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Security Council Resolution 1674</span> United Nations resolution adopted in 2006

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1674, adopted unanimously on April 28, 2006, after reaffirming resolutions 1265 (1999) and 1296 (2000) concerning the protection of civilians in armed conflict and Resolution 1631 (2005) on co-operation between the United Nations and regional organisations, the Council stressed a comprehensive approach to the prevention of armed conflict and its recurrence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demobilisation of the British Armed Forces after the Second World War</span> Demobilisation of British Armed Forces after Second World War

At the end of the Second World War, there were approximately five million servicemembers in the British Armed Forces. The demobilisation and reassimilation of this vast force back into civilian life was one of the first and greatest challenges facing the postwar British government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Security Council Resolution 1270</span> United Nations resolution adopted in 1999

United Nations Security Council resolution 1270, adopted unanimously on 22 October 1999, after recalling resolutions 1171 (1998), 1181 (1998), 1231 (1999) and 1260 (1999) on the situation in Sierra Leone and Resolution 1265 (1999) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, established the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) to assist in the implementation of the Lomé Peace Accord.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Security Council Resolution 1289</span> United Nations resolution adopted in 2000

United Nations Security Council resolution 1289, adopted unanimously on 7 February 2000, after recalling resolutions 1171 (1998), 1181 (1998), 1231 (1999), 1260 (1999), 1265 (1999) and 1270 (1999) on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for a period of six months and expanded its military component.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Security Council Resolution 1528</span> United Nations resolution adopted in 2004

United Nations Security Council resolution 1528, adopted unanimously on 27 February 2004, after recalling resolutions 1464 (2003), 1479 (2003), 1498 (2003), 1514 (2003) and 1527 (2004) on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, the council established the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) for an initial period of twelve months.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Security Council Resolution 1609</span> United Nations resolution adopted in 2005

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1609 was adopted unanimously on 24 June 2005. After recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, the council extended the mandate of the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) and supporting French forces for a further seven months until 24 January 2006.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically conditions of forced labor and forced prostitution. The majority of this trafficking is internal, and much of it is perpetrated by armed groups and government forces outside government control within the DRC's unstable eastern provinces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MISCA</span>

The African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic is an African Union peacekeeping mission to the Central African Republic. It was established on 5 December 2013 by United Nations Security Council resolution 2127 to stabilise the country as a result of the Central African Republic conflict under the Djotodia administration and following the 2013 Central African Republic coup d'état.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Child soldiers in Africa</span>

Child soldiers in Africa refers to the military use of children under the age of 18 by national armed forces or other armed groups in Africa. Typically, this classification includes children serving in non-combatant roles, as well as those serving in combatant roles. In 2008, it was estimated that 40 percent of child soldiers worldwide were in Africa, and that the use of child soldiers in armed conflict was increasing faster than any other continent. Additionally, average age of children recruited as soldiers appears to be decreasing. As of 2017, the UN listed that seven out of fourteen countries recruiting and using child soldiers in state forces or armed groups were in Africa: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan.

Roughly 10,000-14,000 child soldiers in Sierra Leone fought between 1991 and 2002 in the Sierra Leone Civil War. Children fought on both sides of the conflict. Nearly half of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), and a quarter of the governmental armed forces consisted of children aged 8–14 years old.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MINUSCA</span> United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic

United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic is a UN peacekeeping mission, which started on April 10, 2014, to protect Central African Republic civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. It transformed the 6,000-strong African Union-led peacekeeping force known as MISCA into a UN peacekeeping mission and became operational on September 15, 2014. The UN deployed a transition team to set up MINUSCA and prepare for a seamless transition of authority from MISCA to MINUSCA. As of 30 September 2021, it has more than 15,000 troops, police and civilian personnel on the ground. Its role is to:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rehabilitation and reintegration of child soldiers</span>

The rehabilitation and reintegration of child soldiers is defined by Child Soldiers International as:

"The process through which children formerly associated with armed forces/groups are supported to return to civilian life and play a valued role in their families and communities"

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone</span>

The United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) was a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone from 1998 to 1999 that was established with the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1181. Its mission was to monitor the military and security situation in Sierra Leone. The mission was terminated in October 1999, when the Security Council authorized deployment of a new, and significantly larger peacekeeping operation, the Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).

The First Liberian Civil War began in 1989, when Charles Taylor 's National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) forces invaded the country in rebellion against the regime of Samuel Doe, who came to power through the 1980 Liberian coup d'état. Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL), the United Liberation Movement for Democracy (ULIMO), as well as the NPFL utilized children as an integral aspect of their forces over the course of both armed conflicts, organizing them into factions such as the Small Boys Unit. The First Liberian Civil War as well as the Second Liberian Civil War saw thousands of children were forced to participate in armed conflict, resulting in an estimated figure of 21,000 child soldiers in need of demobilization, rehabilitation, and reintegration following the end of the Second Liberian Civil War in 2003, which concluded with the signage of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. In the years following the war, the Liberian government was implemented measures to promote their international and national commitment to reintegrating and supporting former Children in the military.

References

  1. 1 2 "United Nations Operational Guide to the Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards" (PDF). United Nations Peacekeeping. 2010. Retrieved 2022-05-21.
  2. "Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration". United Nations Peacekeeping. Retrieved 2022-05-22.
  3. See Alan Allport, Demobbed. Coming Home after the Second World War, Yale University Press, 2009.
  4. Demob
  5. "Dive Works Special Terms and Conditions" (PDF). diveworks.com.au. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  6. "Job title: Diving technician" (PDF). www.bluestreamoffshore.com. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  7. OGP Diving Operations Subcommittee (June 2008). Diving Recommended Practice (PDF). Report No: 411 (Report). International Association of Oil & Gas Producers.{{cite report}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. IMCA D 014: IMCA International Code of Practice for Offshore Diving (Rev. 2 ed.). International Marine Contractors Association. February 2014.

Further reading