North Africa

Last updated
North Africa
North Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Countries
Time zones UTC+00:00
UTC+01:00
UTC+02:00
Population density of Africa (2000) Population density of Africa.jpg
Population density of Africa (2000)

North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Others[ Like whom? ] have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region that was known by the French during colonial times as "Afrique du Nord" and is known by Arabs as the Maghreb ("West", The western part of Arab World). The most commonly accepted definition includes Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Sudan, the 6 countries that shape the top North of the African continent. Meanwhile, "North Africa", particularly when used in the term North Africa and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb and Libya. Egypt, being also part of the Middle East, is often considered separately, due to being both North African and Middle Eastern at the same time.

Contents

North Africa includes a number of Spanish and Portuguese possessions, Plazas de soberanía, Ceuta and Melilla and the Canary Islands and Madeira. [4] The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity that is unique to this region. Northwest Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Egyptians. [5] The distinction between North Africa, the Sahel and the rest of the continent is as follows:

Nineteenth-century European explorers, attracted by the accounts of Ancient geographers or Arab geographers of the classical period, followed the routes by the nomadic people of the vast "empty" space. They documented the names of the stopping places they discovered or rediscovered, described landscapes, took a few climate measurements and gathered rock samples. Gradually, a map began to fill in the white blotch.

The Sahara and the Sahel entered the geographic corpus by way of naturalist explorers because aridity is the feature that circumscribes the boundaries of the ecumene .  The map details included topographical relief and location of watering holes crucial to long crossings. The Arabic word "Sahel" (shore) and "Sahara" (desert) made its entry into the vocabulary of geography.

Latitudinally, the "slopes" of the arid desert, devoid of continuous human habitation, descend in step-like fashion toward the northern and southern edges of the Mediterranean that opens to Europe and the Sahel that opens to "Trab al Sudan." Longitudinally, a uniform grid divides the central desert then shrinks back toward the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea. Gradually, the Sahara-Sahel is further divided into a total of twenty sub-areas: central, northern, southern, western, eastern, etc.

In this way, "standard" geography has determined aridity to be the boundary of the ecumene. It identifies settlements based on visible activity without regard for social or political organizations of space in vast, purportedly “empty” areas. It gives only cursory acknowledgement to what makes Saharan geography, and for that matter, world geography unique: mobility and the routes by which it flows.

An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel : geography, economics and security [6]

The Sahel or "African Transition Zone" has been affected by many formative epochs in North African history ranging from Ottoman occupation to the Arab-Berber control of the Andalus. [7] [8] As a result, many modern African nation-states that are included in the Sahel evidence cultural similarities and historical overlap with their North African neighbours. [9] In the present day, North Africa is associated with West Asia in the realm of geopolitics to form a Middle East-North Africa region. [10] The Islamic influence in the area is also significant and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world.

Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the exit point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration. [11] [12] [13]

Geography

North Africa has three main geographic features: the Sahara desert in the south, the Atlas Mountains in the west, and the Nile River and delta in the east. The Atlas Mountains extend across much of northern Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. These mountains are part of the fold mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The tallest peaks are in the High Atlas range in south-central Morocco, which has many snow-capped peaks.

South of the Atlas Mountains is the dry and barren expanse of the Sahara desert, which is the largest sand desert in the world. [14] In places the desert is cut by irregular watercourses called wadis—streams that flow only after rainfalls but are usually dry. The Sahara’s major landforms include ergs, large seas of sand that sometimes form into huge dunes; the hammada, a level rocky plateau without soil or sand; and the reg, a level plain of gravel or small stones. The Sahara covers the southern part of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, and most of Libya. Only two regions of Libya are outside the desert: Tripolitania in the northwest and Cyrenaica in the northeast. Most of Egypt is also desert, with the exception of the Nile River and the irrigated land along its banks. The Nile Valley forms a narrow fertile thread that runs along the length of the country.

Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits, also thrive in these areas. The Nile Valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.

Definitions

Countries and territories Area (2016)
(km²)
Population (2016) Density (2016)
(per km²)
Capital Total GDP [15]
(2016)
(US$ billions)
GDP per capita [16]
(2016)
(US$)
Currency Government Official languages
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 2,381,74040,606,05217.05 Algiers $160,784$15,281 Algerian dinar Presidential republic Arabic and Berber (both official), French is commonly used
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 1,001,45095,688,68196 Cairo $332,349$12,554 Egyptian pound Semi-presidential republic Arabic
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 1,759,5406,293,2533.58 Tripoli $33,157$8,678 Libyan dinar Provisional authority Arabic
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 446,55035,276,78673.1 Rabat $103,615$8,330 Moroccan dirham Constitutional monarchy Arabic and Berber (both official), French is commonly used
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 163,61011,403,248
63 Tunis $41,869$11,634 Tunisian dinar Parliamentary republic Arabic, French is commonly used.
Flag Ceuta.svg  Ceuta 18.582,3764,500 Euro (official), Moroccan dirham (porter trade) [17] Autonomous city of a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy Spanish
Flag of Melilla.svg  Melilla 12.378,4766,380.1[ clarification needed ] Autonomous city of a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy Spanish
Western Sahara 266,000538,7550.37disputeddisputeddisputeddisputeddisputedDisputed: commonly French and Arabic (Moroccan zone); commonly Spanish, Arabic (SADR zone)
Source: The World Bank [18]

Variously the Sudan and Western Sahara are considered to be part of the region by the United Nations, [19] while Western Sahara and Mauritania (but not Sudan) are included by the African Union. [20] In general geopolitical and business usage, as for example with the World Bank, North Africa is often grouped with the Middle East under the acronym MENA ("Middle East and North Africa") and sometimes in American governmental usage the geopolitical term Greater Middle East. Similarly, the traditional Arabic toponym Maghreb (meaning "the West") is commonly used to mean the African part of the Arab World, though usually with the exclusion of Egypt.

The inhabitants of the Spanish Canary Islands are of mixed Spanish and North African Berber ancestry, and the people of Malta are of North African ancestry and speak a derivative of Arabic. But these areas are not generally considered part of North Africa, but rather Southern Europe, due to their European-based cultures and religion.

People

Women in Tunisia Beduin women.jpg
Women in Tunisia

The inhabitants of North Africa are roughly divided in a manner corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa: the Maghreb, the Nile valley, and the Sahel. The Maghreb or western North Africa on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C., [21] while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber. As the Tassili n'Ajjer and other rock art findings in the Sahara have shown, the Sahara also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples.

In the eleventh century, the Banu Hilal invaded the North African plains and plateaus, but not the mountainous areas such as the Tell Atlas range, the Rif or the Aurès Mountains and brought with them Hilalian dialects of Arabic, which over the centuries have been in significant contact with other languages, including the languages of Europe. They have contributed to the Arabized Berber populations.[ citation needed ]

The official language or one of the official languages in all of the countries in North Africa is Arabic. Today, the largest ethnic groups in North Africa are Arabs, Berbers and West Africans. The region is predominantly Muslim with a Jewish minority in Morocco and Tunisia and significant Christian minority—the Copts—in Egypt, Algeria, [22] Morocco [23] and Tunisia. [24]

Culture

Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899 Biskra market 1899.jpg
Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899

The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic and almost exclusively follow Islam. The Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages are notably more conservative than those of the coastal cities.

Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and Africans. The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouins and Tuaregs is particularly marked.

The kasbah of Ait Benhaddou in Morocco Flickr - stringer bel - Ait Benhaddou.jpg
The kasbah of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco

The diverse peoples of North Africa are usually categorized along ethno-linguistic lines. In the Maghreb, where Arab and Berber identities are often integrated, these lines can be blurred. Some Berber-speaking North Africans may identify as "Arab" depending on the social and political circumstances, although substantial numbers of Berbers (or Amazighen) have retained a distinct cultural identity which in the 20th century has been expressed as a clear ethnic identification with Berber history and language. Arabic-speaking Northwest Africans, regardless of ethnic background, often identify with Arab history and culture and may share a common vision with other Arabs. This, however, may or may not exclude pride in and identification with Berber and/or other parts of their heritage. Berber political and cultural activists for their part, often referred to as Berberists, may view all Northwest Africans as principally Berber, whether they are primarily Berber- or Arabic-speaking.

Egyptians over the centuries have shifted their language from Egyptian (in its late form, varieties of Coptic) to modern Egyptian Arabic while retaining a sense of national identity that has historically set them apart from other people in the region. Most Egyptians are Sunni Muslim, although there is a significant minority of Coptic Christians.

The Maghreb formerly had a significant Jewish population, almost all of whom emigrated to France or Israel when the North African nations gained independence. Prior to the modern establishment of Israel, there were about 600,000–700,000 Jews in Northern Africa, including both Sephardi Jews (refugees from France, Spain and Portugal from the Renaissance era) as well as indigenous Mizrahi Jews. Today, less than fifteen thousand remain in the region, almost all in Morocco and Tunisia, and are mostly part of a French-speaking urban elite. (See Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries.)

History

Prehistory

Due to the recent African origin of modern humans, the history of Prehistoric North Africa is important to the understanding of pre-hominid and early modern human history in Africa. The earliest inhabitants of central North Africa have left behind significant remains: early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa, for example, were found in Ain el Hanech, near Saïda (c. 200,000 BCE); in fact, more recent investigations have found signs of Oldowan technology there, and indicate a date of up to 1.8 million BCE. [25] Recent finds in Jebel Irhoud in Morocco have been found to contain some of the oldest Homo sapiens remains; This suggests that, rather than arising only in East Africa around 200,000 years ago, early Homo sapiens may already have been present across the length of Africa 100,000 years earlier. According to study author Jean-Jacques Hublin, "The idea is that early Homo sapiens dispersed around the continent and elements of human modernity appeared in different places, and so different parts of Africa contributed to the emergence of what we call modern humans today." [26] Early humans may have comprised a large, interbreeding population dispersed across Africa whose spread was facilitated by a wetter climate that created a "green Sahara", around 330,000 to 300,000 years ago. The rise of modern humans may thus have taken place on a continental scale rather than being confined to a particular corner of Africa. [27] In September 2019, scientists reported the computerized determination, based on 260 CT scans, of a virtual skull shape of the last common human ancestor to modern humans/H. sapiens, representative of the earliest modern humans, and suggested that modern humans arose between 260,000 and 350,000 years ago through a merging of populations in East and South Africa. [28] [29]

The cave paintings found at Tassili n'Ajjer, north of Tamanrasset, Algeria, and at other locations depict vibrant and vivid scenes of everyday life in central North Africa during the Neolithic Subpluvial period (about 8000 to 4000 BCE). Some parts of North Africa began to participate in the Neolithic revolution in the 6th millennium BCE, just before the rapid desertification of the Sahara around 3500 B.C. due to a tilt in the Earth's orbit. [30]

While Egypt due to the early civilizations of Ancient Egypt entered historicity by the Bronze Age, the Maghreb remained in the prehistoric period longer. Some Phoenician and Greek colonies were established along the Mediterranean coast during the 7th century BCE.

Antiquity and ancient Rome

The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya. Septimius Severus Glyptothek Munich 357.jpg
The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya.

The most notable nations of antiquity in western North Africa are Carthage and Numidia. The Phoenicians from the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea colonized much of North Africa including Carthage and parts of present-day Morocco to the northwest (including Chellah, Essaouira and Volubilis [31] ). The Carthaginians were of Phoenician origin, with the Roman myth of their origin being that Dido, a Phoenician princess, was granted land by a local ruler based on how much land she could cover with a piece of cowhide. She ingeniously devised a method to extend the cowhide to a high proportion, thus gaining a large territory. She was also rejected by the Trojan prince Aeneas according to Virgil, thus creating a historical enmity between Carthage and Rome, as Aeneas would eventually lay the foundations for Rome. Ancient Carthage was a commercial power and had a strong navy, but relied on mercenaries for land soldiers. The Carthaginians developed an empire in the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, the latter being the cause of the First Punic War with the rising power of the Roman Republic.

Over a hundred years and more, all Carthaginian territory was eventually conquered by the Romans during the three Punic Wars, resulting in the Carthaginian North African territories becoming the Roman province of Africa in 146 B.C. [32] This led to tension and eventually conflict between Numidia and Rome. The Jugurthine / Numidian Wars are notable for launching the careers of both Gaius Marius, and Sulla, and stretching the constitutional burden of the Roman republic as Marius required a professional army, something previously contrary to Roman values, to overcome the talented military leader Jugurtha. [33]

North Africa continued to remain a part of the subsequent Roman Empire as it grew both in territory and influence / power in the second and first centuries B.C. and continuing into the common era A.D., which produced many notable Roman citizens such as Augustine of Hippo, until incompetent leadership from Roman military commanders in the early Fifth century allowed the various tribes of Germanic peoples from the northeast outside the Imperial borders in Germania and Scythia, such as the Vandals, moving across the northern Imperial provinces of Gaul into Spain and to cross the Strait of Gibraltar, whereupon they overcame the fickle Roman defense. The loss of North Africa is considered a pinnacle point in the fall of the Western Roman Empire as Africa had previously been an important grain province that maintained Roman prosperity and feed the growing Imperial capital city and surrounding Italian provinces despite the barbarian incursions, and the wealth required to recruit and maintain new legions and armies. The issue of regaining North Africa became paramount to the Western Empire, but was frustrated by Vandal victories. The focus of Roman energy had to be on the emerging threat of the Huns moving in from central Asia behind the Germanic barbarians. In A.D. 468, the Romans made one last serious attempt to invade North Africa but were repelled. This perhaps marks the point of terminal decline for the Western Roman Empire. The last Western Roman emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed in 476 by the Heruli general Odoacer. Trade routes between Europe and North Africa remained intact until the coming of Islam with invading Arabs from the east in the Seventh century sweeping into the Eastern Roman Empire (now known by modern historians as the Byzantine Empire). Some Berbers were Christians and members of the Early African Church already for several hundred years (but evolved their own Donatist doctrine), [34] some were Berber Jews, and some adhered to traditional Berber religion. An African pope Victor I served as Bishop of Rome during the reign of Roman emperor Septimius Severus in the late Second century, the only African and Berber to do so.

Arab conquest to modern times

The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is one of the oldest and most important mosques in North Africa. Kairouan Mosque Courtyard.jpg
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is one of the oldest and most important mosques in North Africa.

The early Muslim conquests moving north and west out of Arabia after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in A.D. 632, including reaching North Africa by 640. By 700, most of North Africa had come under Muslim rule. Indigenous Berbers subsequently started to form their own polities in response in places such as Fez and Sijilmasa. In the Eleventh century, a reformist movement made up of members that called themselves the Almoravid dynasty expanded south into Sub-Saharan Africa.

North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become completely arid desert. [36]

1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa Cedid Atlas (Africa) 1803.jpg
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa

After the Middle Ages the area was loosely under the control of the Turks with their Ottoman Empire, except Morocco in the far northwest. After battling and expelling the Muslim "Moors" from the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15th century, The Spanish and their growing empire conquered several coastal cities between the 16th and 18th centuries which remained under the control of the Kingdom of Spain. After the 19th century, the later imperial and colonial presence of France, along with the United Kingdom and its far-flung British Empire, plus Spain and the Spanish Empire and finally Italy (after its campaign of unification during the 1860s) left the entirety of the region under one form of European occupation.

In World War II (1939-1945) in North Africa from 1940 to 1943 the area was the setting for the North African Campaign with first the 1940 attacks from the Italians under Mussolini in Libya against the British in Egypt, and after they became bogged down, then being reinforced by their allies with Nazi Germans with their "Afrika Korps". The "Operation Torch" invasion by the Americans in November 1942 on the northwest coasts of the continent and the renewed drive from the east by the British after their October 1942 victory over the German General Erwin Rommel at Battle of El Alamein overwhelmed the Axis armies to retreat along the coast eventually surrender in Tunisia in 1943.

During the 1950s and 1960s all of the North African states and colonies gained independence and entrance into the United Nations. There still remains today (2019) a dispute over Western Sahara (former Spanish colony) between neighboring Morocco and the Algerian-backed Polisario Front.

In 2010–2011 massive protests known as the "Arab Spring" swept the region leading to the overthrow of the governments in Tunisia and Egypt, as well as civil war in Libya. Large protests also occurred in Algeria and Morocco to a lesser extent. Many hundreds died in the uprisings. This uprising is commonly referred to as the "Arab spring" [37]

Science and technology

Transport and industry

Thousands of people in North Africa depend on date palm trees for a living. Tunisia in 1960 Tunis1960-040 hg.jpg
Thousands of people in North Africa depend on date palm trees for a living. Tunisia in 1960

The economies of Algeria and Libya were transformed by the discovery of oil and natural gas reserves in the deserts. Morocco's major exports are phosphates and agricultural produce, and as in Egypt and Tunisia, the tourist industry is essential to the economy. Egypt has the most varied industrial base, importing technology to develop electronics and engineering industries, and maintaining the reputation of its high-quality cotton textiles.

Oil rigs are scattered throughout the deserts of Libya and Algeria. Libyan oil is especially prized because of its low sulfur content, which means it produces much less pollution than other fuel oils.

See also

Related Research Articles

Berber languages Family of languages and dialects indigenous to North Africa

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages, are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related languages spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa. The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.

Berbers Ethnic group indigenous to North Africa

Berbers, or Amazighs, are an ethnic group of several nations mostly indigenous to North Africa and some northern parts of West Africa.

Arab world Geographic and cultural region in Africa and the Middle East

The Arab world, also known as the Arab nation, the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries which are members of the Arab League. These countries are located in Western Asia, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa, while the southernmost member, the Comoros, is an island country off the coast of East Africa. The region stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Indian Ocean in the southeast. Arabic is used as the lingua franca throughout the Arab world.

Prehistoric North Africa

The Prehistory of North Africa spans the period of earliest human presence in the region to gradual onset of historicity in the Maghreb (Tamazgha) during classical antiquity.

Sahara desert in Africa

The Sahara is a desert located on the African continent. It is the largest hot desert in the world, and the third largest desert overall after Antarctica and the Arctic. Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres (3,600,000 sq mi) is comparable to the area of China or the United States. The name 'Sahara' is derived from a dialectal Arabic word for "desert", ṣaḥra.

Maghreb Major region of North Africa

The Maghreb, also known as Northwest Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb, Arab Maghreb or Greater Maghreb, or by some sources the Berber world, Barbary and Berbery, is a region of North Africa that is effectively a western part of the Arab world and is predominately Muslim. The region consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta. As of 2018, the region had a population of over 100 million people.

Maghrebi Jews ethnic group

Maghrebi Jews or North African Jews are Jews who had traditionally lived in the Maghreb region of North Africa under Arab rule during the Middle Ages. Established Jewish communities had existed in North Africa long before the arrival of Sephardi Jews, expelled from Portugal and Spain. Due to proximity, the term 'Maghrebi Jews' often refers to Egyptian Jews as well. These Jews, those from North Africa, constitute the second largest Jewish diaspora group.

Maghrebi Arabic language

Maghrebi Arabic is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania. It includes Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Libyan, and Hassaniya Arabic. Speakers of Maghrebi Arabic are primarily Arab-Berbers who call their language Derdja, Derja, Derija or Darija. This serves to differentiate the spoken vernacular from Modern Standard Arabic. The Maltese language is believed to be derived from Siculo-Arabic and ultimately from Tunisian Arabic, as it contains some typical Maghrebi Arabic areal characteristics.

Arabization Growing Arabic and Islamic culture influence on non-Arab populations

Arabization or Arabisation is growing Arabic influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and their incorporation of the culture. Generally, elements of Arabian origin were combined in various forms with elements from conquered regions and ultimately denominated "Arab". Arabization also continued in modern times, most prominently being enforced by the Arab nationalist regimes of Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Mauritania, Algeria and Libya and adoption of Arab identity and culture by non-Arab populations.

North Africa is a relatively thin strip of land between the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean, stretching from Moroccan Atlantic coast to Egypt. Currently, the region comprises five countries, from west to east: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The region has been influenced by many diverse cultures. The development of sea travel firmly brought the region into the Mediterranean world, especially during the classical period. In the 1st millennium AD, the Sahara became an equally important area for trade as camel caravans brought goods and people from the south. The region also has a small but crucial land link to the Middle East, and that area has also played a key role in the history of North Africa.

Arab Maghreb Union trade agreement among arab countries

The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) is a trade agreement aiming for economic and future political unity among Arab countries of the Maghreb in North Africa. Its members are the nations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The Union has been unable to achieve tangible progress on its goals due to deep economic and political disagreements between Morocco and Algeria regarding, among others, the issue of Western Sahara. No high level meetings have taken place since 3 July 2008, and commentators regard the Union as largely dormant.

Arabized Berber ethnic group

Arabized Berber denotes to an inhabitant of the Maghreb region in northwestern Africa, whose native language is a local dialect of Arabic and whose ethnic origins are Berber.

The people are of the Maghreb and the Sahara speak various dialects of Berber and Arabic, and almost exclusively follow Islam. The Arabic and Berber groups of languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afro-Asiatic family. The Sahara dialects are notably more conservative than those of coastal cities. Over the years, Berber peoples have been influenced by other cultures with which they came in contact: Nubians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, and lately Europeans. The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouin and Tuareg is particularly marked.

Ancient Libya region west of the Nile Valley

The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the Atlantic Mountains according to Diodorus. Its people were ancestors of the modern Libyan. They occupied the area for thousands of years before the beginning of human records in ancient Egypt. Climate changes affected the locations of the settlements.

Kouloughlis, also spelled Koulouglis, Cologhlis and Qulaughlis was a term used during the Ottoman period to designate the mixed offspring of Turkish men and local North African women, situated in the western and central coastal regions in the Barbary coast. Whilst the terminology was commonly used in Ottoman Algeria, Ottoman Libya, and Ottoman Tunisia, it was not used in Ottoman Egypt to refer to Turco-Egyptians. Today, the descendants of the Kouloughlis have largely integrated into their local societies after independence, however, they still maintain some of their cultural traditions ; they also continue to practice the Hanafi school of Islam, and uphold their Turkish origin surnames.

Grand Erg Oriental Erg in Algeria and Tunisia

The Grand Erg Oriental is a large erg or "field of sand dunes" in the Sahara Desert. Situated for the most part in Saharan lowlands of northeast Algeria, the Grand Erg Oriental covers an area some 600 km wide by 200 km north to south. The erg's northeastern edge spills over into neighbouring Tunisia.

History of early Tunisia

Human habitation in the North African region occurred over one million years ago. Remains of Homo erectus during the Middle Pleistocene period, has been found in North Africa. The Berbers, who generally antedate by many millennia the Phoenicians and the establishment of Carthage, are understood to have arisen out of social events shaped by the confluence of several earlier peoples, i.e., the Capsian culture, events which eventually constituted their ethnogenesis. Thereafter Berbers lived as an independent people in North Africa, including the Tunisian region.

Arab-Berber tribe

Arab-Berbers are an ethnic group of the Maghreb, a vast region of North Africa in the western part of the Arab world along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Arab-Berbers are people of mixed Berber, Arab and other non-Berber origin whose native language is a variant of Maghrebi Arabic. Many Arab-Berbers identify primarily as Arab and secondarily as Berber. While some Arab-Berbers claim Western Asian descent, genetic studies there have determined that Arab and non-Arab Berbers are genetically nearly identical. This suggests that the processes of "Arabization" in the Maghreb was probably mainly cultural rather than genetic. The Arab-Berber identity came into being as a direct result of the Arab conquest of North Africa, and the intermarriage between the Arabian and Persian people who immigrated to those regions and local mainly Roman Africans and other Berber people; in addition, Banu Hilal and Sulaym Arab tribes originating in the Arabian Peninsula invaded the region and intermarried with the local rural mainly Berber populations, and were a major factor in the linguistic, cultural and ethnic Arabization of the Maghreb.

The Hilalian dialects are a continuum of Arabic dialects native to North Africa.

References

  1. Mattar, Philip (June 1, 2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa . Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN   9780028657691.
  2. De facto government of parts of Western Sahara, claimant to the whole area).
  3. "Figure 5: United Nations definition of African Regions: West, Northern,..." ResearchGate.net. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  4. National Geographic Geno Project: Egyptians are North Africans
  5. An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel : geography, economics and security. Bossard, Laurent., Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development., Sahel and West Africa Club., OECD iLibrary. Paris. ISBN   978-9264222342. OCLC   900622439.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. es-Sadi, Abderrahman (1898). Tarikh es soudan (in Arabic). Paris E. Leroux.
  7. Andrew, McGregor (2001). "The Circassian Qubbas of Abbas Avenue, Khartoum: Governors and Soldiers in 19th Century Sudan" (PDF). Nordic Journal of African Studies.
  8. "North Africa and the African Transition Zone".
  9. Güney, Aylın; Gökcan, Fulya (February 2012). "The 'Greater Middle East' as a 'Modern' Geopolitical Imagination in American Foreign Policy". Geopolitics. 15: 22–38. doi:10.1080/14650040903420370.
  10. Balter, Michael (2011-01-07). "Was North Africa the Launch Pad for Modern Human Migrations?". Science. 331 (6013): 20–23. Bibcode:2011Sci...331...20B. doi:10.1126/science.331.6013.20. PMID   21212332.
  11. Cruciani, Fulvio; Trombetta, Beniamino; Massaia, Andrea; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Sellitto, Daniele; Scozzari, Rosaria (2011). "A Revised Root for the Human y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 88 (6): 814–818. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002. PMC   3113241 . PMID   21601174.
  12. Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Eggins, Stephen; Grün, Rainer; Reid, Donald J.; Tafforeau, Paul; Smith, Tanya M. (2007-04-10). "Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (15): 6128–6133. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.6128S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104. PMC   1828706 . PMID   17372199.
  13. "Largest Desert in the World" . Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  14. "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 18 April 2017.
  15. World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2016. Accessed on 14 April 2016.
  16. AFP (6 October 2017). "Morocco 'mule women' in back-breaking trade from Spain enclave". www.thelocal.es. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  17. "The World Bank". The World Bank. 12 October 2017.
  18. Division, United Nations Statistics. "UNSD — Methodology". unstats.un.org.
  19. "The Assembly – African Union". au.int.
  20. Hsain Ilahiane, Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen)(2006), p. 112
  21. "Refworld – Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011)". Refworld.org.
  22. Fahlbusch, Erwin (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity: J-O. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN   978-0-8028-2415-8.
  23. "Sahnouni 1998" (PDF). Gi.ulpc.es. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  24. "Eritrea's human rights record comes under fire at United Nations". The Guardian. Associated Press. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  25. Gibbons, Ann (7 June 2017). "World's oldest Homo sapiens fossils found in Morocco". Science . Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  26. Zimmer, Carl (10 September 2019). "Scientists Find the Skull of Humanity's Ancestor — on a Computer - By comparing fossils and CT scans, researchers say they have reconstructed the skull of the last common forebear of modern humans". The New York Times . Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  27. Mounier, Aurélien; Lahr, Marta (2019). "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species". Nature Communications . 10 (1): 3406. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11213-w. PMC   6736881 . PMID   31506422.
  28. "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks". Science Daily. 1999-07-12. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.
  29. C. Michael Hogan (December 18, 2007). "Volubilis – Ancient Village or Settlement in Morocco". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  30. The Punic Wars 264–146 BC, by Nigel Bagnall
  31. Sallust, De Bello Iugurthino
  32. The Berbers BBC World Service: The Story of Africa
  33. Küng, Hans (2006). Tracing The Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions. A&C Black. ISBN   978-0-8264-9423-8., page 248
  34. Populations Crises and Population Cycles Archived 2013-05-27 at the Wayback Machine , Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell, Galton Institute, March 1996
  35. Essa, Azad (February 21, 2011). "In search of an African revolution". Al Jazeera.