Currency

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A currency (from Middle English : curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin : currens, -entis), in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. [1] [2] A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially for people in a nation. [3] Under this definition, US dollars (US$), pounds sterling (£), Australian dollars (A$), European euros (€), Russian rubles (₽) and Indian Rupees (₹) are examples of currencies. These various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. [4] Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance.

Money Object or record accepted as payment

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value and sometimes, a standard of deferred payment. Any item or verifiable record that fulfils these functions can be considered as money.

Medium of exchange is one of the three fundamental functions of money in mainstream economics. It is a widely accepted token which can be exchanged for goods and services. Because it can be exchanged for any good or service it acts as an intermediary instrument and avoids the limitations of barter; where what one wants has to be exactly matched with what the other has to offer.

Banknote Form of physical currency made of paper, cotton or polymer

A banknote is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, which were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks.

Contents

Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin, and money. The latter definition,[ clarification needed ] pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the currency's value (the economy at large vs. the government's physical metal reserves). Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions. Others are simply traded for their economic value. Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of computers and the Internet.

A coin is a small, flat, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government.

A monetary system is the set of institutions by which a government provides money in a country's economy. Modern monetary systems usually consist of the national treasury, the mint, the central banks and commercial banks.

History

Early currency

Cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader. A print from 1845 shows cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader.jpg
Cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader.

Originally money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and later in Ancient Egypt.

Sumer Ancient civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia

Sumer is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and one of the first civilizations in the world along with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley. Living along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Prehistoric proto-writing dates back before 3000 BC. The earliest texts, from c. 3300 BC, come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr; early cuneiform script emerged around 3000 BC.

Mesopotamia Historical region within the Tigris–Euphrates river system

Mesopotamia is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities. This formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place that was safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. A trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the northwest to Elam and Bahrain in the southeast. It is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency.

Fertile Crescent crescent-shaped region containing the moist and fertile land of Western Asia, and the Nile Valley and Nile Delta of northeast Africa

The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East, spanning modern-day Iraq, Israel, Palestinian Territories, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, and Jordan as well as the southeastern fringe of Turkey and the western fringes of Iran. Some authors also include Cyprus.

Bronze Age Prehistoric period and age studied in archaeology, part of the Holocene Epoch

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies.

Treaty Express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an (international) agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same.

It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse, possibly produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end. It was only the recovery of Phoenician trade in the 10th and 9th centuries BC that led to a return to prosperity, and the appearance of real coinage, possibly first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ingots, ivory, various forms of weapons, livestock, the manilla currency, and ochre and other earth oxides. The manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, and in many places, various forms of barter still apply.

Croesus King of Lydia

Croesus was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC.

Lydia Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor

Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian. Its capital was Sardis.

Ivory material derived from the tusks and teeth of animals

Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that consists mainly of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin. The trade in certain teeth and tusks other than elephant is well established and widespread; therefore, "ivory" can correctly be used to describe any mammalian teeth or tusks of commercial interest which are large enough to be carved or scrimshawed. It has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, piano keys, fans, dominoes and joint tubes. Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and wart hog are used as well. Elk also have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors.

Coinage

These[ clarification needed ] factors led to the metal itself being the store of value: first silver, then both silver and gold, and at one point also bronze. Now we have copper coins and other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined, weighed, and stamped into coins. This was to assure the individual accepting the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but the existence of standard coins also created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be easily tested for their fine weight of metal, and thus the value of a coin could be determined, even if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with (see Numismatics).

In economics, unit of account is one of the functions of money. The value of something is measured in a specific currency. This allows different things to compared against each other; for example, goods, services, assets, liabilities, labor, income, expenses. It lends meaning to profits, losses, liability, or assets.

Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid. Archimedes' principle is a law of physics fundamental to fluid mechanics. It was formulated by Archimedes of Syracuse.

The fineness of a precious metal object represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities. Alloy metals are added to increase hardness and durability of coins and jewelry, alter colors, decrease the cost per weight, or avoid the cost of high-purity refinement. For example, copper is added to the precious metal silver to make a more durable alloy for use in coins, housewares and jewelry. Coin silver, which was used for making silver coins in the past, contains 90% silver and 10% copper, by mass. Sterling silver contains 92.5% silver and 7.5% of other metals, usually copper, by mass.

Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins of different values, made of copper, silver, and gold. Gold coins were the most valuable and were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities. Units of account were often defined as the value of a particular type of gold coin. Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, and sometimes also defined a unit of account, while coins of copper or silver, or some mixture of them (see debasement), might be used for everyday transactions. This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. The exact ratios between the values of the three metals varied greatly between different eras and places; for example, the opening of silver mines in the Harz mountains of central Europe made silver relatively less valuable, as did the flood of New World silver after the Spanish conquests. However, the rarity of gold consistently made it more valuable than silver, and likewise silver was consistently worth more than copper.

Paper money

In premodern China, the need for credit and for a medium of exchange that was less physically cumbersome than large numbers of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, i.e. banknotes. Their introduction was a gradual process which lasted from the late Tang dynasty (618–907) into the Song dynasty (960–1279). It began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes by wholesalers' shops. These notes were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song dynasty government began to circulate these notes amongst the traders in its monopolized salt industry. The Song government granted several shops the right to issue banknotes, and in the early 12th century the government finally took over these shops to produce state-issued currency. Yet the banknotes issued were still only locally and temporarily valid: it was not until the mid 13th century that a standard and uniform government issue of paper money became an acceptable nationwide currency. The already widespread methods of woodblock printing and then Bi Sheng's movable type printing by the 11th century were the impetus for the mass production of paper money in premodern China.

Song dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money Jiao zi.jpg
Song dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money

At around the same time in the medieval Islamic world, a vigorous monetary economy was created during the 7th–12th centuries on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency (the dinar). Innovations introduced by Muslim economists, traders and merchants include the earliest uses of credit, [5] cheques, promissory notes, [6] savings accounts, transaction accounts, loaning, trusts, exchange rates, the transfer of credit and debt, [7] and banking institutions for loans and deposits. [7]

In Europe, paper money was first introduced on a regular basis in Sweden in 1661 (although Washington Irving records an earlier emergency use of it, by the Spanish in a siege during the Conquest of Granada). As Sweden was rich in copper, many copper coins were in circulation, but its relatively low value necessitated extraordinarily big coins, often weighing several kilograms.

The advantages of paper currency were numerous: it reduced the need to transport gold and silver, which was risky; it facilitated loans of gold or silver at interest, since the underlying specie (money in the form of gold or silver coins rather than notes) never left the possession of the lender until someone else redeemed the note; and it allowed a division of currency into credit- and specie-backed forms. It enabled the sale of stock in joint-stock companies and the redemption of those shares in a paper.

But there were also disadvantages. First, since a note has no intrinsic value, there was nothing to stop issuing authorities from printing more notes than they had specie to back them with. Second, because it increased the money supply, it increased inflationary pressures, a fact observed by David Hume in the 18th century. Thus paper money would often lead to an inflationary bubble, which could collapse if people began demanding hard money, causing the demand for paper notes to fall to zero. The printing of paper money was also associated with wars, and financing of wars, and therefore regarded as part of maintaining a standing army. For these reasons, paper currency was held in suspicion and hostility in Europe and America. It was also addictive since the speculative profits of trade and capital creation were quite large. Major nations established mints to print money and mint coins, and branches of their treasury to collect taxes and hold gold and silver stock.

At that time, both silver and gold were considered a legal tender and accepted by governments for taxes. However, the instability in the exchange rate between the two grew over the course of the 19th century, with the increases both in the supply of these metals, particularly silver, and in trade. The parallel use of both metals is called bimetallism, and the attempt to create a bimetallic standard where both gold and silver backed currency remained in circulation occupied the efforts of inflationists. Governments at this point could use currency as an instrument of policy, printing paper currency such as the United States greenback, to pay for military expenditures. They could also set the terms at which they would redeem notes for specie, by limiting the amount of purchase, or the minimum amount that could be redeemed.

By 1900, most of the industrializing nations were on some form of gold standard, with paper notes and silver coins constituting the circulating medium. Private banks and governments across the world followed Gresham's law: keeping the gold and silver they received but paying out in notes. This did not happen all around the world at the same time, but occurred sporadically, generally in times of war or financial crisis, beginning in the early 20th century and continuing across the world until the late 20th century, when the regime of floating fiat currencies came into force. One of the last countries to break away from the gold standard was the United States in 1971, an action known as the Nixon shock. No country has an enforceable gold standard or silver standard currency system.

Banknote era

A banknote (more commonly known as a bill in the United States and Canada) is a type of currency and is commonly used as legal tender in many jurisdictions. Together with coins, banknotes make up the cash form of all money. Banknotes are mostly paper, but Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation developed a polymer currency in the 1980s; it went into circulation on the nation's bicentenary in 1988. Polymer banknotes had already been introduced in the Isle of Man in 1983. Now[ when? ] used in some 22 countries (over 40 if counting commemorative issues), polymer currency dramatically increases the life span of banknotes and reduces counterfeiting.

Modern currencies

Name of currency units by country Currency unit name.svg
Name of currency units by country
Strength of currencies relative to USD as of April 2016 Strength of currencies.svg
Strength of currencies relative to USD as of April 2016
Currencies exchange logo 2002 currency exchange AIGA euro money.png
Currencies exchange logo
Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover [8]
RankCurrency ISO 4217 code
(symbol)
% of daily trades
(bought or sold)
(April 2016)
1
Flag of the United States.svgUnited States dollar
USD (US$)
87.6%
2
Flag of Europe.svgEuro
EUR (€)
31.4%
3
Flag of Japan.svgJapanese yen
JPY (¥)
21.6%
4
Flag of the United Kingdom.svgPound sterling
GBP (£)
12.8%
5
Flag of Australia (converted).svgAustralian dollar
AUD (A$)
6.9%
6
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svgCanadian dollar
CAD (C$)
5.1%
7
Flag of Switzerland.svgSwiss franc
CHF (Fr)
4.8%
8
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svgRenminbi
CNY (元)
4.0%
9
Flag of Sweden.svgSwedish krona
SEK (kr)
2.2%
10
Flag of New Zealand.svgNew Zealand dollar
NZD (NZ$)
2.1%
11
Flag of Mexico.svgMexican peso
MXN ($)
1.9%
12
Flag of Singapore.svgSingapore dollar
SGD (S$)
1.8%
13
Flag of Hong Kong.svgHong Kong dollar
HKD (HK$)
1.7%
14
Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian krone
NOK (kr)
1.7%
15
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korean won
KRW (₩)
1.7%
16
Flag of Turkey.svgTurkish lira
TRY (₺)
1.4%
17
Flag of Russia.svgRussian ruble
RUB (₽)
1.1%
18
Flag of India.svg Indian rupee
INR (₹)
1.1%
19
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazilian real
BRL (R$)
1.0%
20
Flag of South Africa.svg South African rand
ZAR (R)
1.0%
Other7.1%
Total [9] 200.0%

The currency usage is based on the concept of lex monetae; that a sovereign state decides which currency it shall use. The International Organization for Standardization has introduced a system of three-letter codes (ISO 4217) to denote currency (as opposed to simple names or currency signs), in order to remove the confusion arising because there are dozens of currencies called the dollar and several called the franc. Even the "pound" is used in nearly a dozen different countries; most of these are tied to the Pound Sterling, while the remainder has varying values. In general, the three-letter code uses the ISO 3166-1 country code for the first two letters and the first letter of the name of the currency (D for dollar, for instance) as the third letter. United States currency, for instance, is globally referred to as USD.

The International Monetary Fund uses a different system when referring to national currencies.

Alternative currencies

Distinct from centrally controlled government-issued currencies, private decentralized trust networks support alternative currencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Monero, Peercoin or Dogecoin, as well as branded currencies, for example 'obligation' based stores of value, such as quasi-regulated BarterCard, Loyalty Points (Credit Cards, Airlines) or Game-Credits (MMO games) that are based on reputation of commercial products, or highly regulated 'asset-backed' 'alternative currencies' such as mobile-money schemes like MPESA (called E-Money Issuance). [10]

The currency may be Internet-based and digital, for instance, bitcoin [11] is not tied to any specific country, or the IMF's SDR that is based on a basket of currencies (and assets held).

Control and production

In most cases, a central bank has a monopoly right to issue of coins and banknotes (fiat money) for its own area of circulation (a country or group of countries); it regulates the production of currency by banks (credit) through monetary policy.

An exchange rate is a price at which two currencies can be exchanged against each other. This is used for trade between the two currency zones. Exchange rates can be classified as either floating or fixed. In the former, day-to-day movements in exchange rates are determined by the market; in the latter, governments intervene in the market to buy or sell their currency to balance supply and demand at a static exchange rate.

In cases where a country has control of its own currency, that control is exercised either by a central bank or by a Ministry of Finance. The institution that has control of monetary policy is referred to as the monetary authority. Monetary authorities have varying degrees of autonomy from the governments that create them. A monetary authority is created and supported by its sponsoring government, so independence can be reduced by the legislative or executive authority that creates it.

Several countries can use the same name for their own separate currencies (for example, a dollar in Australia, Canada, and the United States). By contrast, several countries can also use the same currency (for example, the euro or the CFA franc), or one country can declare the currency of another country to be legal tender. For example, Panama and El Salvador have declared US currency to be legal tender, and from 1791 to 1857, Spanish silver coins were legal tender in the United States. At various times countries have either re-stamped foreign coins or used currency board issuing one note of currency for each note of a foreign government held, as Ecuador currently does.

Each currency typically has a main currency unit (the dollar, for example, or the euro) and a fractional unit, often defined as 1100 of the main unit: 100 cents  = 1  dollar, 100 centimes  = 1  franc, 100 pence  = 1  pound, although units of 110 or 11000 occasionally also occur. Some currencies do not have any smaller units at all, such as the Icelandic króna.

Mauritania and Madagascar are the only remaining countries that have theoretical fractional units not based on the decimal system; instead, the Mauritanian ouguiya is in theory divided into 5 khoums, while the Malagasy ariary is theoretically divided into 5 iraimbilanja. In these countries, words like dollar or pound "were simply names for given weights of gold." [12] Due to inflation khoums and iraimbilanja have in practice fallen into disuse. (See non-decimal currencies for other historic currencies with non-decimal divisions.)

Currency convertibility

Convertibility of a currency determines the ability of an individual, corporation or government to convert its local currency to another currency or vice versa with or without central bank/government intervention. Based on the above restrictions or free and readily conversion features, currencies are classified as:

Fully convertible 
When there are no restrictions or limitations on the amount of currency that can be traded on the international market, and the government does not artificially impose a fixed value or minimum value on the currency in international trade. The US dollar is an example of a fully convertible currency and, for this reason, US dollars are one of the major currencies traded in the foreign exchange market.
Partially convertible 
Central banks control international investments flowing into and out of a country. While most domestic transactions are handled without any special requirements, there are significant restrictions on international investing, and special approval is often required in order to convert into other currencies. The Indian rupee and the renminbi are examples of partially convertible currencies.
Nonconvertible 
A government neither participates in the international currency market nor allows conversion of its currency by individuals or companies. These currencies are also known as blocked, e.g. the North Korean won and the Cuban peso.

Local currencies

In economics, a local currency is a currency not backed by a national government and intended to trade only in a small area. Advocates such as Jane Jacobs argue that this enables an economically depressed region to pull itself up, by giving the people living there a medium of exchange that they can use to exchange services and locally produced goods (in a broader sense, this is the original purpose of all money). Opponents of this concept argue that local currency creates a barrier which can interfere with economies of scale and comparative advantage and that in some cases they can serve as a means of tax evasion.

Local currencies can also come into being when there is economic turmoil involving the national currency. An example of this is the Argentinian economic crisis of 2002 in which IOUs issued by local governments quickly took on some of the characteristics of local currencies.

One of the best examples of a local currency is the original LETS currency, founded on Vancouver Island in the early 1980s. In 1982, the Canadian Central Bank’s lending rates ran up to 14% which drove chartered bank lending rates as high as 19%. The resulting currency and credit scarcity left island residents with few options other than to create a local currency. [14]

List of major world payment currencies

The following table are estimates of the 15 most frequently used currencies in world payments from 2012 to 2018 by SWIFT. [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

15 Major Currencies in World Payments (in % of World)
RankCurrencyJanuary
2012
CurrencyJanuary
2014
CurrencyJanuary
2015
CurrencyFebruary
2017
CurrencyOctober
2018
CurrencyJanuary
2019
World 100.00% World 100.00% World 100.00% World 100.00% World 100.00% World 100.00%
1 Flag of Europe.svg Euro 44.04% Flag of the United States.svg United States dollar 38.75% Flag of the United States.svg United States dollar 43.41% Flag of the United States.svg United States dollar 40.86% Flag of the United States.svg United States dollar 39.71% Flag of the United States.svg United States dollar 40.08%
2 Flag of the United States.svg United States dollar 29.73% Flag of Europe.svg Euro 33.52% Flag of Europe.svg Euro 28.75% Flag of Europe.svg Euro 32.00% Flag of Europe.svg Euro 34.24% Flag of Europe.svg Euro 34.17%
3 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Pound sterling 9.00% Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Pound sterling 9.37% Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Pound sterling 8.24% Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Pound sterling 7.41% Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Pound sterling 7.28% Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Pound sterling 7.07%
4 Flag of Japan.svg Japanese yen 2.48% Flag of Japan.svg Japanese yen 2.50% Flag of Japan.svg Japanese yen 2.79% Flag of Japan.svg Japanese yen 3.30% Flag of Japan.svg Japanese yen 3.65% Flag of Japan.svg Japanese yen 3.30%
5 Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian dollar 2.08% Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canadian dollar 1.80% Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Renminbi 2.06% Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canadian dollar 1.89% Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canadian dollar 1.79% Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Renminbi 2.15%
6 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canadian dollar 1.81% Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian dollar 1.75% Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canadian dollar 1.91% Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Renminbi 1.84% Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Renminbi 1.70% Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canadian dollar 1.74%
7 Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss franc 1.36% Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Renminbi 1.39% Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss franc 1.91% Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss franc 1.66% Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian dollar 1.48% Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong dollar 1.50%
8 Flag of Sweden.svg Swedish krona 1.05% Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss franc 1.38% Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian dollar 1.74% Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian dollar 1.61% Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong dollar 1.35% Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian dollar 1.44%
9 Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore dollar 1.03% Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong dollar 1.09% Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong dollar 1.28% Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong dollar 1.30% Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss franc 1.23% Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore dollar 1.02%
10 Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong dollar 0.95% Flag of Thailand.svg Thai baht 0.98% Flag of Thailand.svg Thai baht 0.98% Flag of Thailand.svg Thai baht 1.01% Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore dollar 1.00% Flag of Thailand.svg Thai baht 0.96%
11 Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian krone 0.93% Flag of Sweden.svg Swedish krona 0.97% Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore dollar 0.89% Flag of Sweden.svg Swedish krona 0.97% Flag of Thailand.svg Thai baht 0.93% Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss franc 0.85%
12 Flag of Thailand.svg Thai baht 0.82% Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore dollar 0.88% Flag of Sweden.svg Swedish krona 0.80% Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore dollar 0.96% Flag of Sweden.svg Swedish krona 0.78% Flag of Sweden.svg Swedish krona 0.81%
13 Flag of Denmark.svg Danish krone 0.54% Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian krone 0.80% Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian krone 0.68% Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian krone 0.68% Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian krone 0.70% Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian krone 0.66%
14 Flag of Russia.svg Russian ruble 0.52% Flag of Denmark.svg Danish krone 0.60% Flag of Denmark.svg Danish krone 0.56% Flag of Poland.svg Polish złoty 0.51% Flag of Poland.svg Polish złoty 0.54% Flag of Poland.svg Polish złoty 0.54%
15 Flag of South Africa.svg South African rand 0.48% Flag of Poland.svg Polish złoty 0.58% Flag of Poland.svg Polish złoty 0.55% Flag of South Africa.svg South African rand 0.45% Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysian ringgit 0.46% Flag of Denmark.svg Danish krone 0.46%

See also

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The Singapore dollar is the official currency of Singapore. It is divided into 100 cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or S$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. The Monetary Authority of Singapore issues the banknotes and coins of the Singapore dollar.

Indian rupee The official currency of the Republic of India

The Indian Rupee is the official currency of India. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise, though as of 2019, coins of denomination of 1 rupee is the lowest value in use. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

Australian pound currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966

The Australian pound was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar. As with other £sd currencies, it was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

Cuban peso one of two official currencies in use in Cuba, along with the convertible peso

The peso is one of two official currencies in use in Cuba, the other being the convertible peso. There are currently 25 CUP per CUC.

Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value. Convertibility is an important factor in international trade, where instruments valued in different currencies must be exchanged.

The Bermudian dollar is the official currency of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. It is subdivided into 100 cents. The Bermudian dollar is not normally traded outside Bermuda, and is pegged to the United States dollar at a one-to-one ratio. Both currencies circulate in Bermuda on an equal basis.

Belgian franc currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002

The Belgian franc was the currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002 when the Euro was introduced. It was subdivided into 100 subunits, known as centiemen (Dutch), centimes (French) or Centime (German).

The yuan is the base unit of a number of former and present-day currencies in Chinese.

History of the Canadian dollar History of currency in Canada

Canada has an extensive history with regard to its currencies. Prior to European contact, indigenous peoples in Canada used items such as wampum and furs for trading purposes, which continued when trade with Europeans began.

Japanese currency has a history covering the period from the 8th century to the present. After the traditional usage of rice as currency medium, Japan's currency was characterized by an early adoption of currency systems and designs from China before developing a separate system of its own.

United States dollar Currency of the United States of America

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars.

Fiat money currency established as money by government regulation or law.

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation. Fiat money does not have use value, and has value only because a government maintains its value, or because parties engaging in exchange agree on its value. It was introduced as an alternative to commodity money and representative money. Commodity money is created from a good, often a precious metal such as gold or silver, which has uses other than as a medium of exchange. Representative money is similar to fiat money, but it represents a claim on a commodity.

The history of Philippine money covers currency in use before the Hispanic era with gold Piloncitos and other commodities in circulation, as well as the adoption of the peso during the Hispanic era and afterwards.

References

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  9. The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair; one currency is sold (e.g. US$) and another bought (€). Therefore each trade is counted twice, once under the sold currency ($) and once under the bought currency (€). The percentages above are the percent of trades involving that currency regardless of whether it is bought or sold, e.g. the U.S. Dollar is bought or sold in 87% of all trades, whereas the Euro is bought or sold 31% of the time.
  10. TED Video:Kemp-Robertson, Paul (June 2013). "Bitcoin. Sweat. Tide. Meet the future of branded currency". TED (conference).Corresponding written article: "10 alternative currencies, from Bitcoin to BerkShares to sweat to laundry detergent". TED (conference). July 25, 2013. Archived from the original on July 25, 2013.
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  15. RMB breaks into the top ten most-used currencies for payments
  16. Chinese Renminbi Overtakes the Swiss Franc as a World Payments Currency
  17. RMB reaches record levels of payments activity between offshore centres
  18. RMB role and share of international payments is declining CTMfile. April 5, 2017
  19. RMB Tracker Monthly reporting and statistics on renminbi(RMB) progress towards becoming an international currency (PDF)
  20. RMB Tracker February 2019