International trade

Last updated

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories [1] because there is a need or want of goods or services. [2] (see: World economy)

Contents

In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has existed throughout history (for example Uttarapatha, Silk Road, Amber Road, scramble for Africa, Atlantic slave trade, salt roads), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.

Carrying out trade at an international level is a complex process when compared to domestic trade. When trade takes place between two or more states factors like currency, government policies, economy, judicial system, laws, and markets influence trade.

To ease and justify the process of trade between countries of different economic standing in the modern era, some international economic organizations were formed, such as the World Trade Organization. These organizations work towards the facilitation and growth of international trade. Statistical services of intergovernmental and supranational organizations and governmental statistical agencies publish official statistics on international trade.

Characteristics of global trade

A product that is transferred or sold from a party in one country to a party in another country is an export from the originating country, and an import to the country receiving that product. Imports and exports are accounted for in a country's current account in the balance of payments. [3]

Trading globally may give consumers and countries the opportunity to be exposed to new markets and products. Almost every kind of product can be found in the international market, for example: food, clothes, spare parts, oil, jewellery, wine, stocks, currencies, and water. Services are also traded, such as in tourism, banking, consulting, and transportation.

The ancient Silk Road trade routes across Eurasia. SeidenstrasseGMT.JPG
The ancient Silk Road trade routes across Eurasia.

Advanced technology (including transportation), globalization, industrialization, outsourcing and multinational corporations have major impacts on the international trade system.

Differences from domestic trade

Ports play an important role in facilitating international trade. The Port of New York and New Jersey grew from the original harbor at the convergence of the Hudson River and the East River at the Upper New York Bay. Flight to Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) with view to Newark Bay - panoramio.jpg
Ports play an important role in facilitating international trade. The Port of New York and New Jersey grew from the original harbor at the convergence of the Hudson River and the East River at the Upper New York Bay.

International trade is, in principle, not different from domestic trade as the motivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not.

However, in practical terms, carrying out trade at an international level is typically a more complex process than domestic trade. The main difference is that international trade is typically more costly than domestic trade. This is due to the fact that cross-border trade typically incurs additional costs such as explicit tariffs as well as explicit or implicit non-tariff barriers such as time costs (due to border delays), language and cultural differences, product safety, the legal system, and so on.

Another difference between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labor are often more mobile within a country than across countries. Thus, international trade is mostly restricted to trade in goods and services, and only to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labour, or other factors of production. Trade in goods and services can serve as a substitute for trade in factors of production. Instead of importing a factor of production, a country can import goods that make intensive use of that factor of production and thus embody it. An example of this is the import of labor-intensive goods by the United States from China. Instead of importing Chinese labor, the United States imports goods that were produced with Chinese labor. One report in 2010, suggested that international trade was increased when a country hosted a network of immigrants, but the trade effect was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into their new country. [4]

History

The history of international trade chronicles notable events that have affected trading among various economies.

Theories and models

There are several models that seek to explain the factors behind international trade, the welfare consequences of trade and the pattern of trade.

Most traded export products

Most traded export products.png

Largest countries or regions by total international trade

Volume of world merchandise exports Volume of world merchandise exports.png
Volume of world merchandise exports

The following table is a list of the 21 largest trading states according to the World Trade Organization. [5]

RankStateInternational trade of
goods (billions of USD)
International trade of
services (billions of USD)
Total international trade
of goods and services
(billions of USD)
World 32,4309,63542,065
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union [6] 3,8211,6045,425
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 3,7061,2154,921
2Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 3,6866564,342
3Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 2,6267403,366
4Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1,0665711,637
5Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1,2503501,600
6Flag of France.svg  France 1,0744701,544
7Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1,0733391,412
8Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 1,0641721,236
9Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 9022011,103
10Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 8662001,066
11Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 807177984
12Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 763212975
13Flag of India.svg  India 623294917
13Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 613304917
15Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 77153824
16Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 596198794
17Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg  Switzerland 572207779
18Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 51193604
19Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 473122595
20Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 248338586
21Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 49192583

Top traded commodities by value (exports)

RankCommodityValue in US$('000)Date of
information
1Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, Agricultural Products (Tobacco,Wheat, Cotton, Corn) etc.$2,183,079,9412015
2Electrical, electronic equipment$1,833,534,4142015
3Machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers, etc.$1,763,371,8132015
4Vehicles (excluding railway)$1,076,830,8562015
5Plastics and articles thereof$470,226,6762015
6Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc. apparatus$465,101,5242015
7Pharmaceutical products$443,596,5772015
8Iron and steel$379,113,1472015
9Organic chemicals$377,462,0882015
10Pearls, precious stones, metals, coins, etc.$348,155,3692015

Source: International Trade Centre [7]

Observances

In the US, the various U.S. Presidents have held observances to promote big and small companies to be more involved with the export and import of goods and services. President George W. Bush observed World Trade Week on May 18, 2001, and May 17, 2002. [8] [9] On May 13, 2016, President Barack Obama proclaimed May 15 through May 21, 2016, World Trade Week, 2016. [10] On May 19, 2017, President Donald Trump proclaimed May 21 through May 27, 2017, World Trade Week, 2017. [11] [12] World Trade Week is the third week of May. Every year the President declares that week to be World Trade Week. [13] [14]

International trade versus local production

Local food

In the case of food production trade-offs in forms of local food and distant food production are controversial with limited studies comparing environmental impact and scientists cautioning that regionally specific environmental impacts should be considered. [15] Effects of local food on greenhouse gas emissions may vary per origin and target region of the production. According to the 2022 IPCC report on climate change, that in international trade net Carbon emissions has reduced between 2006 and 2016. [16] [17] A 2020 study indicated that local food crop production alone cannot meet the demand for most food crops with "current production and consumption patterns" and the locations of food production at the time of the study for 72–89% of the global population and 100–km radiuses as of early 2020. [18] [19] [20] Studies found that food miles are a relatively minor factor of carbon emissions, albeit increased food localization may also enable additional, more significant, environmental benefits such as recycling of energy, water, and nutrients. [21] For specific foods regional differences in harvest seasons may make it more environmentally friendly to import from distant regions than more local production and storage or local production in greenhouses. [22]

Qualitative differences and economic aspects

Qualitative differences between substitutive products of different production regions may exist due to different legal requirements and quality standards or different levels of controllability by local production- and governance-systems which may have aspects of security beyond resource security, environmental protection, product quality and product design and health. The process of transforming supply as well as labor rights may differ as well.

Local production has been reported to increase local employment in many cases. A 2018 study claimed that international trade can increase local employment. [23] A 2016 study found that local employment and total labor income in both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing were negatively affected by rising exposure to imports. [24]

Local production in high-income countries, rather than distant regions may require higher wages for workers. Higher wages incentivize automation [25] which could allow for automated workers' time to be reallocated by society and its economic mechanisms or be converted into leisure-like time.

Specialization, production efficiency and regional differences

Local production may require knowledge transfer, technology transfer and may not be able to compete in efficiency initially with specialized, established industries and businesses, or in consumer demand without policy measures such as eco-tariffs. Regional differences may cause specific regions to be more suitable for a specific production, thereby increasing the advantages of specific trade over specific local production. Forms of local products that are highly localized may not be able to meet the efficiency of more large-scale, highly consolidated production in terms of efficiency, including environmental impact.[ citation needed ]

Resource security

A video explaining findings of the study "Water, energy and land insecurity in global supply chains"

A systematic, and possibly first large-scale, cross-sectoral analysis of water, energy and land in security in 189 countries that links total and sectorial consumption to sources showed that countries and sectors are highly exposed to over-exploited, insecure, and degraded such resources with economic globalization having decreased security of global supply chains. The 2020 study finds that most countries exhibit greater exposure to resource risks via international trade – mainly from remote production sources – and that diversifying trading partners is unlikely to help countries and sectors to reduce these or to improve their resource self-sufficiency. [26] [27] [28] [29]

Illicit trade

Illegal gold trade

A number of people in Africa, including children, were using informal or “artisanal” methods to produce gold. While millions were making a livelihood through the small-scale mining, governments of Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia complaint about the increase in illegal production and gold smuggling. Sometimes the procedure involved criminal operations and even human and environmental cost. Investigative reports based on Africa’s export data revealed that gold in large quantities is smuggled out of the country through the United Arab Emirates, without any taxes being paid to the producing states. Analysis also reflected discrepancies in the amount exported from Africa and the total gold imported into the UAE. [30]

In July 2020, a report by Swissaid highlighted that the Dubai-based precious metal refining firms, including Kaloti Jewellery International Group and Trust One Financial Services (T1FS), received most of their gold from poor African states like Sudan. The gold mines in Sudan were seldom under the militias involved in war crimes and human rights abuses. The Swissaid report also highlighted that the illicit gold coming into Dubai from Africa is imported in large quantities by the world’s largest refinery in Switzerland, Valcambi. [31] [32]

Another report in March 2022 revealed the contradiction between the lucrative gold trade of West African countries and the illicit dealings. Like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ghana and other states, differences were recorded in the gold production in Mali and its trade with Dubai, UAE. The third largest gold exporter in Africa, Mali imposed taxes only on first 50kg gold exports per month, which allowed several small-scale miners to enjoy tax exemptions and smuggle gold worth millions. In 2014, Mali’s gold production was of 45.8 tonnes, while the UAE’s gold import were at 59.9 tonnes. [33] [34]

See also

Lists

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Burkina Faso</span> National economy

The economy of Burkina Faso is based primarily on subsistence farming and livestock raising. Burkina Faso has an average income purchasing-power-parity per capita of $1,900 and nominal per capita of $790 in 2014. More than 80% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture, with only a small fraction directly involved in industry and services. Highly variable rainfall, poor soils, lack of adequate communications and other infrastructure, a low literacy rate, and a stagnant economy are all longstanding problems of this landlocked country. The export economy also remained subject to fluctuations in world prices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Kyrgyzstan</span> National economy

The economy of Kyrgyzstan is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. According to Healy Consultants, Kyrgyzstan's economy relies heavily on the strength of industrial exports, with plentiful reserves of gold, mercury and uranium. The economy also relies heavily on remittances from foreign workers. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Kyrgyzstan's economic performance has been hindered by widespread corruption, low foreign investment and general regional instability. Despite those issues, Kyrgyzstan is ranked 70th on the ease of doing business index.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Malawi</span> National economy

The economy of Malawi is $7.522 billion by gross domestic product as of 2019, and is predominantly agricultural, with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. The landlocked country in south central Africa ranks among the world's least developed countries. In 2017, agriculture accounted for about one-third of GDP and about 80% of export revenue. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. The government faces strong challenges: to spur exports, to improve educational and health facilities, to face up to environmental problems of deforestation and erosion, and to deal with the problem of HIV/AIDS in Africa. Malawi is a least developed country according to United Nations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Nigeria</span> National economy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

The Economy of Nigeria is a middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market, with expanding manufacturing, financial, service, communications, technology, and entertainment sectors. It is ranked as the 27th-largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP, and the 24th-largest in terms of purchasing power parity and the largest Sub Saharan Africa’s

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Senegal</span> National economy

The economy of Senegal is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fishing and agriculture, which are the main sources of employment in rural areas, despite abundant natural resources in iron, zircon, gas, gold, phosphates, and numerous oil discoveries recently. Senegal's economy gains most of its foreign exchange from fish, phosphates, groundnuts, tourism, and services. As one of the dominant parts of the economy, the agricultural sector of Senegal is highly vulnerable to environmental conditions, such as variations in rainfall and climate change, and changes in world commodity prices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Single market</span> Type of trade bloc with most trade barriers removed

A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production and of enterprise and services. The goal is that the movement of capital, labour, goods, and services between the members is as easy as within them. The physical (borders), technical (standards) and fiscal (taxes) barriers among the member states are removed to the maximum extent possible. These barriers obstruct the freedom of movement of the four factors of production.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act</span> 1930 U.S. trade law placing and raising tariffs on tens of thousands of imports

The Tariff Act of 1930, commonly known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff or Hawley–Smoot Tariff, was a law that implemented protectionist trade policies in the United States. Sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, it was signed by President Herbert Hoover on June 17, 1930. The act raised US tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods.

A tariff is a tax imposed by the government of a country or by a supranational union on imports or exports of goods. Besides being a source of revenue for the government, import duties can also be a form of regulation of foreign trade and policy that taxes foreign products to encourage or safeguard domestic industry. Protective tariffs are among the most widely used instruments of protectionism, along with import quotas and export quotas and other non-tariff barriers to trade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Free trade</span> Absence of government restriction on international trade

Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports. It can also be understood as the free market idea applied to international trade. In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold economically liberal positions, while economic nationalist and left-wing political parties generally support protectionism, the opposite of free trade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Import substitution industrialization</span> Trade and economic policy

Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy that advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production. It is based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products. The term primarily refers to 20th-century development economics policies, but it has been advocated since the 18th century by economists such as Friedrich List and Alexander Hamilton.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Protectionism</span> Economic policy of restraining trade between states through government regulations

Protectionism, sometimes referred to as trade protectionism, is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations. Proponents argue that protectionist policies shield the producers, businesses, and workers of the import-competing sector in the country from foreign competitors; however, they also reduce trade and adversely affect consumers in general, and harm the producers and workers in export sectors, both in the country implementing protectionist policies and in the countries protected against.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Export</span> Goods produced in one country that are sold to another country

An export in international trade is a good produced in one country that is sold into another country or a service provided in one country for a national or resident of another country. The seller of such goods or the service provider is an exporter; the foreign buyer is an importer. Services that figure in international trade include financial, accounting and other professional services, tourism, education as well as intellectual property rights.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Non-tariff barriers to trade</span> Type of trade barriers

Non-tariff barriers to trade are trade barriers that restrict imports or exports of goods or services through mechanisms other than the simple imposition of tariffs.

International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them. It seeks to explain the patterns and consequences of transactions and interactions between the inhabitants of different countries, including trade, investment and transaction.

International business refers to the trade of goods, services, technology, capital and/or knowledge across national borders and at a global or transnational scale.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Algeria</span> National economy of Algeria

The economy of Algeria expanded by 1.4% in 2018, up from 4.1% in 2016 with growth driven mainly by the recovering oil and gas sector.

An eco-tariff, also known as an environmental tariff or carbon tariff, is a trade barrier erected for the purpose of reducing pollution and improving the environment. These trade barriers may take the form of import or export taxes on products that have a large carbon footprint or are imported from countries with lax environmental regulations. The proposed EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism would be a carbon tariff.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trump administration farmer bailouts</span> Farmer bailouts iduring the presidency of Donald Trump

Trump administration farmer bailouts are a series of United States bailout programs introduced in 2016 during the presidency of Donald Trump as a consequence of his "America First" economic policy to help US farmers suffering due to the US-China trade war and trade disputes with European Union, Japan, Canada, Mexico, and others. China and respectively European reconcilable tariffs imposed on peanut butter, soybeans, orange juice, and other agriculture products had hit hard, especially swing states, such as Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin.

The trade policy of Switzerland refers to Switzerland's approach to importing and exporting with other countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economic history of Ghana</span> Aspect of history

Economic history of Ghana details the economic situation of Ghana since pre-colonial times to date.

References

  1. "Trade – Define Trade at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com.
  2. International Trade and Finance by ICC Academy
  3. "Balance Of Payments (BOP)". Investopedia. 2003-11-25. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  4. Kusum Mundra (October 18, 2010). "Immigrant Networks and U.S. Bilateral Trade: The Role of Immigrant Income". Department of Economics, Rutgers University. SSRN   1693334.
  5. "WTO | 2017 Press Releases Trade recovery expected in 2017 and 2018, amid policy uncertainty- Press/793". www.wto.org (Press release). Appendix Table 3. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  6. excluding intra-EU trade
  7. International Trade Centre (ITC). "Trade Map - Trade statistics for international business development".
  8. Office of the Press Secretary (May 22, 2001). "World Trade Week, 2001". Federal Register . Washington, D.C.: Federal Government of the United States. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2017. Alt URL
  9. Office of the Press Secretary (May 22, 2002). "World Trade Week, 2002". Federal Register . Washington, D.C.: Federal Government of the United States. Archived from the original on March 13, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2017. Alt URL
  10. "Presidential Proclamation -- World Trade Week, 2016". whitehouse.gov . Washington, D.C. May 13, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2017 via National Archives.
  11. Office of the Press Secretary (May 19, 2017). "President Donald J. Trump Proclaims May 21 through May 27, 2017, as World Trade Week". whitehouse.gov . Washington, D.C.: White House. Archived from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  12. "President Donald J. Trump Proclaims May 21 through May 27, 2017, as World Trade Week". World News Network . United States: World News Inc. May 20, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  13. "Import Export Data". Import Export data. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
  14. "World Trade Week New York". World Trade Week New York. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
  15. Rothwell, Alison; Ridoutt, Brad; Page, Girija; Bellotti, William (15 February 2016). "Environmental performance of local food: trade-offs and implications for climate resilience in a developed city". Journal of Cleaner Production. 114: 420–430. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.096. ISSN   0959-6526 . Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  16. "Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change". www.ipcc.ch. Retrieved 2022-04-05.
  17. "CO2 EMISSIONS EMBODIED IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND DOMESTIC FINAL DEMAND" (PDF).
  18. Dunphy, Siobhán (28 April 2020). "Majority of the world's population depends on imported food". European Scientist. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  19. "Relying on 'local food' is a distant dream for most of the world". phys.org. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  20. Kinnunen, Pekka; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Taka, Maija; D’Odorico, Paolo; Siebert, Stefan; Puma, Michael J.; Jalava, Mika; Kummu, Matti (April 2020). "Local food crop production can fulfil demand for less than one-third of the population". Nature Food. 1 (4): 229–237. doi: 10.1038/s43016-020-0060-7 .
  21. Yang, Yi; Campbell, J. Elliott (1 March 2017). "Improving attributional life cycle assessment for decision support: The case of local food in sustainable design". Journal of Cleaner Production. 145: 361–366. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.020. ISSN   0959-6526 . Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  22. Edwards-Jones, Gareth (2010). "Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 69 (4): 582–591. doi: 10.1017/S0029665110002004 . ISSN   1475-2719. PMID   20696093.
  23. Wang, Zhi; Wei, Shang-Jin; Yu, Xinding; Zhu, Kunfu (13 August 2018). "Re-examining the Effects of Trading with China on Local Labor Markets: A Supply Chain Perspective". National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:10.3386/w24886. S2CID   158243880 . Retrieved 4 December 2020.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. Malgouyres, Clément (2017). "The Impact of Chinese Import Competition on the Local Structure of Employment and Wages: Evidence from France". Journal of Regional Science. 57 (3): 411–441. doi:10.1111/jors.12303. ISSN   1467-9787. S2CID   56047849 . Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  25. "How Artificial Intelligence Could Widen the Gap Between Rich and Poor Nations". IMF Blog. Retrieved 4 December 2020. Higher wages Advanced economies have higher wages because total factor productivity is higher. These higher wages induce firms in advanced economies to use robots more intensively, to begin with, especially when robots easily substitute for workers. Then, when robot productivity rises, the advanced economy will benefit more in the long run. This divergence grows larger, the more robots substitute for workers.
  26. "Global trade linked to resource insecurity". Cosmos Magazine. 26 October 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  27. Dunphy, Siobhán (20 November 2020). "Is globalisation compatible with sustainable and resilient supply chains?". European Scientist. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  28. "Globalized economy making water, energy and land insecurity worse: study". phys.org. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  29. Taherzadeh, Oliver; Bithell, Mike; Richards, Keith (28 October 2020). "Water, energy and land insecurity in global supply chains". Global Environmental Change. 67: 102158. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102158. ISSN   0959-3780. S2CID   228952251 . Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  30. "Gold worth billions smuggled out of Africa". Reuters. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  31. "Dubai's dubious gold is prized in Switzerland". Le Temps. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  32. "GOLDEN DETOUR: The hidden face of the gold trade between the United Arab Emirates and Switzerland" (PDF). Swissaid. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  33. "Mali: West Africa's hub for illegal gold trade with Dubai". Enact Africa. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  34. "Mali to Dubai: artery for West Africa's booming illegal gold trade". ISS Africa. 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.

Further reading

Sources

Data

Statistics from intergovernmental sources

Data on the value of exports and imports and their quantities often broken down by detailed lists of products are available in statistical collections on international trade published by the statistical services of intergovernmental and supranational organisations and national statistical institutes. The definitions and methodological concepts applied for the various statistical collections on international trade often differ in terms of definition (e.g. special trade vs. general trade) and coverage (reporting thresholds, inclusion of trade in services, estimates for smuggled goods and cross-border provision of illegal services). Metadata providing information on definitions and methods are often published along with the data.

Other data sources