Last updated

Republic of Zambia
"One Zambia, One Nation"
Anthem: "Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free"
Zambia (orthographic projection).svg
and largest city
15°25′S28°17′E / 15.417°S 28.283°E / -15.417; 28.283
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
(2010 [1] )
Christianity (official)
Demonym(s) Zambian
Government Unitary presidential republic
Hakainde Hichilema
Mutale Nalumango
Nelly Mutti
Mumba Malila
Legislature National Assembly
from the United Kingdom
27 June 1890
28 November 1899
29 January 1900
17 August 1911
1 August 1953
24 October 1964
752,617 km2 (290,587 sq mi) [2] (38th)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
19,610,769 [3] (63rd)
26.1/km2 (67.6/sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)2022 estimate
Increase2.svg$76.325 billion [4] (102nd)
 Per capita
Increase2.svg$3,803 [4] (158th)
GDP  (nominal)2022 estimate
Increase2.svg$27.02 billion [4] (112nd)
 Per capita
Increase2.svg$1,348 [4] (160th)
Gini  (2015)57.1 [5]
HDI  (2021)Decrease2.svg 0.565 [6]
medium ·  154th
Currency Zambian kwacha (ZMW)
Time zone UTC+2 (CAT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving side left
Calling code +260
ISO 3166 code ZM
Internet TLD .zm

Zambia ( /ˈzæmbiə,ˈzɑːm-/ ), officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa, [7] and is typically referred to as being in South-Central Africa. [8] Its neighbours are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part. The population of around 20.1 million (2023) is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the north, the core economic hubs of the country.


The region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the 13th century. Following the arrival of European explorers in the 18th century, the British colonised the region into the British protectorates of Barotseland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia comprising 73 tribes, towards the end of the 19th century. These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company. [9] On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. [10] From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the United National Independence Party as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation" coined by Kaunda. Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of government decentralisation.

Zambia contains minerals, wildlife, forestry, freshwater and arable land. [11] In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries. [12]


A territory was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911 to 1964. It was renamed Zambia in October 1964 on its independence from British rule. The name Zambia derives from the Zambezi River; Zambezi may mean "grand river". [13]



The fossil skull remains (Kabwe 1) of Broken Hill Man (also known as Kabwe Man), dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. [14]

Khoisan, Batwa and Bantu (Abantu)

Ancient (but graffitied) Rock Art in Nsalu Cave, Kasanka National Park in North-Central Zambia NsaluCave.jpg
Ancient (but graffitied) Rock Art in Nsalu Cave, Kasanka National Park in North-Central Zambia

It once was inhabited by the Khoisan and Batwa peoples until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle the areas. [15] It is believed the Khoisan people originated in East Africa and spread southwards around 150,000 years ago. The Twa people were split into two groups: the Kafwe Twa lived around the Kafue Flats and the Lukanga Twa who lived around the Lukanga Swamp. [16]

A history of the peoples is deduced from oral records, archaeology, and written records, mostly from non-Africans. [17]

Bantu origins and settlements

Batonga fisherwomen in Southern Zambia. Batonga women.png
Batonga fisherwomen in Southern Zambia.

The Bantu people originally lived in West and Central Africa around what later is Cameroon and Nigeria. Around 4000 to 3000 years ago they began a millennia-long expansion into most of the continent. The Bantu are believed to have been the first to have brought iron working technology into parts of Africa. The Bantu Expansion happened primarily through two routes: a western one via the Congo Basin and an eastern one via the African Great Lakes. [18]

These first Bantu people lived in villages. They lacked an organised unit under a chief or headman and worked as a community and helped each other in times of field preparation for their crops. Villages moved around as the soil became exhausted as a result of the slash-and-burn technique of planting crops. The people kept herds of cattle. [19]

Ruins of Great Zimbabwe. Kalanga/Shona rulers of this kingdom dominated trade at Ingombe Ilede. Great-Zimbabwe-ruins-outer-walls-3-1200.jpg
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe. Kalanga/Shona rulers of this kingdom dominated trade at Ingombe Ilede.

European missionaries who settled in Wl southern Zambia noted the independence of Bantu societies. One of these missionaries noted: "[If] weapons for war, hunting, and domestic purposes are needed, the Tonga man goes to the hills and digs until he finds the iron ore. He smelts it and with the iron thus obtained makes axes, hoes, and other useful implements. He burns wood and makes charcoal for his forge. His bellows are made from the skins of animals and the pipes are clay tile, and the anvil and hammers are also pieces of the iron he has obtained. He moulds, welds, shapes, and performs all the work of the ordinary blacksmith." [20]

The goods traded at Ingombe Ilede included fabrics, beads, gold, and bangles. Some of these items came from what later is southern Democratic Republic of Congo and Kilwa Kisiwani while others came from as far away as India, China and the Arab world. [21] The African traders were later joined by the Portuguese in the 16th century. [22]

The second mass settlement of Bantu people into Zambia was of people groups that are believed to have taken the western route of the Bantu migration through the Congo Basin. These Bantu people spent the majority of their existence in what later is the Democratic Republic of Congo. [23]

Luba-Lunda states
Drawing of the ruler of Lunda, Mwata Kazembe, receiving Portuguese in the royal courtyard in the 1800s Mwata.jpg
Drawing of the ruler of Lunda, Mwata Kazembe, receiving Portuguese in the royal courtyard in the 1800s

The Bemba, along with other related groups like the Lamba, Bisa, Senga, Kaonde, Swaka, Nkoya and Soli, formed parts of the Luba Kingdom in Upemba part of the Democratic Republic of Congo and have a relation to the BaLuba people.

Over time these communities learned to use nets and harpoons, make dugout canoes, clear canals through swamps and make dams as high as 2.5 meters. As a result, they grew an economy trading fish, copper and iron items and salt for goods from other parts of Africa, like the Swahili coast and, later on, the Portuguese. From these communities arose the Luba Kingdom in the 14th century. [24]

The Luba Kingdom was a kingdom with a centralised government and smaller independent chiefdoms. It had trading networks that linked the forests in the Congo Basin and the plateaus of what later is Copperbelt Province and stretched from the Atlantic coast to the Indian Ocean coast. The arts and artisans were held in esteem in the kingdom. [24]

Literature was developed in the Luba Kingdom. One Luba genesis story that articulated the distinction between two types of Luba emperors goes as follows:

Nkongolo Mwamba, the red king, and Ilunga Mbidi Kiluwe, a prince of legendary black complexion. Nkongolo Mwamba is the drunken and cruel despot, Ilunga Mbidi Kiluwe the refined and gentle prince. Nkongolo the Red is a man without manners, a man who eats in public, gets drunk, and cannot control himself, whereas [Ilunga] Mbidi Kiluwe is a man of reservation, obsessed with good manners; he does not eat in public, controls his language and his behaviour, and keeps a distance from the vices and modus vivendi of ordinary people. Nkongolo Mwamba symbolizes the embodiment of tyranny, whereas Mbidi Kiluwe remains the admired caring and compassionate kin. [25]

A drawing of Lunda houses by a Portuguese visitor. The size of the doorways relative to the building emphasizes the scale of the buildings. Lunda houses-1854.jpg
A drawing of Lunda houses by a Portuguese visitor. The size of the doorways relative to the building emphasizes the scale of the buildings.

In the same region of Southern Congo the Lunda people were made into a satellite of the Luba empire and adopted forms of Luba culture and governance, thus becoming the Lunda Empire to the south. According to Lunda genesis myths, a Luba hunter named Chibinda Ilunga, son of Ilunga Mbidi Kiluwe, introduced the Luba model of statecraft to the Lunda sometime around 1600 when he married a local Lunda princess named Lueji and was granted control of her kingdom. Most rulers who claimed descent from Luba ancestors were integrated into the Luba empire. The Lunda kings remained separate and actively expanded their political and economic dominance over the region. [24]

The Lunda, like its parent state Luba, traded with both coasts, the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. While ruler Mwaant Yaav Naweej had established trade routes to the Atlantic coast and initiated direct contact with European traders eager for slaves and forest products and controlling the regional Copper trade, and settlements around Lake Mweru regulated commerce with the East African coast. [24]

The Chokwe eventually were defeated by the other ethnic groups and the Portuguese. [26] This instability caused the collapse of the Luba-Lunda states and a dispersal of people into parts of Zambia from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The majority of Zambians trace their ancestry to the Luba-Lunda and surrounding Central African states. [27]

Maravi Confederacy

In the 1200s, before the founding of the Luba-Lunda states, a group of Bantu people started migrating from the Congo Basin to Lake Mweru then finally settled around Lake Malawi. These migrants are believed to have been one of the inhabitants around the Upemba area in the Democratic Republic of Congo. By the 1400s these groups of migrants collectively called the Maravi, and among them was the Chewa people (AChewa), who started assimilating other Bantu groups like the Tumbuka. [28]

The kalonga (ruler) of the AChewa descends from the kalonga of the Maravi Empire. Kalonga.jpg
The kalonga (ruler) of the AChewa descends from the kalonga of the Maravi Empire.

In 1480 the Maravi Empire was founded by the kalonga (paramount chief of the Maravi) from the Phiri clan, one of the clans, with the others being Banda, Mwale and Nkhoma. The Maravi Empire stretched from the Indian Ocean through what later is Mozambique to Zambia and parts of Malawi. The political organization of the Maravi resembled that of the Luba and is believed to have originated from there. The primary export of the Maravi was ivory, which was transported to Swahili brokers. [28]

Iron was manufactured and exported. In the 1590s the Portuguese endeavoured to monopolize Maravi export trade. This attempt was met with outrage by the Maravi of Lundu, who unleashed their WaZimba armed force. The WaZimba sacked the Portuguese trade towns of Tete, Sena and other towns. [29]

The Maravi are believed to have brought the traditions that would become Nyau secret society from Upemba. The Nyau form the cosmology or indigenous religion of the people of Maravi. The Nyau society consists of ritual dance performances and masks used for the dances; this belief system spread around the region. [30]

The Maravi declined as a result of succession disputes within the confederacy, attack by the Ngoni and slave raids from the Yao. [29]

Mutapa Empire and Mfecane
Three Ngoni chiefs. The Ngoni made their way into Eastern Zambia from KwaZulu in South Africa. They eventually assimilated into the local ethnic groups. Ngoni Chiefs.jpg
Three Ngoni chiefs. The Ngoni made their way into Eastern Zambia from KwaZulu in South Africa. They eventually assimilated into the local ethnic groups.

As Great Zimbabwe was in decline, one of its princes, Nyatsimba Mutota, broke away from the state forming a new empire called Mutapa. The title of Mwene Mutapa, meaning "Ravager of the Lands", was bestowed on him and subsequent rulers. [31]

The Mutapa Empire ruled territory between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, in what later is Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique, from the 14th to the 17th century. By its peak Mutapa had conquered the Dande area of the Tonga and Tavara. The Mutapa Empire predominately engaged in the Indian Ocean transcontinental trade with and via the WaSwahili. They primarily exported gold and ivory in exchange for silk and ceramics from Asia. [32]

Like their contemporaries in Maravi, Mutapa had problems with the arriving Portuguese traders. The Portuguese attempted to influence the kingdom's internal affairs by establishing markets in the kingdom and converting the population to Christianity. This action caused outrage from the Muslim WaSwahili living in the capital, and this chaos gave the Portuguese the excuse they were searching for to warrant an attack on the kingdom and try to control its gold mines and ivory routes. This attack failed when the Portuguese succumbed to disease along the Zambezi river. [33]

In the 1600s internal disputes and civil war began the decline of Mutapa. The weakened kingdom was finally conquered by the Portuguese and was eventually taken over by rival Shona states. [33]

The Portuguese had estates, known as Prazos, and they used slaves and ex-slaves as security guards and hunters. They trained the men in military tactics and gave them guns. These men became expert elephant hunters and were known as the Chikunda. After the decline of the Portuguese the Chikunda made their way to Zambia. [34]

Inside the palace of the Litunga, ruler of the Lozi. Due to the flooding on the Zambezi, the Litunga has two palaces one of which is on higher ground. The movement of Litunga to higher land is celebrated at the Kuomboka Ceremony. Litunga.jpg
Inside the palace of the Litunga, ruler of the Lozi. Due to the flooding on the Zambezi, the Litunga has two palaces one of which is on higher ground. The movement of Litunga to higher land is celebrated at the Kuomboka Ceremony.

The Portuguese presence in the region was a reason for the founding of the Rozvi Empire, a breakaway state of Mutapa. Under the leadership of Changamire Dombo, the Rozvi defeated the Portuguese and expelled them from their trading posts along the Zambezi river. [35]

Another instance of this increased militarization was the rise of the Zulu under the leadership of Shaka. Pressures from the English colonialists in the Cape and increased militarization of the Zulu resulted in the Mfecane (the crushing). The Zulu expanded by assimilating the women and children of tribes they defeated; if the men of these Nguni tribes escaped slaughter, they used the military tactics of the Zulu to attack other groups. [36]

This caused mass displacements, wars and raids throughout Southern, Central and Eastern Africa as Nguni or Ngoni tribes made their way throughout the region and is referred to as the Mfecane. The arriving Nguni under the leadership of Zwagendaba crossed the Zambezi river moving northwards. The Ngoni were the final blow to the Maravi Empire. Nguni eventually settled around what later is Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania, and assimilated into neighbouring tribes. [36]

In the western part of Zambia, another Southern African group of Sotho-Tswana heritage called the Kololo managed to conquer the local inhabitants who were migrants from the fallen Luba and Lunda states called the Luyana or Aluyi. The Luyana established the Barotse Kingdom on the floodplains of the Zambezi upon their arrival from Katanga. Under the Kololo, the Kololo language was imposed upon the Luyana until the Luyana revolted and overthrew the Kololo; by this time a hybrid language emerged, SiLozi, and the Luyana began to refer to themselves as Lozi. [37]

In the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele. [38] [39]


An 1864 photograph of the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone David Livingstone -1.jpg
An 1864 photograph of the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone

One of the recorded Europeans to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia (with the goal of exploring and to crossing Southern Africa from coast to coast for the first time), [40] and died during the expedition in 1798. The expedition was from then on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. [41]

Other European visitorfollowed in the 19th century, including David Livingstone who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity, Commerce, and Civilisation. He was the first European to see the waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". [42] Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thundering smoke" in the Lozi or Kololo dialect. The town of Livingstone, near the Falls, is named after him. Publicised accounts of his journeys motivated a wave of European visitors, missionaries and traders after his death in 1873. [43]

In 1888, the British South Africa Company (BSA Company), led by Cecil Rhodes, obtained mineral rights from the Litunga of the Lozi people, the Paramount Chief of the Lozi (Ba-rotse) for the area which later became Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia. [44]

To the east, in December 1897 a group of the Angoni or Ngoni (originally from Zululand) rebelled under Tsinco, son of King Mpezeni, and the rebellion was put down, [45] and Mpezeni accepted the Pax Britannica. That part of the country then came to be known as North-Eastern Rhodesia. In 1895, Rhodes asked his American scout Frederick Russell Burnham to look for minerals and ways to improve river navigation in the region, and it was during this trek that Burnham discovered copper deposits along the Kafue River. [46]

In 1953, the creation of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland grouped together Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland as a single semi-autonomous region. This was undertaken with opposition from a minority of the population, who demonstrated against it in 1960–61. [47]


Kenneth Kaunda, first Republican president, on a state visit to Romania in 1970 Zambia123f.jpg
Kenneth Kaunda, first Republican president, on a state visit to Romania in 1970

The federation was dissolved on 31 December 1963, and in January 1964, Kaunda won the only election for Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia. The Colonial Governor, Sir Evelyn Hone, urged Kaunda to stand for the post. There was an uprising in the north of the country known as the Lumpa Uprising led by Alice Lenshina  – Kaunda's first internal conflict as leader of the nation. [48]

Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on 24 October 1964, with Kenneth Kaunda as the first president. The economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. This expertise was provided in part by John Willson. [49] There were over 70,000 Europeans resident in 1964. [50]

Kaunda's endorsement of Patriotic Front guerrillas conducting raids into neighbouring (Southern) Rhodesia resulted in political tension and a militarisation of the border, leading to its closure in 1973. [51]

The geopolitical situation during the Rhodesian Bush War in 1965 - countries friendly to the nationalists are coloured orange. RhodesiaAllies1965.png
The geopolitical situation during the Rhodesian Bush War in 1965 – countries friendly to the nationalists are coloured orange.

On 3 September 1978, a civilian airliner, Air Rhodesia Flight 825, was shot down near Kariba by the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA). 18 people, including children, survived the crash only for most of them to be shot by militants of the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) led by Joshua Nkomo. Rhodesia responded with Operation Gatling, an attack on Nkomo's guerilla bases in Zambia, in particular, his military headquarters outside Lusaka; this raid became known as the Green Leader Raid. On the same day, two more bases in Zambia were attacked using air power and elite paratroops and helicopter-borne troops. [52]

By the 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Rhodesia's predominantly white government, which issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, accepted majority rule under the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979. [53]

Civil strife in both Portuguese colonies and a mounting Namibian War of Independence resulted in an influx of refugees [54] and compounded transportation issues. The Benguela railway, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to Zambian traffic by the 1970s. Zambia's support for anti-apartheid movements such as the African National Congress (ANC) also created security problems as the South African Defence Force struck at dissident targets during external raids. [55]

In the 1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, underwent a decline worldwide. In Zambia's situation, the cost of transporting the copper great distances to the market was an additional strain. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, and, as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the 1990s, with limited debt relief, Zambia's per capital foreign debt remained among the highest in the world. [56]

In June 1990 riots against Kaunda accelerated. Protesters were killed by the regime in June 1990 protests. [57] [58]


National Assembly building in Lusaka Zambia National Assembly Building.jpg
National Assembly building in Lusaka

A presidential representative democratic republic has the President of Zambia as both head of state and head of government in a pluriformmulti-party system. Government exercises executive power, while legislative power is vested in government and parliament.

Zambia became a republic upon attaining independence in October 1964. From 2011 to 2014, the president had been Michael Sata, until Sata died on 28 October 2014. [59] After Sata's death, Vice President Guy Scott, a Zambian of Scottish descent, became acting President of Zambia. Presidential elections were held on 22 January 2015. A total number of 11 presidential candidates contested in the election and On 24 January 2015, it was announced that Edgar Chagwa Lungu had won the election to become the 6th President. He won 48.33% of the vote, a lead of 1.66 percentage points (3.56%) over his closest rival, Hakainde Hichilema, with 46.67%. [60] Nine other candidates all got less than 1% each. In August 2016 Zambian general election president Edgar Lungu won re-election in the first round of the election. The opposition had allegations of fraud and the governing Patriotic Front (PF) rejected the allegations made by opposition UPND party. [61]

In the 2021 general elections, characterised by a 70% voter turnout, Hakainde Hichilema won 59% of the vote, with his closest rival, incumbent president Edgar Chagwa Lungu, receiving 39% of the vote. [62] On 16 August Edgar Lungu conceded in a TV statement, sending a letter and congratulating president-elect Hakainde Hichilema. [63] [64] On 24 August 2021, Hakainde Hichilema was sworn in as the new President of Zambia [65] in a ceremony attended by heads of states including the head of commonwealth it was held at the Heroes Stadium in the capital city Lusaka. [66]

In 2019, Zambia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. [67]

Administrative divisions

Provincial Administrative Divisions of Zambia.pngWesternNorth-WesternCopperbeltNorthernMuchingaSouthernLuapulaCentralLusakaEastern

Zambia is administratively divided into ten provinces subdivided into 116 districts, and electorally into 156 constituencies and 1,281 wards.

  1. Central Province
  2. Copperbelt
  3. Eastern Province
  4. Luapula
  5. Lusaka
  6. Muchinga
  7. North-Western Province
  8. Northern Province
  9. Southern Province
  10. Western Province

Human rights

The government has prosecuted critics using the legal pretext that they had incited public disorder. Libel laws are used to suppress free speech and the press. [68]

Same-sex sexual activity is illegal for both males and females. [69] [70] A 2010 survey revealed that 2% of Zambians find homosexuality to be morally acceptable. [71]

In December 2019, it was reported that United States Ambassador to Zambia Daniel Lewis Foote was "horrified" by Zambia's jailing of same-sex couple Japhet Chataba and Steven Samba. After an appeal failed and the couple was sentenced to 15 years in prison, Foote asked the Zambian government to review both the case and the country's anti-homosexuality laws. Foote faced a backlash and canceled public appearances after he was threatened on social media, and was subsequently recalled after President Lungu declared him persona non grata. [72]


Map of Koppen climate classification Koppen-Geiger Map ZMB present.svg
Map of Köppen climate classification

In the Zambezi basin, there are a number of rivers flowing wholly or partially through Zambia: the Kabompo, Lungwebungu, Kafue, Luangwa, and the Zambezi itself, which flows through the country in the west and then forms its southern border with Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Its source is in Zambia but it diverts into Angola, and a number of its tributaries rise in Angola's central highlands. The edge of the Cuando River floodplain (not its main channel) forms Zambia's southwestern border, and via the Chobe River that river contributes less water to the Zambezi because most are lost by evaporation. [73]

Victoria Falls Cataratas Victoria, Zambia-Zimbabue, 2018-07-27, DD 05.jpg
Victoria Falls

In Eastern Zambia the plateau which extends between the Zambezi and Lake Tanganyika valleys is tilted upwards to the north, and so rises imperceptibly from about 900 m (2,953 ft) in the south to 1,200 m (3,937 ft) in the centre, reaching 1,800 m (5,906 ft) in the north near Mbala. These plateau areas of northern Zambia have been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as a large section of the Central Zambezian miombo woodlands ecoregion. [74]

Eastern Zambia shows diversity. The Luangwa Valley splits the plateau in a curve north-east to south-west, extended west into the heart of the plateau by the valley of the Lunsemfwa River. Hills and mountains are found by the side of some sections of the valley, notably in its north-east the Nyika Plateau (2,200 m or 7,218 ft) on the Malawi border, which extend into Zambia as the Mafinga Hills, containing the country's highest point, Mafinga Central (2,339 m or 7,674 ft). [75]

There are two seasons, the rainy season (November to April) corresponding to summer, and the dry season (May/June to October/November), corresponding to winter. The dry season is subdivided into the cool dry season (May/June to August), and the hot dry season (September to October/November). The modifying influence of altitude gives the country subtropical weather rather than tropical conditions during the cool season of May to August. [76]


African fish eagle just caught fish.jpg
African fish eagle, the national bird of Zambia
Zambian barbet, Zambia's only true endemic bird species

There are an estimated 3,543 species of wild flowering plants, consisting of sedges, herbaceous plants and woody plants. [77] The Northern and North-Western provinces have the highest diversity of flowering plants. Approximately 53% of flowering plants are "rare" and occur throughout the country. [78]

A total of 242 mammal species are found, with most occupying the woodland and grassland ecosystems. The Rhodesian giraffe and Kafue lechwe are some of the subspecies that are endemic to Zambia. [79]

Roughly 490 fish species, belonging to 24 fish families, have been reported, with Lake Tanganyika having the highest number of endemic species. [80]

The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.5/10, ranking it 39th globally out of 172 countries. [81]


Historical population
1911 821,536    
1921 983,835+19.8%
1931 1,344,447+36.7%
1946 1,683,828+25.2%
1951 1,930,842+14.7%
1956 2,172,304+12.5%
1963 3,490,540+60.7%
1969 4,056,995+16.2%
1980 5,661,801+39.6%
1990 7,383,097+30.4%
2000 9,885,591+33.9%
2010 13,092,666+32.4%
2015 (est.) 16,212,000+23.8%
Note: In censuses carried out during the British colonial administration prior to 1963, the black African population was estimated rather than counted.
Source: Central Statistical Office, Zambia
The Mwata Kazembe opens the Mutomboko ceremony. Umutomboko ceremony.jpg
The Mwata Kazembe opens the Mutomboko ceremony.

44% of the population concentrated along some transport corridors. The fertility rate was 6.2 as of 2007 (6.1 in 1996, 5.9 in 2001–02). [82]

Largest towns

The onset of industrial copper mining on the Copperbelt in the 1920s triggered more rapid urbanisation. [83]

Largest cities or towns in Zambia
According to the 2010 Census
Rank Name Province Pop.Rank Name Province Pop.
Kafue round about.jpg
1 Lusaka Lusaka 1,747,15211 Solwezi North-Western 90,856 Ndola view - Flickr.jpg
Grand Seminaire de Kabwe.jpg
2 Kitwe Copperbelt 501,36012 Mansa Luapula 78,153
3 Ndola Copperbelt 451,24613 Chililabombwe Copperbelt 77,818
4 Kabwe Central 202,36014 Mazabuka Southern 71,700
5 Chingola Copperbelt 185,24615 Kafue Lusaka 71,573
6 Mufulira Copperbelt 151,30916 Kalulushi Copperbelt 51,863
7 Livingstone Southern 134,34917 Choma Southern 51,842
8 Luanshya Copperbelt 130,07618 Mongu Western 49,818
9 Chipata Eastern 116,62719 Kapiri Mposhi Central 44,783
10 Kasama Northern 101,84520 Nakonde Muchinga 41,836

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Groups in Zambia
Ethnic Groupspercent
Lunda (Northern)
Lunda (Luapula)
Other Zambian
Major Racial
Not Stated

The population includes approximately 73 ethnic groups, [84] most of which are Bantu-speaking. Almost 90% of Zambians belong to nine ethnolinguistic groups: the Nyanja-Chewa, Bemba, [85] Tonga, [86] Tumbuka, [87] Lunda, Luvale, [88] Kaonde, [89] Nkoya and Lozi. [90] In the rural areas, ethnic groups are concentrated in particular geographic regions. In addition to the linguistic dimension, tribal identities are relevant. [91] These tribal identities are linked to family allegiance or to traditional authorities. The tribal identities are nested within the main language groups. [92]

Tribal and linguistic map Tribal Linguistic map Zambia.jpg
Tribal and linguistic map

Immigrants, mostly British or South African, as well as some white Zambian citizens of British descent, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are either employed in mines, financial and related activities or retired. There were 70,000 Europeans in Zambia in 1964, but many have since left the country. [50]

Zambia has an Asian population, most of whom are Indians and Chinese. This minority group has an impact on the economy controlling the manufacturing sector. An estimated 80,000 Chinese reside. [93] Several hundred dispossessed white farmers have left Zimbabwe at the invitation of the Zambian government, to take up farming in the Southern province. [94] [95]

According to the World Refugee Survey 2009 published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Zambia had a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 88,900. The majority of refugees in the country came from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (47,300 refugees from the DRC living in Zambia in 2007), Angola (27,100; see Angolans in Zambia), Zimbabwe (5,400) and Rwanda (4,900). [96]

Beginning in May 2008, the number of Zimbabweans in Zambia began to increase more; the influx consisted largely of Zimbabweans formerly living in South Africa who were fleeing xenophobic violence there. [97] Nearly 60,000 refugees live in camps, while 50,000 are mixed in with the local populations. Refugees who wish to work must apply for permits, which can cost up to $500 per year. [96]


It is officially a "Christian nation" under the 1996 constitution, and recognizes and protects freedom of religion. [98]

Christianity arrived to Zambia through missionary work in the second half of the 19th century, and its variety of sects and movements reflect changing patterns of missionary activity; for example, Catholicism came from Portuguese Mozambique in the east, while Anglicanism reflects British influences from the south. Following its independence in 1964, Zambia saw a greater influx of other church missions from across the world, particularly North America and Germany. In subsequent decades, Western missionary roles have been assumed by native believers (except for some technical positions, such as physicians). After Frederick Chiluba, a Pentecostal Christian, became president in 1991, Pentecostal congregations expanded around the country. [99]

Religious affiliation in Zambia [100]
Roman Catholic
Distribution of population by religious affiliation

A number of otherwise smaller Christian denominations are disproportionately represented. The country has a community of Seventh-day Adventists, accounting for about 1 in 18 Zambians. [101] The Lutheran Church of Central Africa has over 11,000 members. [102] Counting only active preachers, Jehovah's Witnesses, who have been present since 1911, [103] have over 190,000 adherents; nearly 800,000 attended the annual observance of Christ's death in 2021. [104] About 12 percent of Zambians are members of the New Apostolic Church; [105] with more than 1.2 million believers, the country has the third-largest community in Africa, out of a total worldwide membership of over 9 million. [106]

Not including indigenous beliefs, non-Christian faiths total less than three percent of the population. Followers of the Baháʼí Faith number over 160,000, [107] or 1.5 percent of the population, which is among the largest communities in the world; the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation, run by the Baháʼí community, is particularly active in areas such as literacy and primary health care. Approximately 0.5 percent of Zambians are Muslim, and a similar proportion are Hindu, in each case concentrated in urban areas. [108] About 500 people belong to the Ahmadiyya community, which is variably considered an Islamic movement or a heretical sect. [109]


Texts claim that Zambia has 73 languages and/or dialects; this figure is probably due to a non-distinction between language and dialect, based on the criterion of mutual intelligibility. On this basis, the number languages would probably be about 20 or 30. [110]

Widely spoken languages [111]
  Bemba - 33.5
  Nyanja - 14.8
  Tonga - 10.4
  Tumbuka - 5.8
  Lozi - 4.2
  other - 30.3

The official language of Zambia is English, which is used for official business and public education. The main local language, especially in Lusaka, is Nyanja (Chewa), followed by Bemba. In the Copperbelt, Bemba is the main language and Nyanja second. Bemba and Nyanja are spoken in the urban areas, in addition to other indigenous languages that are spoken. These include Lozi, Tumbuka, Kaonde, Tonga, Lunda and Luvale, which featured on the Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) local-languages section. [112] [110] [113]

Density map of dominant regional languages
.mw-parser-output .div-col{margin-top:0.3em;column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .div-col-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .div-col-rules{column-rule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .div-col dl,.mw-parser-output .div-col ol,.mw-parser-output .div-col ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .div-col li,.mw-parser-output .div-col dd{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .plainlist ol,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul{line-height:inherit;list-style:none;margin:0}.mw-parser-output .plainlist ol li,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul li{margin-bottom:0}
Tonga Dominant Regional Language in Zambia.svg
Density map of dominant regional languages

English is used in official communications and is the language of choice at home among – now common – interethnic families. This evolution of languages has led to Zambian slang heard throughout Lusaka and other cities. The majority of Zambians speak more than one language: the official language, English, and the most spoken language in the town or area they live in. Portuguese has been introduced as a second language into the school curriculum due to the presence of a Portuguese-speaking Angolan community. [115] French is commonly studied in private schools, while some secondary schools have it as an optional subject. A German course has been introduced at the University of Zambia (UNZA).

Health and education

It is experiencing a generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic, with a national HIV prevalence rate of 12.10 percent among adults. [116] The prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS for adults aged 15–49 decreased to 13 percent in 2013/14, compared to 16 percent roughly a decade earlier. [117]

Pupils at the St Monica's Girls Secondary School in Chipata, Eastern Province Pupils at St Monicas Girls Secondary School.jpg
Pupils at the St Monica's Girls Secondary School in Chipata, Eastern Province

The right to equal and adequate education for all is enshrined within the constitution. [118] The Education Act of 2011 regulates equal and quality education. [119]


A proportional representation of exports, 2019 Zambia Product Exports (2019).svg
A proportional representation of exports, 2019

It averages between $7.5 billion and $8 billion of exports annually. [120] It totaled $9.1 billion worth of exports in 2018. [121] In 2015, about 54.4% of Zambians lived below the recognised national poverty line, improved from 60.5% in 2010. [122] Rural poverty rates were about 76.6% and urban rates at about 23.4%. [122] The national poverty line was ZMK 214 (US$12.85) per month. [123]

Budget expenditure in 2023 [124]
General Public Services
Public Order and Safety
Economic Affairs
Environmental Protection
Housing and Community Amenities
Recreation, Culture and Religion
Social Protection
2023 annual budget expenditure

Zambia ranked 117th out of 128 countries on the 2007 Global Competitiveness Index, which looks at factors that affect economic growth. [125] In the same index in 2019 Zambia slipped in ranking to 19th place in Africa and 120th globally. As of 2020 Zambia ranks 7th in Ease of Doing Business [126] in Africa and 85th out of 190 countries globally. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 40.9 years) and maternal mortality (830 per 100,000 pregnancies). [127]

After international copper prices declined in the 1970s, the socialist regime made up for falling revenue with abortive attempts at International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs (SAPs). The policy of not trading through the main supply route and line of rail to the sea – the territory was known as Rhodesia (from 1965 to 1979), and now known as Zimbabwe – cost the economy. After the Kaunda regime, (from 1991) successive governments began limited reforms. The economy stagnated until the 1990s. In 2007 Zambia recorded its ninth consecutive year of economic growth. Inflation was 8.9%, down from 30% in 2000. [128]

Export Treemap (2014) Zambia Export Treemap (2014).png
Export Treemap (2014)

Zambia is dealing with economic reform issues such as the size of the public sector, and improving social sector delivery systems. [128] The bureaucratic procedures surrounding the process of obtaining licences encourages the use of facilitation payments. [129]

GDP per capita, compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100) GDP per capita (current), %25 of world average, 1960-2012; Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique.png
GDP per capita, compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100)

In January 2003, the government informed the International Monetary Fund and World Bank that it wished to renegotiate some of the agreed performance criteria calling for privatisation of the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities. While agreements were reached on these issues, subsequent overspending on civil service wages delayed Zambia's final HIPC debt forgiveness from 2003 to 2005, at the earliest. In an effort to reach HIPC completion in 2004, the government drafted an austerity budget for 2004, freezing civil service salaries and increasing the number of taxes. The tax hike and public sector wage freeze prohibited salary increases and new hires. This sparked a nationwide strike in February 2004. [130]

The government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry. This initiative seeks to exploit other components of resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro-power. In July 2018, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Zambia's President Edgar Lungu signed 12 agreements in capital Lusaka on areas ranging from trade and investment to tourism and diplomacy. [131] [132]


The major Nkana open copper mine, Kitwe ZM-Nkana-headgear-Kitwe.jpg
The major Nkana open copper mine, Kitwe

In 2003, exports of nonmetals increased by 25% and accounted for 38% of all export earnings, previously 35%. The government has been granting licenses to international resource companies to prospect for minerals such as nickel, tin, copper, and uranium. [133] The government hopes that nickel will take over from copper as the country's top metallic export. [134] In 2009, Zambia was hit by the world economic crisis. [135]


A number of white Zimbabwean farmers were welcomed into Zambia after their expulsion by Robert Mugabe, whose numbers had reached roughly 150 to 300 people as of 2004. [136] [137] They farm a variety of crops including tobacco, wheat, and chili peppers on an estimated 150 farms. The skills they brought, combined with general economic liberalisation under the late Zambian president Levy Mwanawasa, has been credited with stimulating an agricultural boom in Zambia. In 2004, for the first time in 26 years, Zambia exported more corn than it imported. [95] In December 2019, the government unanimously decided to legalize cannabis for medicinal and export purposes only. [138]


In 2009, Zambia generated 10.3 TWh of electricity. [139] early 2015, Zambia began experiencing an energy "shortage due to the poor 2014/2015 rain season", which resulted in lower water levels at the Kariba dam and other dams. [140] In September 2019, African Green Resources (AGR) announced that it would invest $150 million in a 50 megawatt (MW) solar farm, along with an irrigation dam and expanding the existing grain silo capacity by 80,000 tonnes. [141]


Nshima (top right corner) with three types of relish Nsima Relishes.JPG
Nshima (top right corner) with three types of relish

Inhabitants lived in tribes. One of the results of the colonial era was the growth of urbanisation. Different ethnic groups started living together in towns and cities, influencing each other's way of life. They started adopting aspects of global or universal culture, including in terms of dressing and mannerisms. [142] Original cultures have survived in rural areas, with some outside influences such as Christianity. Cultures that are specific to certain ethnic groups are known as 'Zambian cultures' while those lifestyles that are across ethnic groups are labelled "Zambian culture". [142]

A Yombe sculpture, 19th century African Art, Yombe sculpture, Louvre.jpg
A Yombe sculpture, 19th century

Zambia practices ceremonies and rituals. Some of the ceremonies and rituals are performed on occasions celebrating or marking achievements, anniversaries, the passage of time, coronations and presidential occasions, atonement and purification, graduation, dedication, oaths of allegiance, initiation, marriage, funeral, birth ceremonies and others. [142]

It practices both disclosed and undisclosed ceremonies and rituals. Among the disclosed ceremonies and rituals include calendrical or seasonal, contingent, affliction, divination, initiation and regular or daily ceremonies. [142] Undisclosed ceremonies include those practiced in secret such by spiritual groups like Nyau and Nakisha dancers and marriage counsellors such as alangizi women. [142] As of December 2016, Zambia had 77 calendrical or seasonal traditional ceremonies recognized by government. [142] The ceremonies once a year include Nc’wala, Kulonga, Kuoboka, Malaila, Nsengele, Chibwela kumushi, Dantho, Ntongo, Makundu, Lwiindi, Chuungu, and Lyenya. These are known as Zambian traditional ceremonies. Some of the more prominent are: Kuomboka and Kathanga (Western Province), Mutomboko (Luapula Province), Kulamba and Ncwala (Eastern Province), Lwiindi and Shimunenga (Southern Province), Lunda Lubanza (North Western), Likumbi Lyamize (North Western), [143] Mbunda Lukwakwa (North Western Province), Chibwela Kumushi (Central Province), Vinkhakanimba (Muchinga Province), Ukusefya Pa Ng'wena (Northern Province).

Sports and games

Sports and games are social aspects that brings people together for learning, development of skills, fun and joyous moments. [142] Sports and games in Zambia include, and are not limited to, football, athletics, netball, volleyball and indigenous games such as nsolo, chiyenga, waida, hide and seek, walyako, and sojo. [142] These are some of the indigenous games that support socialisation. The fact that the games are played by more than one person makes them social and edutainment events. [142] Zambia started taking part in global sports and games in the 1964 Summer Olympics. [142]

National Heroes Stadium in Lusaka Inauguration of Edgar Lungu.jpg
National Heroes Stadium in Lusaka

The Zambia national football team has had its triumphant moments. At the Seoul Olympics in 1988, the team defeated the Italian national team with a score of 4–0. In 2012, Zambia won the African Cup of Nations for the first time after losing in the final twice. They beat Côte d'Ivoire 8–7 in a penalty shoot-out in the final, which was played in Libreville, kilometers away from the plane crash 19 years previously. [144] In 2017, Zambia hosted and won the Pan-African football tournament U-20 African Cup of Nation for players age 20 and under. [145] The Zambia women's national football team is the first national team from a landlocked country in Africa to qualify for the FIFA Women's World Cup, by virtually finishing third in the 2022 Women's Africa Cup of Nations. It's the country's first ever senior World Cup in the history. [146]

Rugby Union, boxing and cricket are practiced. At one point in the 2000s, the Australia and South Africa national rugby teams were captained by players born in the same Lusaka hospital, those players being George Gregan and Corné Krige, respectively. Until 2014, the Roan Antelope Rugby Club in Luanshya held the Guinness World Record for the tallest rugby union goal posts in the world at 110 ft, 6 inches high. [147] This world record is now held by the Wednesbury Rugby Club. [148] Rugby union in Zambia is a growing sport. They are ranked 73rd by the IRB and have 3,650 registered players and three formally organised clubs. [149] Zambia used to play cricket as part of Rhodesia. It has provided a shinty international, Zambian-born Eddie Tembo representing Scotland in the compromise rules Shinty/Hurling game against Ireland in 2008. [150]

In 2011, Zambia was due to host the tenth All-Africa Games, for which three stadiums were to be built in Lusaka, Ndola, and Livingstone. [151] The Lusaka stadium would have a capacity of 70,000 spectators while the other two stadiums would hold 50,000 people each. The government was encouraging the private sector to get involved in the construction of the sports facilities because of a shortage of public funds for the project. Zambia later withdrew its bid to host the 2011 All-Africa Games, citing a lack of funds. Hence, Mozambique took Zambia's place as host.

Zambia produced the first black African (Madalitso Muthiya) to play in the United States Golf Open. [152]

In 1989, the Zambia basketball team qualified for the FIBA Africa Championship. [153]

Music and dance

The music which introduced dance is part of a cultural expression and it embodies the life, from the intricacies of the talking drums to the Kamangu drum used to announce the beginning of Malaila ceremony. Dance as a practice serves as a unifying factor bringing the people together as one. [154]

Zamrock is a musical genre that emerged in the 1970s. It has been described as mixing traditional Zambian music with heavy repetitive riffs similar to groups, musicians and singers such as Jimi Hendrix, James Brown, Black Sabbath, Rolling Stones, Deep Purple, and Cream. [155] [156] Groups in the genre include Rikki Ililonga and his band Musi-O-Tunya, WITCH, Chrissy "Zebby" Tembo, and Paul Ngozi and his Ngozi Family. [157] [158]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kenneth Kaunda</span> President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991

Kenneth David Kaunda, also known as KK, was a Zambian politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991. He was at the forefront of the struggle for independence from British rule. Dissatisfied with Harry Nkumbula's leadership of the Northern Rhodesian African National Congress, he broke away and founded the Zambian African National Congress, later becoming the head of the socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP).

The history of Zambia experienced many stages from colonization to independence from Britain on October 24, 1964. Northern Rhodesia became a British sphere of influence in the present-day region of Zambia in 1888, and was officially proclaimed a British protectorate in 1924. After many years of suggested mergers, Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland were merged into the British Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zambezi</span> Major river in southern Africa

The Zambezi is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. Its drainage basin covers 1,390,000 km2 (540,000 sq mi), slightly less than half of the Nile's. The 2,574-kilometre-long (1,599 mi) river rises in Zambia and flows through eastern Angola, along the north-eastern border of Namibia and the northern border of Botswana, then along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses the country to empty into the Indian Ocean.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lozi language</span> Bantu language spoken in southern Africa

Lozi, also known as siLozi and Rozi, is a Bantu language of the Niger–Congo language family within the Sotho–Tswana branch of Zone S (S.30), that is spoken by the Lozi people, primarily in southwestern Zambia and in surrounding countries. This language is most closely related to Northern Sotho, Tswana (Setswana), Kgalagari (SheKgalagari) and Sotho. Lozi, sometimes written as Rotse, and its dialects are spoken and understood by approximately six percent of the population of Zambia. Silozi is the endonym as defined by the United Nations. Lozi is the exonym.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maravi</span> Former kingdom which straddled the current borders of Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia

Maravi was a kingdom which straddled the current borders of Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, in the 16th century. The present-day name "Maláŵi" is said to derive from the Chewa word "malaŵí", which means "flames". "Maravi" is a general name of the peoples of Malawi, eastern Zambia, and northeastern Mozambique. The Chewa language, which is also referred to as Nyanja, Chinyanja or Chichewa, and is spoken in southern and central Malawi, in Zambia and to some extent in Mozambique, is the main language that emerged from this empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Livingstone, Zambia</span> Place in Southern Province, Zambia

Livingstone is a city in Zambia. Until 1935, it served as the capital city of Zambia. Lying 10 km (6.2 mi) to the north of the Zambezi River, it is a tourism attraction center for the Victoria Falls and a border town with road and rail connections to Zimbabwe on the other side of the Victoria Falls. A historic British colonial city, its present population was enumerated at 134,349 inhabitants at the 2010 census. It is named after David Livingstone, the Scottish explorer and missionary who was the first European to explore the area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lozi people</span> Ethnic group in Zambia and Zimbabwe

Lozi people, or Barotse, are a southern African ethnic group who speak Lozi or Silozi, a Sotho–Tswana language. The Lozi people consist of more than 46 different ethnic groups and are primarily situated between Namibia, Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe including half of North-Western and western province of Zambia inhabiting the region of Barotseland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barotseland</span> Place In Southern Africa

Barotseland is a region between Namibia, Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe including half of eastern and northern provinces of Zambia and the whole of Democratic Republic of Congo's Katanga Province. It is the homeland of the Lozi people or Barotse, or Malozi, who are a unified group of over 46 individual formerly diverse tribes related through kinship, whose original branch are the Luyi (Maluyi), and also assimilated Southern Sotho tribe of South Africa known as the Makololo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Copperbelt</span> Mining region in Central Africa

The Copperbelt is a natural region in Central Africa which sits on the border region between northern Zambia and the southern Democratic Republic of Congo. It is known for copper mining.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lusaka Province</span> Province of Zambia

Lusaka Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. Its capital is Lusaka, which is also the national capital. It is the smallest province in Zambia, with an area of 21,896 km2. Lusaka is also Zambia's most populated and most densely populated province, with a population of 2,191,225 and density of 100 persons per km2 as of 2010. It is the most urban province, with the most doctors and fewest malaria-related incidents. The province is bordered by Zimbabwe and Mozambique, and separated by the Lower Zambezi National Park.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bemba people</span> Ethnic group in Central Africa

The Bemba belong to a large group of Bantu peoples mainly in the Northern, Luapula, Muchinga, and the northern Central Province of Zambia. The Bemba entered modern-day Zambia before 1740 by crossing the Luapula River from Kola. A few other ethnic groups in the Northern and Luapula regions lof Zambia speak languages that are similar to Bemba but do not share a similar origin. The Bemba people are not indigenous to the Copperbelt Province, having reached there only in the 1930s due to employment opportunities in copper mining.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kazembe</span>

Kazembe is a traditional kingdom in modern-day Zambia, Southeastern Congo. For more than 250 years, Kazembe has been an influential kingdom of the Kiluba-Chibemba, speaking the language of the Eastern Luba-Lunda people of south-central Africa. Its position on trade routes in a well-watered, relatively fertile and well-populated area of forestry, fishery and agricultural resources drew expeditions by traders and explorers who called it variously Kasembe, Cazembe and Casembe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Languages of Zambia</span> Dialects of the southern African country

Zambia has several major indigenous languages, all members of the Bantu family, as well as Khwedam, Zambian Sign Language, several immigrant languages and the pidgins Settla and Fanagalo. English is the official language and the major language of business and education.

The Luvale people, also spelled Lovale, Balovale, Lubale, as well as Lwena or Luena in Angola, are a Bantu ethnic group found in northwestern Zambia and southeastern Angola. They are closely related to the Lunda and Ndembu to the northeast, but they also share cultural similarities to the Kaonde to the east, and to the Chokwe and Luchazi, important groups of eastern Angola.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Zambia</span> Overview of and topical guide to Zambia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Zambia:

Zambia, officially known as the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the southeast of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around the capital and the Copperbelt to the northwest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lusaka</span> Capital of Zambia

Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. It is one of the fastest-developing cities in southern Africa. Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about 1,279 metres (4,196 ft). As of 2019, the city's population was about 3.3 million, while the urban population is estimated at 2.5 million in 2018. Lusaka is the centre of both commerce and government in Zambia and connects to the country's four main highways heading north, south, east, and west. English is the official language of the city administration, while Bemba, Tonga, Lenje, Soli, Lozi, and Nyanja are the commonly spoken street languages.

Lamba people are a Bantu ethnolinguistic group mainly located in the Central, Copperbelt, and North-Western provinces of Zambia. Lamba people speak the Lamba language, with Lamba and Lima the major dialects recognized.

Timeline of Zambia (Northern Rhodesia)


  1. Census of Population and Housing National Analytical Report 2010 Archived 14 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine Central Statistical Office, Zambia
  2. United Nations Statistics Division. "Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Retrieved 9 November 2007.
  3. "Zambia : Preliminary data shows Population grew from 13.1 million in 2010 to 19.6 million in 2022". 24 December 2022. Retrieved 27 December 2022.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Zambia". International Monetary Fund.
  5. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  6. Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN   978-92-1-126442-5 . Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  7. Henderson, Ian (1970). "The Origins of Nationalism in East and Central Africa: The Zambian Case". The Journal of African History. 11 (4): 591–603. doi:10.1017/S0021853700010471. ISSN   0021-8537. JSTOR   180923. S2CID   154296266.
  8. "Zambia | Population, Capital, Language, Flag, & Map | Britannica". Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  9. "History | Zambian High Commission". Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  10. Andy DeRoche, Kenneth Kaunda, the United States, and Southern Africa (London: Bloomsbury, 2016).
  12. Ngoma, Jumbe (18 December 2010). "World Bank President Praises Reforms In Zambia, Underscores Need For Continued Improvements In Policy And Governance". World Bank.
  13. Everett-Heath, John (7 December 2017). The Concise Dictionary of World Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780192556462.
  14. Malcolm Southwood, Bruce Cairncross & Mike S. Rumsey (2019). "Minerals of the Kabwe ("Broken Hill") Mine, Central Province, Zambia, Rocks & Minerals". Rocks & Minerals. 94:2: 114–149. doi:10.1080/00357529.2019.1530038. S2CID   135446729.
  15. Holmes, Timothy (1998). Cultures of the World: Zambia. Tarrytown, New York: Times Books International. pp. 19–20. ISBN   978-0-7614-0694-5.
  16. "Twa". Zambia's Traditional History. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  17. Taylor, Scott D. "Culture and Customs of Zambia" (PDF). Greenwood Press. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  18. Bostoen, Koen (26 April 2018). "The Bantu Expansion". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.013.191. ISBN   9780190277734 . Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  19. "Ila". Zambia's Traditional History. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  20. "The Project Gutenberg eBook of South and South Central Africa, by H. Frances Davidson". Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  21. "Origins of trade - Zambia Travel Guide". Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  22. Pikirayi, Innocent (August 2017). "Ingombe Ilede and the demise of Great Zimbabwe". Antiquity. 91 (358): 1085–1086. doi:10.15184/aqy.2017.95. ISSN   0003-598X. S2CID   158120419.
  23. "Luba". Zambia's Traditional History. 8 August 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Bortolot, Alexander Ives. "Kingdoms of the Savanna: The Luba and Lunda Empires". Metropolitan Museum of Art . Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  25. "Luba | people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  26. Azuonye, Chukwuma (15 December 1996). Chokwe: (Angola, Zambia). The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN   978-0-8239-1990-1.
  27. "Luba". Zambia's Traditional History. 8 August 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  28. 1 2 Team, Editorial (26 December 2018). "The Maravi Confederacy". Think Africa. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  29. 1 2 Team, Editorial (26 December 2018). "The Maravi Confederacy". Think Africa. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  30. Maptia. "The Secret Cult of Nyau Dancers". Maptia. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  31. "Mwene Matapa | historical dynastic title, southern Africa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  32. "Mutapa". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  33. 1 2 "Mutapa". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  34. "Chikunda". Zambia's Traditional History. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  35. "Rozwi | historical state, Africa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  36. 1 2 "Mfecane | African history". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  37. "Lozi | people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  38. The elites of Barotseland, 1878–1969: a political history of Zambia's Western Province: a. Gerald L. Caplan, C. Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, 1970, ISBN   0900966386
  39., citing Maniacky 1997
  40. "Instructions and Travel Diary that Governor Francisco Joze de Lacerda e Almeida Wrote about His Travel to the Center of Africa, Going to the River of Sena, in the Year of 1798". 1798. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  41. Communications., Craig Hartnett of NinerNet. "Portuguese Expedition to Northern Rhodesia, 1798–99 – Great North Road (GNR, Northern Rhodesia, Zambia)". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  42. "Livingstone Discovers Victoria Falls, 1855". Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  43. "HISTORY". THE PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION WEBSITE. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020.
  44. Livingstone Tourism Association. "Destination:Zambia – History and Culture". Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
  45. Human Rights & Documentation Centre. "Zambia: Historical Background". Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  46. Burnham, Frederick Russell (1899). "Northern Rhodesia". In Wills, Walter H. (ed.). Bulawayo Up-to-date; Being a General Sketch of Rhodesia  . Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. pp. 177–180.
  47. Pearson Education. "Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of" . Retrieved 29 October 2007.
  48. "Alice Lenshina". The British Empire. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  49. WILLSON, John Michael (born 15 July 1931) [ permanent dead link ]. BDOHP Biographical Details and Interview Index.
  50. 1 2 1964: President Kaunda takes power in Zambia. BBC 'On This Day'.
  51. Raeburn, Michael (1978). We are everywhere: Narratives from Rhodesian guerillas. Random House. pp.  1–209. ISBN   978-0394505305.
  52. "GREEN LEADER. OPERATION GATLING, THE RHODESIAN MILITARY'S RESPONSE TO THE VISCOUNT TRAGEDY". Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  53. Nelson, Harold (1983). Zimbabwe: A Country Study. Claitors Publishing Division. pp. 54–137. ISBN   978-0160015984.
  54. Kaplan, Irving (1971). Area Handbook for the Republic of South Africa . U.S. Government Printing Office. pp.  404–405.
  55. Evans, M. (1984). "The Front-Line States, South Africa and Southern African Security: Military Prospects and Perspectives" (PDF). Zambezia. 12: 1.
  56. "Zambia (12/08)". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  57. "About Zambia". 20 May 2020. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  58. Bartlett, David M. C. (2000). "Civil Society and Democracy: A Zambian Case Study". Journal of Southern African Studies. 26 (3): 429–446. doi:10.1080/030570700750019655. ISSN   0305-7070. JSTOR   2637411. S2CID   143480603.
  59. Zambian President Michael Sata dies in London. BBC. 29 October 2014
  60. Defence Minister Lungu wins Zambia's disputed presidential race. Associated Press via Yahoo News. 24 January 2015
  61. "Zambia's President Edgar Lungu declared election winner". BBC News. 15 August 2016.
  62. "Presidential Election Results". Electoral Commission of Zambia. 16 August 2021. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  63. "Zambia election: Hakainde Hichilema beats President Edgar Lungu". BBC News. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  64. Kabwe, Zitto [@zittokabwe] (15 August 2021). "#Zambia President @EdgarCLungu has conceded in a letter sent to now president elect @HHichilema of @UPNDZM. Once again Zambia has shown the world the level of its democratic maturity. Peaceful transfer of power is happening for third time in history. Congratulations Zambians" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 30 August 2021 via Twitter.
  65. "Zambia's Hakainde Hichilema sworn in as President in rare victory for an African opposition leader". 24 August 2021.
  66. "HH SWORN-IN AS ZAMBIAN PRESIDENT ~". 24 August 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  67. "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017.
  68. "Zambia", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 22 March 2013.
  69. "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association . 17 May 2016.
  70. Avery, Daniel (4 April 2019). "71 Countries Where Homosexuality is Illegal". Newsweek.
  71. "Biggest Ever Studies on Attitudes to Religion and Morality in Africa Released". Newstime Africa. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
  72. "US recalls ambassador to Zambia after gay rights row". BBC News. 24 December 2019.
  73. Beilfuss, Richard and dos Santos, David (2001) "Patterns of Hydrological Change in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique". Archived 17 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine Working Paper No 2 Program for the Sustainable Management of Cahora Bassa Dam and The Lower Zambezi Valley.
  74. "Geography | Zambian High Commission". Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  75. "Mafinga South and Mafinga Central: the highest peaks in Zambia". Footsteps on the Mountain blog. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  76. Spectrum Guide to Zambia. Camerapix International Publishing, Nairobi, 1996. ISBN   1874041148.
  77. Bolnick, Doreen; Bingham (2007). A guide to the common wild flowers of Zambia and neighbouring regions 2nd Edition. Lusaka: Wildlife & Environmental Conservation Society of Zambia. p. 75. ISBN   9789982180634.
  78. Zambia- Ministry of Lands Natural Resources (June 2015). "Ministry of Lands Natural Resources and Environmental Protection : United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Fifth National Report". Zambia- Ministry of Lands Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020.
  79. Ministry of Lands (June 2015). "Ministry of Lands Natural Resources and Environmental Protection:United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Fifth National Report". Zambia - Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020.
  80. "Fish –" . Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  81. Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3 . ISSN   2041-1723. PMC   7723057 . PMID   33293507.
  82. "Welcome to the Official site of Zambian Statistics". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  83. Potts, Deborah (2005). "Counter-urbanisation on the Zambian Copperbelt? Interpretations and implications". Urban Studies. 42 (4): 583–609. doi:10.1080/00420980500060137. S2CID   154412136.
  84. "Zambia – People". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  85. "Bemba | people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  86. "Tonga | African people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  87. "Tumbuka | people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  88. "Luvale | people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  89. "Kaonde | people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  90. "Lozi | people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  91. GROWup – Geographical Research On War, Unified Platform. "Ethnicity in Zambia". ETH Zurich. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  92. Posner, Daniel (2005). Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Zambia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  93. Zambians wary of "exploitative" Chinese employers. 23 November 2006.
  94. "Zim's Loss, Zam's gain: White Zimbabweans making good in Zambia". The Economist. June 2004. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  95. 1 2 Thielke, Thilo (27 December 2004). "Settling in Zambia: Zimbabwe's Displaced Farmers Find a New Home". Der Spiegel . Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  96. 1 2 "World Refugee Survey 2009". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013.
  97. "Zambia: Rising levels of resentment towards Zimbabweans". IRIN News. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  98. "Constitution of Zambia, 1991 (Amended to 1996)". Government of Zambia. 30 June 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  99. Steel, Matthew (2005). Pentecostalism in Zambia: Power, Authority and the Overcomers. University of Wales. MSc Dissertation.
  100. Census of Population and Housing National Analytical Report 2010. Central Statistical office, Zambia
  101. "Zambia Union Conference – Adventist Directory". 17 October 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  102. "Lutheran Church of Central Africa — Zambia". Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017.
  103. "Zambia — Watchtower ONLINE LIBRARY".
  104. "2021 Country and Territory Reports". Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2021.
  105. Hayashida, Nelson Osamu (1999). Dreams in the African Literature: The Significance of Dreams and Visions Among Zambian Baptists. Rodopi. ISBN   978-90-420-0596-9.
  106. "Membership figures of the global Church as at the end of 2009: New Apostolic Church International (NAC)". Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  107. "The Largest Baha'i Communities". Archived from the original on 6 December 1999. Retrieved 11 October 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  108. International Religious Freedom Report 2010 – Zambia. Retrieved on 20 November 2015.
  109. Some basics of religious education in Zambia. 2007. ISBN   9789982073370 . Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  110. 1 2 Chanda, Vincent Musamba; Mkandawire, Sitwe Benson (2013). Speak Zambian Languages: Phrase Book in Bemba, Kaonde, Lozi, Luvale, Lunda, Nyanja and Tonga, all in one. Lusaka, Zambia: UNZA Press. pp. 1–173. ISBN   978-9982-03-073-1.
  111. Census of Population and Housing National Analytical Report 2010. Central Statistical office, Zambia
  112. "Encyclopædia Britannica". 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  113. Mkandawire, Sitwe Benson. (2015). The State of Affairs of Cultural Literacy in Zambia's Multicultural Education System. In A. L. Jotia and J. Dudu (Ed.), Multicultural Education Discourses: Breaking Barriers of Exclusion in Selected African Contexts. Windhoek, Namibia: Zebra publishing (Pty) LTD. pp. 190–204. ISBN   978-99945-84-99-4.
  114. Census of Population and Housing National Analytical Report 2010. Central Statistical office, Zambia
  115. Zambia to introduce Portuguese into school curriculum. Archived 8 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  116. "Country Comparisons—HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate". The World Factbook . Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  117. "Children in Zambia". UNICEF. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  118. "Laws of Zambia". National Assembly of Zambia. National Assembly of Zambia. 1996. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  119. "The Education Act (2011)". National Assembly of Zambia. National Assembly of Zambia. 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  120. Zambia's Minister of Commerce, Trade, & Industry Robert K Sichinga on the country's economic performance. (10 August 2012). Retrieved on 20 November 2015.
  121. Workman, Daniel. "Zambia's Top 10 Exports". World's Top Exports. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  122. 1 2 "2015 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  123. "Poverty & Equity Brief: Zambia" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  124. "2023 Budget Speech" (PDF). Republic of Zambia Ministry of Finance. 30 September 2022. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  125. "Zambia Country Brochure" (PDF). World Bank.
  126. "Ease of Doing Business" (PDF). Ease of Doing Business. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  127. Human Development Report 2007/2008. Palgrave Macmillan. 2007. ISBN   978-0-230-54704-9
  128. 1 2 "Background Note: Zambia". Department of State.
  129. "Business Corruption in Zambia". Business Anti-Corruption Portal. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  130. The World Bank and IMF's long shadow in Zambia's copper mines. 20 February 2008
  131. "Turkey and Zambia sign agreements to boost bilateral ties". Turkey and Zambia sign agreements to boost bilateral ties (in Turkish). Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  132. "Turkey, Zambia sign 12 deals to boost bilateral ties" . Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  133., City Equities Limited (14 July 2006). "Albidon signs agreement with Zambian government". Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  134. "Economy". The Provincial Administration Website. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020.
  135. Chinese keep low profile to cash in on the slump in Zambia. The Times. 24 January 2009.
  136. "Zim's Loss, Zam's gain: White Zimbabweans making good in Zambia", The Economist, June 2004, retrieved 28 August 2009[ dead link ]
  137. LaFraniere, Shannon (21 March 2004), "Zimbabwe's White Farmers Start Anew in Zambia", The New York Times , retrieved 28 August 2009
  138. "Zambia legalizes cannabis, kind of". thegrowthop. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  139. "Renewable Energy Country Profile: Zambia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  140. Chanda, Chilufya (28 September 2016). "Zambia : ARTICLE 70 of the UPND Constitution is Inconsistent with the Republican Constitution, it should be deemed illegal". Lusaka Times.
  141. "Zambia farm input supplier plans to invest $150 million in farming". Reuters. 9 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  142. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mkandawire, Sitwe Benson; Simooya, Steriah Monica; Monde, Pauline Namakau (2019). Zambian Culture: Harnessing Cultural Literacy with a Focus on Myths and Taboos. Lusaka, Zambia: UNZA Press. pp. 1–206. ISBN   978-9982-03-105-9.
  143. Ellert, Henrik (2004). The magic of the makishi: masks and traditions in Zambia. Bath, UK: CBC publishing. pp. 38–63. ISBN   0951520997.
  144. "Zambia score emotional African Cup win". Sydney Morning Herald. 13 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  145. "Zambia outsmart South Africa to win record Cosafa U20 crown". Lusaka Times. 16 December 2016.
  146. Bose, Soumitra. "Zambian Women's Football: How She-polopolo Are Riding The Crest Of Success". FIFA. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  147. Cotton, Fran; Rhys, Chris (1985). The Book of rugby disasters & bizarre records. London: Stanley Paul. p. 107. ISBN   0-09-162821-0. OCLC   16923880.
  148. "Tallest rugby union posts". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  149. Zambia. International Rugby Board
  150. Tembo's return is boost for Glen Archived 11 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine . 15 May 2009
  151. "Zambia to build three stadia for 2011 All-Africa Games". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  152. "Zambia's Madalitso Muthiya a pioneer". Chicago Tribune. 5 May 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  153. 1989 African Championship for Men, ARCHIVE.FIBA.COM. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  154. "The Unrivaled Zambian Culture". Ayiba Magazine. 14 June 2016. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  155. "Salt & thunder: The mind-altering rock of 1970s Zambia". Music in Africa. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  156. S, Henning Goranson; Press, berg for Think Africa; Network, part of the Guardian Africa (22 July 2013). "Why Zamrock is back in play". the Guardian. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  157. "We're a Zambian Band". Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  158. WITCH Archived 14 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine on Dusted Magazine (15 April 2010)

Further reading