African National Congress

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African National Congress
President Cyril Ramaphosa
Chairperson Gwede Mantashe
Secretary-General Ace Magashule
Spokesperson Pule Mabe
Deputy President David Mabuza
Deputy Secretary General Jessie Duarte
Treasurer General Paul Mashatile
Founders John Langalibalele Dube
Pixley ka Isaka Seme
Sol Plaatje
Founded8 January 1912
Legalised3 February 1990
Headquarters Luthuli House
54 Sauer Street
Newspaper ANC Today
Youth wing ANC Youth League
Women's wing ANC Women's League
Veteran's LeagueANC Veterans League
Paramilitary wing uMkhonto we Sizwe (integrated into SANDF)
Membership (2015)769,000 [1]
Ideology African nationalism
Social democracy
Political position Centre-left [2]
National affiliation Tripartite Alliance
International affiliation Socialist International [3]
African affiliation Former Liberation Movements of Southern Africa
ColoursBlack, Green and Gold
SloganSouth Africa's National Liberation Movement
"Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika"
"Lord Bless Africa"
National Assembly seats
230 / 400
NCOP seats
54 / 90
NCOP delegations
8 / 9
Pan-African Parliament
3 / 5
(South African seats)
Provincial Legislatures
255 / 430
City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (council)
121 / 270
Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality (council)
50 / 120
City of Cape Town (council)
57 / 231
Party flag
Flag of the African National Congress.svg
Website OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
The South African Native National Congress delegation to England, June 1914. Left to right: Thomas Mtobi Mapikela, Rev Walter Rubusana, Rev John Dube, Saul Msane, and Sol Plaatje ANC1914.jpg
The South African Native National Congress delegation to England, June 1914. Left to right: Thomas Mtobi Mapikela, Rev Walter Rubusana, Rev John Dube, Saul Msane, and Sol Plaatje

The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party. It has been the ruling party of post-apartheid South Africa since the election of Nelson Mandela in the 1994 election, winning every election since then. Cyril Ramaphosa, the incumbent President of South Africa, has served as leader of the ANC since 18 December 2017. [4]


Founded on 8 January 1912 by John Langalibalele Dube in Bloemfontein as the South African Native National Congress (SANNC), its primary mission was to bring all Africans together as one people, to defend their rights and freedoms. This included giving full voting rights to black South Africans and mixed-race South Africans and, from 1948 onwards, to end the system of apartheid introduced by the Nationalist Party government after their election (by White voters only) in that year. [5]

The ANC originally attempted to use non-violent protests to end apartheid; however, the Sharpeville massacre in March 1960, in which 69 black Africans were shot and killed by police and hundreds wounded during a peaceful protest, contributed to deteriorating relations with the South African government. On 8 April 1960, the administration of Charles Robberts Swart banned the ANC in South Africa. [6] After the ban, the ANC formed the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) to fight against apartheid utilising guerrilla warfare and sabotage.

After 30 years of exiled struggle, during which many ANC members had been imprisoned or forced abroad, the country began its move towards full democracy. On 3 February 1990, State President F. W. de Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC and released Nelson Mandela from prison on 11 February 1990. [7] On 17 March 1992, the apartheid referendum was passed by the white only electorate, removing apartheid and allowing the ANC to run in the 1994 election, which for the first time allowed all South Africans to vote for their national government. Since the 1994 election the ANC has performed better than 55% in all general elections, including the most recent 2019 election. However the party has been embroiled in a number of controversies since 2011. [8]


The founding of the SANNC was in direct response to injustice against black South Africans at the hands of the government then in power. It can be said that the SANNC had its origins in a pronouncement by Pixley ka Isaka Seme who said in 1911, "Forget all the past differences among Africans and unite in one national organisation." The SANNC was founded the following year on 8 January 1912. [9]

The government of the newly formed Union of South Africa began a systematic oppression of black people in South Africa. The Land Act was promulgated in 1913 forcing many black South Africans from their farms into the cities and towns to work, and to restrict their movement within South Africa.

By 1919, the SANNC was leading a campaign against passes (an ID which black South Africans had to possess). However, it then became dormant in the mid-1920s. During that time, black people were also represented by the ICU and the previously white-only Communist party. In 1923, the organisation became the African National Congress, and in 1929 the ANC supported a militant mineworkers' strike.

By 1927, J.T. Gumede (president of the ANC) proposed co-operation with the Communists in a bid to revitalise the organisation, but he was voted out of power in the 1930s. This led to the ANC becoming largely ineffectual and inactive, until the mid-1940s when the ANC was remodelled as a mass movement.

The ANC responded to attacks on the rights of black South Africans, as well as calling for strikes, boycotts, and defiance. This led to a later Defiance Campaign in the 1950s, a mass movement of resistance to apartheid. The government tried to stop the ANC by banning party leaders and enacting new laws to stop the ANC, however these measures ultimately proved to be ineffective.

In 1955, the Congress of the People officially adopted the Freedom Charter, stating the core principles of the South African Congress Alliance, which consisted of the African National Congress and its allies the South African Communist Party (SACP), the South African Indian Congress, the South African Congress of Democrats (COD) and the Coloured People's Congress. [10] The government claimed that this was a communist document, and consequently leaders of the ANC and Congress were arrested. 1960 saw the Sharpeville massacre, in which 69 people were killed when police opened fire on anti-apartheid protesters.

uMkhonto we Sizwe

uMkhonto we Sizwe or MK, translated "The Spear of the Nation", was the military wing of the ANC. Partly in response to the Sharpeville massacre of 1960, individual members of the ANC found it necessary to consider violence to combat what passive protests had failed to quell.

In co-operation with the South African Communist Party, MK was founded in 1961. [11] MK commenced the military struggle against apartheid with acts of sabotage aimed at the installations of the state, and in the early stages was reluctant to target civilian targets. [12] MK was responsible for the deaths of both civilians and members of the military. Acts committed by MK include the Church Street bombing, the Magoo's Bar bombing and bombing a branch of the Standard Bank in Roodepoort. [13] [14] [15] It was integrated into the South African National Defence Force by 1994.

The ANC and its members were officially removed from the US terrorism watch list in 2008. [16]


The ANC deems itself a force of national liberation in the post-apartheid era; it officially defines its agenda as the National Democratic Revolution. The ANC is a member of the Socialist International. [3] It also sets forth the redressing of socio-economic differences stemming from colonial- and apartheid-era policies as a central focus of ANC policy.

The National Democratic Revolution (NDR) is described as a process through which the National Democratic Society (NDS) is achieved; a society in which people are intellectually, socially, economically and politically empowered. The drivers of the NDR are also called the motive forces and are defined as the elements within society that gain from the success of the NDR. Using contour plots or concentric circles the centre represents the elements in society that gain the most out of the success of the NDR. Moving away from the centre results in the reduction of the gains that those elements derive. It is generally believed that the force that occupies the centre of those concentric circles in countries with low unemployment is the working class while in countries with higher levels of unemployment it is the unemployed. Some of the many theoreticians that have written about the NDR include Joe Slovo, Joel Netshitenzhe and Tshilidzi Marwala. [17] [18] [19]

In 2004, the ANC declared itself to be a social democratic party. [20]

The 53rd National Conference of the ANC, held in 2015, stated in its "Discussion Document" that "China economic development trajectory remains a leading example of the triumph of humanity over adversity. The exemplary role of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China in this regard should be a guiding lodestar of our own struggle." [21] It went on to state that "The collapse of the Berlin Wall and socialism in the Soviet Union and Eastern European States influenced our transition towards the negotiated political settlement in our country. The cause of events in the world changed tremendously in favour of the US led imperialism." [22]

Tripartite Alliance

The ANC holds a historic alliance with the South African Communist Party (SACP) and Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), known as the Tripartite Alliance. The SACP and COSATU have not contested any election in South Africa, but field candidates through the ANC, hold senior positions in the ANC, and influence party policy and dialogue. During Mbeki's presidency, the government took a more pro-capitalist stance, often running counter to the demands of the SACP and COSATU. [23] [24] [25] [26]

2008 schism

Following Zuma's accession to the ANC leadership in 2007 and Mbeki's resignation as president in 2008, a number of former ANC leaders led by Mosiuoa Lekota split away from the ANC to form the Congress of the People.

2013 NUMSA split from Cosatu

On 20 December 2013, a special congress of the National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (NUMSA), the country's biggest trade union with 338,000 members, [27] voted to withdraw support from the ANC and SACP, and form a socialist party to protect the interests of the working class. NUMSA secretary general Irvin Jim condemned the ANC and SACP's support for big business and stated: "It is clear that the working class cannot any longer see the ANC or the SACP as its class allies in any meaningful sense." [27]

ANC flag

The ANC flag with three equal horizontal bands Flag of the African National Congress.svg
The ANC flag with three equal horizontal bands

The ANC flag comprises three equal horizontal stripes – black, green and gold. Black symbolises the native people of South Africa, green represents the land and gold represents the mineral and other natural wealth of South Africa. [28]

This flag was also the battle flag of uMkhonto we Sizwe. [29]

The Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach used an unrelated but identical flag from 1813 to 1897. The black, green and gold tricolor was also used on the flag of the KwaZulu 'bantustan'.

Although the colours of the new national Flag of South Africa since the transition from apartheid in 1994 have no official meaning, the three colours of the ANC flag were included in it, together with red, white and blue. [30]

Party list

Politicians in the party win a place in parliament by being on the Party List, which is drawn up before the elections and enumerates, in order, the party's preferred MPs. The number of seats allocated is proportional to the popular national vote, and this determines the cut-off point.

The ANC has also gained members through the controversial floor crossing process.

Although most South African parties announced their candidate list for provincial premierships in the 2009 election, the ANC did not, as it is not required for parties to do so. [31]

ANC Today

In 2001, the ANC launched an online weekly web-based newsletter, ANC Today – Online Voice of the African National Congress to offset the alleged bias of the press. [32] It consists mainly of updates on current programmes and initiatives of the ANC.

Election results

Proportion of votes cast for the ANC in the 2014 election, by ward.
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80-100% South Africa national election 2014 ANC vote by ward.svg
Proportion of votes cast for the ANC in the 2014 election, by ward.

National Assembly elections

ElectionParty leaderVotes%Seats+/–PositionGovernment
1994 Nelson Mandela 12,237,65562.65%
252 / 400
Increase2.svg 252Increase2.svg 1stANC–NPIFP coalition government
1999 Thabo Mbeki 10,601,33066.35%
266 / 400
Increase2.svg 14Steady2.svg 1stANC–IFP coalition government
2004 10,880,91569.69%
279 / 400
Increase2.svg 13Steady2.svg 1stSupermajority government
2009 Jacob Zuma 11,650,74865.90%
264 / 400
Decrease2.svg 15Steady2.svg 1stMajority government
2014 11,436,92162.15%
249 / 400
Decrease2.svg 15Steady2.svg 1stMajority government
2019 Cyril Ramaphosa 10,026,47557.50%
230 / 400
Decrease2.svg 19Steady2.svg 1stMajority government

National Council of Provinces

60 / 90
Increase2.svg 60
63 / 90
Increase2.svg 3
65 / 90
Increase2.svg 2
62 / 90
Decrease2.svg 3
60 / 90
Decrease2.svg 2
54 / 90
Decrease2.svg 6

Provincial elections

Election [33] Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North-West Northern Cape Western Cape
1994 84.35%48/5676.65%24/3057.60%50/8632.23%26/8191.63%38/4080.69%25/3083.33%26/3049.74%15/3033.01%14/42
1999 73.80%47/6380.79%25/3067.87%50/7339.38%32/8088.29%44/4984.83%26/3078.97%27/3364.32%20/3042.07%18/42
2004 79.27%51/6381.78%25/3068.40%51/7346.98%38/8089.18%45/4986.30%27/3080.71%27/3368.83%21/3045.25%19/42
2009 68.82%44/6371.10%22/3064.04%47/7362.95%51/8084.88%43/4985.55%27/3072.89%25/3360.75%19/3031.55%14/42
2014 70.09%45/6369.85%22/3053.59%40/7364.52%52/8078.60%39/4978.23%24/3067.39%23/3364.40%20/3032.89%14/42
2019 68.74%44/6361.14%19/3050.19%37/7354.22%44/8075.49%38/4970.58%22/3061.87%21/3357.54%18/3028.63%12/42

Municipal elections

1995–96 5,033,85558%
2000 None released59.4%Increase2.svg 1.4%
2006 17,466,94866.3%Increase2.svg 6.9%
2011 16,548,82661.9%Decrease2.svg 4.4%
2016 [34] 21,450,33255.7%Decrease2.svg 6.2%

Role of the ANC in resolving the conflict

Old logo of the ANC from 1990 Old ANC logo 1990.svg
Old logo of the ANC from 1990

The ANC represented the main opposition to the government during apartheid and therefore they played a major role in resolving the conflict through participating in the peacemaking and peace-building processes. Initially intelligence agents of the National Party met in secret with ANC leaders, including Nelson Mandela, to judge whether conflict resolution was possible. [35] Discussions and negotiations took place leading to the eventual unbanning of the ANC and other opposing political parties by then President de Klerk on 2 February 1990.

The next official step towards rebuilding South Africa was the Groote Schuur Minute where the government and the ANC agreed on a common commitment towards the resolution of the existing climate of violence and intimidation, as well as a commitment to stability and to a peaceful process of negotiations. The ANC negotiated the release of political prisoners and the indemnity from prosecution for returning exiles and moreover channels of communication were established between the Government and the ANC.

Later the Pretoria Minute represented another step towards resolution where agreements at Groote Schuur were reconsolidated and steps towards setting up an interim government and drafting a new constitution were established as well as suspension of the military wing of the ANC – the Umkhonto we Sizwe. This step helped end much of the violence within South Africa. Another agreement that came out of the Pretoria Minute was that both parties would try and raise awareness that a new way of governance was being created for South Africa, and that further violence would only hinder this process. However, violence still continued in Kwazulu-Natal, which violated the trust between Mandela and de Klerk. Moreover, internal disputes in the ANC prolonged the war as consensus on peace was not reached. [36]

The next significant steps towards resolution were the Repeal of the Population Registration Act, the repeal of the Group Areas and the Native Land Acts and a catch-all Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act was passed. [36] These measures ensured no one could claim, or be deprived of, any land rights on the basis of race.

In December 1991 the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) was held with the aim of establishing an interim government. However, a few months later in June 1992 the Boipatong massacre occurred and all negotiations crumbled as the ANC pulled out. After this negotiations proceeded between two agents, Cyril Ramaphosa of the ANC, and Roelf Meyer of the National Party. In over 40 sessions the two men discussed and negotiated over many issues including the nature of the future political system, the fate of over 40,000 government employees and if/how the country would be divided. The result of these negotiations was an interim constitution that meant the transition from apartheid to democracy was a constitutional continuation and that the rule of law and state sovereignty remained intact during the transition, which was vital for stability within the country. A date was set for the first democratic elections on 27 April 1994. [36] The ANC won 62.5% of the votes and has been in power ever since. [37]

Criticism and controversy

Corruption controversies

The most prominent corruption case involving the ANC relates to a series of bribes paid to companies involved in the ongoing R55 billion Arms Deal saga, which resulted in a long term jail sentence to then Deputy President Jacob Zuma's legal adviser Schabir Shaik. Zuma, the former South African President, was charged with fraud, bribery and corruption in the Arms Deal, but the charges were subsequently withdrawn by the National Prosecuting Authority of South Africa due to their delay in prosecution. [38] The ANC has also been criticised for its subsequent abolition of the Scorpions, the multidisciplinary agency that investigated and prosecuted organised crime and corruption, and was heavily involved in the investigation into Zuma and Shaik. Tony Yengeni, in his position as chief whip of the ANC and head of the Parliaments defence committee has recently been named as being involved in bribing the German company ThyssenKrupp over the purchase of four corvettes for the SANDF.

Other recent corruption issues include the sexual misconduct and criminal charges of Beaufort West municipal manager Truman Prince, [39] and the Oilgate scandal, in which millions of Rand in funds from a state-owned company were funnelled into ANC coffers. [40]

The ANC has also been accused of using government and civil society to fight its political battles against opposition parties such as the Democratic Alliance. The result has been a number of complaints and allegations that none of the political parties truly represent the interests of the poor. [41] [42] This has resulted in the "No Land! No House! No Vote!" Campaign which became very prominent during elections. [43] [44] In 2018, the New York Times reported on the killings of ANC corruption whistleblowers. [45]

Condemnation over Secrecy Bill

In late 2011 the ANC was heavily criticised over the passage of the Protection of State Information Bill, which opponents claimed would improperly restrict the freedom of the press. [8] Opposition to the bill included otherwise ANC-aligned groups such as COSATU. Notably, Nelson Mandela and other Nobel laureates Nadine Gordimer, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and F. W. de Klerk have expressed disappointment with the bill for not meeting standards of constitutionality and aspirations for freedom of information and expression. [46]

Role in the Marikana killings

The ANC have been criticised for its role in failing to prevent 16 August 2012 massacre of Lonmin miners at Marikana in the North West. Some allege that Police Commissioner Riah Phiyega and Police Minister Nathi Mthethwa, a close confidant of Jacob Zuma, may have given the go ahead for the police action against the miners on that day. [47]

Commissioner Phiyega of the ANC came under further criticism as being insensitive and uncaring when she was caught smiling and laughing during the Farlam Commission's video playback of the 'massacre'. [48] Archbishop Desmond Tutu has announced that he no longer can bring himself to exercise a vote for the ANC as it is no longer the party that he and Nelson Mandela fought for, and that the party has now lost its way, and is in danger of becoming a corrupt entity in power. [49]

Constitutional failures

The ANC has a growing list of constitutional failures. One of the most prominent relates to president of the ANC and of the Republic, Jacob Zuma, and his Nkandla homestead's security upgrades, valued at around R250 million. His swimming pool, for example, was termed a 'fire pool' and his amphitheatre an 'emergency meeting point', thus leaving the taxpayer to carry the costs. After the Public Protector released her report (Secure in Comfort) which found that Zuma must pay back the money spent on the non-security features, he refused to do so. In 2016 the Constitutional Court ruled that Zuma, as well as the National Assembly, had "breached the Constitution" and failed to uphold it. [50] Zuma apologised to the nation as follows: "The matter has caused a lot of frustration and confusion for which I apologise on my behalf and on behalf of government." However he claimed not to have asked nor known about the non-security upgrades, despite the media reporting on them almost daily. [51]

Qualification fraud

There is also a growing trend for ANC members as well as those individuals appointed by the ANC to public positions of power to misrepresent their qualifications. The result of such lies typically lead to those appointed being unable to fulfill their obligations while being paid very large salaries, and typically cost the taxpayer large amount of money while attempting to defend themselves in court. A small selection follows:

Carl Niehaus, who served as ANC speaker, claimed to have a B.A., Masters and Doctorate degrees; in reality he never received the Masters or Doctoral degrees. [52]

Pallo Jordan, who served as Minister of Arts and Culture claimed to be in possession of a PhD, when in reality he has no tertiary education at all. [53]

Daniel Mtimkulu, who was employed as chief engineer at Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (Prasa) claimed to have a PhD in engineering, which was a lie; he was merely qualified as an engineering technician. [54] Under Mtimkulu's leadership, Prasa ordered 70 new locomotives, valued at R3.5 billion. The first 13 Afro 4000 diesel locomotives to arrive, at a cost of R600 million, were too tall to be of use on their intended routes. [55]

Ellen Tshabalala, former chairperson of the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), claimed to have a BComm degree. In reality her marks were so poor that she was not allowed to rewrite some of her exams. She later claimed that her degree certificate was stolen. [56] Defending Tshabalala in court cost the SABC more than R1 million. [57]

Hlaudi Motsoeneng, former COO of the SABC lied about being in possession of a Matric certificate. By his own admission, he simply invented marks for himself. [58] He was appointed by Ellen Tshabalala, and his various court cases have cost the SABC more than R1.5 million. [57] Further, under Motsoeneng's reign, the broadcaster recorded a net loss of R411 million in the 2015/16 financial year. [59]

Dudu Myeni, chairperson of South African Airways (SAA) and good friend of Jacob Zuma, claimed to have a Bachelor's degree in administration. This was proven false. Under her leadership "SAA's losses for the 2014/15 financial year were R5.6-billion – close to R1-billion more than the expected amount of R4.7-billion". [60]

Sicelo Shiceka, Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs lied about being in possession of a Master's degree. He used taxpayer's money to fund a party for his mother and secured a government car for his girlfriend, whereafter he was appointed as a member of the inter-ministerial task team on corruption. [61]


A 2016 statement issued by Zizi Kodwa, the ANC National Spokesperson states that "[t]he ANC rejects these [racist] comments with the contempt they deserve and calls on all South Africans to join in the rejection of all racists in our country, wherever they are. It is sad that well meaning South Africans have to contend with this backward attitude." [62] In support of this statement, the ANC has publicly called for legal action to be taken against whites who have publicly made racist comments against blacks, usually through social media. [63] [64]

Penny Sparrow is one such high-profile case. She posted the following through her Facebook account:

These monkeys that are allowed to be released on New Year's eve and New Year's day on to public beaches towns etc obviously have no education what so ever so to allow them loose is inviting huge dirt and troubles and discomfort to others. I'm sorry to say that I was among the revellers and all I saw were black on black skins what a shame. I do know some wonderful and thoughtful black people. This lot of monkeys just don't want to even try. But think they can voice opinions about statute and get their way oh dear. From now I shall address the blacks of South Africa as monkeys as I see the cute little wild monkeys do the same, pick drop and litter. [65]

Sparrow pleaded guilty to crimen injuria, and was presented with a choice of either paying a R5,000 fine or 12 months in jail, in addition to paying the legal fees incurred by the ANC, who brought the matter to court. In a separate instance, she was also ordered to pay R150,000 to the Oliver and Adelaide Tambo Trust. [66]

In contrast to the ANC's swift and decisive action towards Sparrow and other white racists, they have mostly ignored racist comments voiced by blacks, in particular ANC members. For example, Kenny Barrel Nkosi, an ANC ward councillor (Govan Mbeki Municipality, Mpumalanga) posted the following on his Facebook account: "The first people that need to fokkof [fuck off] are whites, cubans never oppressed us. these are our true friends they were there in the times on needs. welcom cdes welcome [sic]" [67] The municipality issued the following statement: "The matter has been investigated and at the time of the comment, the ward councillor was not representing the views of either the ANC or the Govan Mbeki Municipality, but merely as a personal opinion." [68] No further action was taken.

At a Gupta family wedding held at Sun City in 2013, various incidents of racism occurred. The family made clear that they wanted only white workers, including waiters, security, bar staff and cleaning staff. [69] Black workers were told to wash before they interacted with guests. [70] These allegations were denied by the Gupta family. Nonetheless, in the Gupta e-mail leak of 2017 these allegations were shown to be correct. [71] Moreover, the e-mails also make clear that a black worker was called a monkey by a member of the Gupta family. [71] That the Gupta family is a large, vocal and powerful supporter of the ANC and a personal friend of Jacob Zuma, may explain why no action was taken against them with regards to racism.

Lindiwe Sisulu, ANC member and Minister of Defence and Military Veterans (who demanded that the Estate Agency Affairs Board report to her regarding action taken against Sparrow) called the Democratic Alliance leader, Mmusi Maimane, a "hired native". Ironically – due to the fact that Chris Hart, prominent economist and investment strategist at Standard Bank, was forced to resign for his racist tweet stating that "[m]ore than 25 years after Apartheid ended, the victims are increasing along with a sense of entitlement and hatred towards minorities…." [72] – Sisulu said the following, while discussing the 2.3 million housing backlog: "What makes an 18-year-old think the state owes them a house? It's a culture of entitlement … we can't continue with a dependency culture." [73] No action has been taken against Sisulu.

Lulu Xingwana, former ANC Minister of Women, Children and People with Disabilities, stated that "[y]oung Afrikaner men are brought up in the Calvinist religion believing that they own a woman, they own a child, they own everything and therefore they can take that life because they own it". [74] The minister apologised, and no further action was taken against her.

Jimmy Manyi, ANC director general of labour and later ANC spokesperson, is quotes as saying the following on a TV interview: "I think its very important for coloured people in this country to understand that South Africa belongs to them in totality, not just the Western Cape. So this over-concentration of coloureds in the Western Cape is not working for them. They should spread in the rest of the country ... so they must stop this over-concentration situation because they are in over-supply where they are so you must look into the country and see where you can meet the supply." [75] No action has been taken against Manyi.

Julius Malema, former ANCYL leader and current EFF leader, stated at a political rally in 2016 that "We [the EFF] are not calling for the slaughter of white people‚ at least for now". When asked for comment by a news agency, the ANC spokesperson, Zizi Kodwa stated that there will be no comment from the ANC, as "[h]e [Malema] was addressing his own party supporters." [76] While still the ANCYL leader, Malema was taken to the Equality Court by AfriForum for repeatedly singing "dubul' ibhunu", which translate as "shoot the boer [white farmer]". The ANC supported Malema, though AfriForum and the ANC reached a settlement before the appeal case was due to be argued in the Supreme Court of Appeal.

In partial response to the Penny Sparrow case, Velaphi Khumalo, while working for the Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation, posted the following on his Facebook account:

"I want to cleans this country of all white people. we must act as Hitler did to the Jews. I don't believe any more that the is a large number of not so racist whit people. I'm starting to be sceptical even of those within our Movement the ANC. I will from today unfriend all white people I have as friends from today u must be put under the same blanket as any other racist white because secretly u all are a bunch of racist fuck heads. as we have already seen [all sic]."

He also posted:

"Noo seriously though u oppressed us when u were a minority and then manje u call us monkeys and we supposed to let it slide . white people in south Africa deserve to be hacked and killed like Jews. U have the same venom moss . look at Palestine . noo u must be bushed alive and skinned and your off springs used as garden fertiliser [all sic]". [77]

The Department of Sports, Arts, Culture and Recreation responded with a statement wherein it "views the hateful post by Velaphi Khumalo in a serious light. Our key mandate is nation-building and social cohesion. His sentiments take our country backwards and do not reflect what the Gauteng provincial government stands for." Khumalo was suspended on full pay while an investigation was undertaken, was found to be guilty by an internal disciplinary procedure, and issued with a warning, whereafter he resumed his work at the department. [77]

Esethu Hasane, Media and Communication Manager for the Department of Sport and Recreation tweeted the following during the severe droughts in the Western cape in 2017: "Only Western Cape still has dry dams. Please God, we have black people there, choose another way of punishing white people." Despite calls for his dismissal, no action was taken. [78]

See also

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The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party in South Africa. It was founded in 1921, was declared illegal in 1950 by the governing National Party, and participated in the struggle to end the apartheid system. It is a partner of the Tripartite Alliance with the African National Congress and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and through this it influences the South African government. The party's Central Committee is the party's highest decision-making structure.

Jonathan Shapiro South African artist

Jonathan Shapiro is a South African cartoonist, known as Zapiro, whose work appears in numerous South African publications and has been exhibited internationally on many occasions. He is the nephew of British magician David Berglas and cousin to Marvin Berglas, director of Marvin's Magic.

Joe Slovo South African politician (1926-1995)

Joe Slovo was a South African politician, and an opponent of the apartheid system. A Marxist-Leninist, he was a long-time leader and theorist in the South African Communist Party (SACP), a leading member of the African National Congress (ANC), and a commander of the ANC's military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK).

Cyril Ramaphosa 5th President of South Africa

Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa is a South African politician serving as the fifth President of South Africa since 2018 and President of the African National Congress (ANC) since 2017. Previously an anti-apartheid activist, trade union leader and businessman, Ramaphosa served as Deputy President to President Jacob Zuma and Chairman of the National Planning Commission from 2014 to 2018.

Jacob Zuma 4th President of South Africa

Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Mhlanganyelwa Zuma is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018. Zuma is also referred to by his initials JZ and his clan name Msholozi.

African National Congress Youth League political youth organization

The African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) is the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC). As set out in its constitution the ANC Youth League is led by a National Executive Committee (NEC) and a National Working Committee (NWC).

National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa

The National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (NUMSA) is the biggest single trade union in South Africa with more than 338,000 members, and prior to its expulsion on 8 November 2014, the largest affiliate of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), the country's largest trade union federation.

The Tripartite Alliance is an alliance between the African National Congress (ANC), the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP). The ANC holds a majority in the South African parliament, while the SACP and COSATU have not contested any democratic election in South Africa.

History of South Africa (1994–present) aspect of history

South Africa since 1994 transitioned from the system of apartheid to one of majority rule. The election of 1994 resulted in a change in government with the African National Congress (ANC) coming to power. The ANC retained power after subsequent elections in 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014. Children born during this period are known as the born-free generation, and those aged eighteen or older, were able to vote for the first time in 2014.

Julius Malema South African political activist

Julius Sello Malema is a South African politician and activist who is a Member of Parliament and the President and Commander-in-Chief of the Economic Freedom Fighters, a South African political party, which he founded in July 2013. He previously served as President of the African National Congress Youth League from 2008 to 2012. Malema was a member of the ANC from the age of nine until his expulsion from the party in April 2012 at the age of thirty-one. He occupies a notably controversial position in South African public and political life, having risen to prominence with his support for ANC president, and later President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma. He was described by both Zuma and the Premier of Limpopo Province, Cassel Mathale, as the "future leader" of South Africa. Less favourable portraits paint him as a "reckless populist" with the potential to destabilise South Africa and to spark racial conflict.

Peter Mokaba, OLG was a member of the South African parliament, deputy minister in the government of Nelson Mandela and president of the South African governing party's youth wing, the ANC Youth League. The Peter Mokaba Stadium, a Polokwane stadium used for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, was named after him.

The African National Congress (ANC) is the current governing party of the Republic of South Africa. The ANC was founded in 1912 in Bloemfontein and is the oldest liberation movement in Africa.

2014 South African general election 2014 South African National Assembly and provincial legislatures elections

The 2014 South African general election was held on 7 May 2014, to elect a new National Assembly and new provincial legislatures in each province. It was the fifth election held in South Africa under conditions of universal adult suffrage since the end of the apartheid era in 1994, and also the first held since the death of Nelson Mandela. It was also the first time that South African expatriates were allowed to vote in a South African national election.

There have been a number of political assassinations in post-apartheid South Africa. In 2013 it was reported that there had been more than 450 political assassinations in the province of KwaZulu-Natal since the end of apartheid in 1994. In July 2013 the Daily Maverick reported that there had been "59 political murders in the last five years". In August 2016 it was reported that there had been at least twenty political assassinations in the run up to the local government elections on the 3rd of August that year, most of them in KwaZulu-Natal.

Economic Freedom Fighters South African political party

The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) is a South African left-wing to far-left pan-Africanist political party. It was founded by expelled former African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) President Julius Malema, and his allies, in 2013. Malema is President of the EFF, heading the Central Command Team which serves as the central structure of the party. The party itself has been accused of fomenting anti-Indian and anti-White racism, and Malema himself was convicted in 2011 for singing the racist song, "Shoot the Boer".

The 2016 South African municipal elections were held on 3 August 2016, to elect councils for all district, metropolitan and local municipalities in each of the country's nine provinces. It was the fifth municipal election held in South Africa since the end of apartheid in 1994; municipal elections are held every five years.

Black First Land First political party from South Africa, anti-white

Black First Land First (BLF) is a black consciousness, pan-Africanist and revolutionary socialist political movement and former political party in South Africa. It was founded in 2015 by Andile Mngxitama following his expulsion from the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), led by Julius Malema.

The Gupta family is a wealthy Indian-born family, with business interests in South Africa, whose most notable members are the brothers Ajay, Atul, Rajesh "Tony" Gupta as well as Atul Gupta's nephews Varun, and US-based Ashish and Amol. The Gupta family owns a business empire spanning computer equipment, media and mining, and has been the focus of widespread scrutiny because of its close ties to Jacob Zuma during his Presidency.


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