Socialist International

Last updated

Socialist International
Red Rose (Socialism).svg
Socialist International logo
Parties of Socialist International.svg
Countries with members of Socialist International
AbbreviationSI
Predecessor Labour and Socialist International
Formation3 June 1951;68 years ago (1951-06-03)
Type International non-governmental organisation
Purpose"Strengthen relations between the affiliated parties and to coordinate their political attitudes and activities" [1]
Location
Region served
Worldwide
Membership
147
President
George Papandreou
Secretary General
Luis Ayala  [ Wikidata ]
Main organ
Congress of the Socialist International
Budget
£1.4 million (2014) [2]
Website socialistinternational.org

The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide organisation of political parties which seek to establish democratic socialism. [1] It consists mostly of democratic socialist, social-democratic and labour political parties and other organisations.

A political international is a transnational organization of political parties having similar ideology or political orientation. The international works together on points of agreement to co-ordinate activity.

Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside a socially owned economy, with an emphasis on workers' self-management and democratic control of economic institutions within a market or some form of a decentralised planned socialist economy. Democratic socialists argue that capitalism is inherently incompatible with the values of freedom, equality and solidarity and that these ideals can be achieved only through the realisation of a socialist society. Democratic socialism can support either revolutionary or reformist politics as a means to establish socialism.

Social democracy is a political, social and economic philosophy that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a mixed economy, be the goal a social revolution moving away from capitalism to a post-capitalist economy such as socialism, a peaceful revolution as in evolutionary socialism, or the simple establishment of a welfare state. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution, regulation of the economy in the general interest and social welfare provisions. In this way, social democracy aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic, egalitarian and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties during the post-war consensus and their influence on socioeconomic policy in the Nordic countries, European socialism has become associated with social democracy and social democracy with the Nordic model within policy circles in the late 20th century.

Contents

Although formed in 1951 as a successor to the Labour and Socialist International, it has antecedents to the late 19th century. The organisation currently includes 147 member parties [3] and organisations from over 100 countries. Its members have governed in many countries including most of Europe.

The Labour and Socialist International was an international organization of socialist and labour parties, active between 1923 and 1940. The group was established through a merger of the rival Vienna International and the former Second International, based in London, and was the forerunner of the present-day Socialist International.

The current secretary general of the SI is Luis Ayala  [ Wikidata ] (Chile) and the current president of the SI is the former Prime Minister of Greece, George Papandreou, [4] both of whom were re-elected at the last SI Congress held in Cartagena, Colombia in March 2017.

Prime Minister of Greece head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet

The Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic, colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Greece, is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. The incumbent prime minister is Kyriakos Mitsotakis, who took office on 8 July 2019.

George Papandreou Greek politician, president of the Socialist International

George Andreas Papandreou is a Greek American politician who served as Prime Minister of Greece from 2009 to 2011. He is currently serving as an MP for Movement for Change.

History

First and Second Internationals (1864–1916)

The International Workingmen's Association, also known as the First International, was the first international body to bring together organisations representing the working class. [5] It was formed in London on 28 September 1864 by socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade unions. [6] Tensions between moderates and revolutionaries led to its dissolution in 1876 in Philadelphia. [7]

International Workingmens Association Socialist organization in the late 1800s

The International Workingmen's Association (IWA), often called the First International (1864–1876), was an international organisation which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in St. Martin's Hall, London. Its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva.

Working class Social class composed of members of the society employed in lower tier jobs

The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income exclusively upon their earnings from wage labour; thus, according to the more inclusive definitions, the category can include almost all of the working population of industrialized economies, as well as those employed in the urban areas of non-industrialized economies or in the rural workforce.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom, with the largest municipal population in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

The Second International was formed in Paris on 14 July 1889 as an association of the socialist parties. [8] Differences over World War I led to the Second International being dissolved in 1916.

The Second International (1889–1916), was an organisation of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on 14 July 1889. At the Paris meeting, delegations from twenty countries participated. The International continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the still-powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and unions and by 1922 2 April at a major post-World War I conference it began to reorganise into the Labor and Socialist International.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as, "the war to end all wars," it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Labour and Socialist International (1919–1940)

The International Socialist Commission (ISC), also known as the Berne International, was formed in February 1919 at a meeting in Berne by parties that wanted to resurrect the Second International. [9] In March 1919 communist parties formed Comintern (the Third International) at a meeting in Moscow. [10]

The International Socialist Commission, also known as the International Socialist Committee or the Berne International was a coordinating committee of socialists parties that adhered to the idea of the Zimmerwald Conference of 1915.

Parties which did not want to be a part of the resurrected Second International (ISC) or Comintern formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP, also known as Vienna International/Vienna Union/Two-and-a-Half International) on 27 February 1921 at a conference in Vienna. [11] The ISC and the IWUSP joined to form the Labour and Socialist International (LSI) in May 1923 at a meeting in Hamburg. [12] The rise of Nazism and the start of World War II led to the dissolution of the LSI in 1940.

Socialist International (1951–present)

The Socialist International was formed in Frankfurt in July 1951 as a successor to the LSI. [13]

During the post-World War II period, the SI aided social democratic parties in re-establishing themselves when dictatorship gave way to democracy in Portugal (1974) and Spain (1975). Until its 1976 Geneva Congress, the SI had few members outside Europe and no formal involvement with Latin America. [14] In the 1980s, most SI parties gave their backing to the Nicaraguan Sandinistas (FSLN), whose democratically-elected left-wing government was subject to a campaign to overthrow it backed by the United States, which culminated in the Iran–Contra affair after the Reagan administration covertly continued US support for the Contras after such support was banned by Congress.

Willy Brandt with outgoing secretary general Bernt Carlsson (left) and new secretary general Pentti Vaananen (right) at the Socialist International Congress in 1983 WillyBrandtBerntCarlssonPenttiVaananen.jpg
Willy Brandt with outgoing secretary general Bernt Carlsson (left) and new secretary general Pentti Väänänen (right) at the Socialist International Congress in 1983

In the late 1970s and in the 1980s the SI had extensive contacts and discussion with the two leading powers of the Cold War period, the United States and the Soviet Union, on issues concerning East–West relations and arms control. The SI supported détente and disarmament agreements, such as SALTII, START and INF. They had several meetings and discussion in Washington, D.C. with President Jimmy Carter and Vice-President George Bush and in Moscow with Secretaries General Leonid Brezhnev and Mikhail Gorbachev. The SI's delegations to these discussions were led by the Finnish Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa. [15]

Since then, the SI has admitted as members an increasing number of parties and organisations from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America (see below for current list).

Following the Tunisian revolution, the Constitutional Democratic Rally was expelled from the SI in January 2011; [16] later that month the Egyptian National Democratic Party was also expelled; [17] and as a result of the 2010–2011 Ivorian crisis, the Ivorian Popular Front was expelled in March 2011, [18] in accordance with section 7.1 of the statutes of the Socialist International. These decisions were approved at the subsequent SI Congress in Cape Town in 2012 in line with section 5.1.3 of the statutes. [19]

Progressive Alliance (2013)

Despite the carrying out of open, transparent, fully democratic elections overseen by an electoral committee headed by the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) of Germany at the 2012 SI Congress, on 22 May 2013 the SPD along with some other current and former member parties of the SI founded a rival international network of social-democratic parties known as the Progressive Alliance, citing their perceived undemocratic and outmoded nature of the SI, [20] [21] [22] [23] as well as the Socialist International's admittance and continuing inclusion of undemocratic political movements into the organization. [24] [25]

Relationship with Latin America

For a long time, the Socialist International remained distant from Latin America, considering the region as a zone of influence of the United States. For example, it does not denounce the coup d'état against Socialist President Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954 or the invasion of the Dominican Republic by the United States in 1964. It was not until the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that we discovered "a world we did not know", explains Antoine Blanca, a diplomat for the French PS. According to him, solidarity with the Chilean left was "the first challenge worthy of the name, against Washington, of an International which, until then, had done everything to appear subject to American strategy and NATO". Subsequently, notably under the leadership of François Mitterrand, the SI supported the sandinistas in Nicaragua and other movements in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras in their struggle against US-supported dictatorships. [26]

In the 1990s, it was joined by non-socialist parties that took note of the economic power of the European countries governed or to be governed by their partners across the Atlantic and calculated the benefits they could derive from it. During this period, "the socialist international works in a clientist way; some parties come here to rub shoulders with Europeans as if they were in the upper class," says Porfirio Muñoz Ledo, one of the representatives of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (Mexico) at the SI. It is home to "the very centrist Argentinean Radical Civic Union (UCR); the Mexican Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which was not very democratically in power for seventy years; the Colombian Liberal Party - under whose governments the left-wing formation Patriotic Union (1986-1990) was exterminated - introduced the neoliberal model (1990-1994) and to which, until 2002, Alvaro Uribe will belong". In the following decade, many left-wing parties that came to power (in Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and El Salvador) preferred to keep their distance from the SI. [26]

Presidents, honorary presidents and secretaries general

Presidents

Honorary presidents

Current and honorary presidents include: [27]

Secretaries general

Summits

Members

Full members

The following parties are full members: [28] [29]

CountryNameAbbrGovernmentNotes
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Socialist Party of Albania [30] [31] [32] PS in government Admitted as consultative member in 1999. [33] [32] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Socialist Forces Front [35] [36] [37] FFS in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39] [37]
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra Social Democratic Party [40] [41] PS in opposition Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [41]
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola [42] MPLA in government Admitted as observer member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [42]
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Radical Civic Union [43] UCR junior party in coalition Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] [43]
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Armenian Revolutionary Federation [44] [45] ARF junior party in coalition Admitted (as Armenian Socialist Party) as observer member in 1996. [39] [45] Promoted (as ASP) to consultative member in 1999. [33] Promoted (as ASP) to full member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Social Democratic Party of Austria [46] SPÖ in opposition Full member since 1951. [46]
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Social Democratic Party ASDPin oppositionAdmitted as observer member in 1996. [39] Promoted to consultative member in 2003. [34] Readmitted as consultative member in June/July 2014. [47] Admitted as full member in 2016. [48]
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Belarusian Social Democratic Party BSDPin oppositionAdmitted as observer member in 1999. [33] Promoted to consultative member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in November 2015. [49]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Socialist Party [50] PSin opposition
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina [51] [41] SDP BiH in opposition Admitted as observer member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] [41]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Democratic Labour Party [52] PDTin oppositionAdmitted as consultative member in 1986. [53] [52] Promoted to full member in 1989. [52] [54]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats [55] PBSD in opposition
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party [56] BSP in opposition Admitted as full member in 2003. [34] [56]
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso People's Movement for Progress MPP in government Admitted as full member in 2016. [48]
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Social Democratic Front [57] SDF in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] [57]
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde [58] PAICV in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39] [58]
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People MLPC in opposition Admitted as observer member in 2008. [59] Upgraded to full member in 2018.
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad National Union for Democracy and Renewal UNDRin oppositionAdmitted as observer member in June/July 2014. [47] Upgraded to full member in 2017.
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Party for Democracy [60] PPD in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39] [60]
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Radical Social Democratic Party [61] PRSD in opposition
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Socialist Party of Chile [62] PS in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39] [62]
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Colombian Liberal Party [63] PLC in coalition Admitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] [63]
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica National Liberation Party [64] PLN in opposition Full member since 1987. [64]
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Social Democratic Party of Croatia [65] [66] SDP in opposition Admitted as full member in 1999. [33] [66]
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Movement for Social Democracy [67] [68] EDEK in opposition Full member since 1987. [68] Promoted to full member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Cyprus.svg Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Cyprus (North) Republican Turkish Party CTP in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 2008 (pending consultation). [59] Promoted to full member in June/July 2014. [47]
Flag of Cyprus.svg Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Cyprus (North) Communal Democracy Party TDP in opposition Admitted as consultative member in November 2015. [49] Promoted to full member in March 2017.
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Czech Social Democratic Party [69] [70] ČSSD junior party in coalition
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo Union for Democracy and Social Progress UDPS in opposition Admitted as observer member in 2003. [34]
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic Dominican Revolutionary Party [71] PRD junior party in coalition Full member since 1987. [71]
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Convergence for Social Democracy [72] CPDS in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] [72]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Social Democratic Party of Finland SDP in government
Flag of France.svg  France Socialist Party [73] PS in opposition
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana National Democratic Congress NDC in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Movement for Change in opposition Full member since 1990. [74]
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala National Unity of Hope UNE in opposition Admitted as full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea Rally of the Guinean People [75] [76] RPG in government Admitted (as Guinean People's Assembly) as consultative member in 1999. [33] Promoted (as GPA) to full member in 2003. [34] [76]
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats [77] PFSDH in opposition Full member since 1989. [77]
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Social Democratic Assembly for the Progress of Haiti (RSD)RSD in opposition Admitted as full members in 2018 [78]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Hungarian Socialist Party [79] [80] MSzP in opposition Admitted as observer member in 1992. [38] [80] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Social Democratic Party of Hungary MSZDP extra-parliamentary Member since 1990. [81] Admitted as observer member in 1992. [38] Promoted to consultative member in 1999. [33]
Promoted to full member in 2003. [34]
Flag of India.svg  India Indian National Congress INC in opposition Originally joined in 1993. [82] Readmitted as full member December 2014. [83]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Kurdistan Democratic Party KDPN/AAdmitted as a full member in November 2015. [49]
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Patriotic Union of Kurdistan PUK in government Admitted as observer member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Labour Party [84] [85] in opposition
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Israeli Labour Party [86] [68] Avoda in opposition Temporarily suspended membership in July 2018 over SI's adoption of BDS policies. [87]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Meretz [86] [68] in opposition
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Italian Socialist Party PSI in opposition
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica People's National Party [88] PNP in opposition Full member since 1952. [88] Temporarily demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Social Democratic Party [89] SDP in opposition Full member since 1951 as the Japan Socialist Party. [89]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Nationwide Social Democratic Party OSDPN/AAdmitted as consultative member in 2012. [90] Promoted to full member in November 2015. [49]
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan SDPK in government Promoted to full member in June 2018.
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Progressive Socialist Party [91] PSP junior party in coalition Full member since 1980. [91]
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Social Democratic Party of Lithuania [92] LSDP junior party in coalition Full member since the 1990s. [92]
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Alliance for Democracy in Mali [93] ADEMA-PASJ in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] [93] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Rally for Mali RPM in government Admitted as consultative member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania Rally of Democratic Forces RFD in opposition Admitted as observer member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Labour Party [94] PT in opposition Full member since 1969. [94]
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Mauritian Militant Movement [95] MMM in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [95] Part of the Alliance of the Heart.
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Institutional Revolutionary Party [96] PRI in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [96]
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Democratic Party of Moldova [97] PDM junior party in coalition Admitted as consultative member in 2008. [59] Promoted to full member in 2012. [90]
Part of Alliance for European Integration.
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Mongolian People's Party [98] [99] MPP in government Admitted (as Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) as observer member in 1999. [33] [99]
Promoted (as Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) to full member in 2003. [34] [99]
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Mongolian Social Democratic Party [99] MSDPN/AAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] [99] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39] Merged with others in 2000 to form the Democratic Party
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro [100] DPS senior party in coalition Admitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro Social Democratic Party of Montenegro [100] [101] [102] SDP in opposition Admitted as observer member in 1996. [39] Promoted to consultative member in 1999. [33] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [102]
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Socialist Union of Popular Forces [103] [104] [105] USFP in opposition Promoted to full member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique Frelimo Party [106] FRELIMO in government Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33]
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia South West Africa People's Organisation SWAPO in government Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Nepali Congress [107] [108] NC in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1989. [54] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] [108]
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism [109] PNDS in government Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [109]
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Pakistan Peoples Party [110] PPP in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1989. [54] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [110]
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine Fatah [111] [112] in government Admitted as observer member in 1996. [39] Promoted to consultative member in 1999. [33]
Promoted to full member in 2012. [90]
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama Democratic Revolutionary Party [113] PRD in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1986. [53] [113] Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Democratic Progressive Party PDP in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 2008. [59] Promoted to full member in November 2015. [49]
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru American Popular Revolutionary Alliance [114] APRA in opposition Promoted to full member in 1999. [33]
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Philippines Democratic Socialist Party PDSP in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014. Reinstated in 2019.
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Socialist Party [115] PS in government
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Independence Party [116] PIP in opposition Consultative member in 1987, full member in 1994. [116] Promoted to full member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Social Democratic Party [117] [118] PSD senior party in coalition Admitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] Consultative member in 1992, full member in 2001. [118] Admitted as full member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia A Just Russia [119] [120] SR in opposition Admitted as observer member in 2008. [59] Promoted to consultative member in 2010. Promoted to full member in 2012. [90] [121]
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino Party of Socialists and Democrats [109] PSD in opposition Consultative member in 1961, full member in 1980. [109]
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Socialist Party of Senegal [122] [123] PSN/AFull member since the 1970s. [123] Boycotted last election.
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Direction – Social Democracy [124] SMER-SD senior party in coalition Full member since 1994. [124]
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa African National Congress [125] ANC in government Admitted as full member in 1999. [33] [125]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Spanish Socialist Workers' Party [126] PSOE in government Full member since 1951. [126]
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties FDTL junior party in coalition Admitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Promoted to full member in 2012. [90]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Republican People's Party [127] [128] [129] CHP in opposition Took Social Democratic Populist Party's place in 1995. [129]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Social Democratic and Labour Party [130] [131] SDLP in opposition Full member since 1974. [131]
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay New Space [132] [133] PNE in government Admitted as consultative member in 1999. [33] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [133]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela A New Era UNT in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 2013. [134] Promoted to full member in November 2015. [49]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Democratic Action [135] [136] AD in opposition Observer member in 1966, consultative member in 1981, full member mid 1980s. [136]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Popular Will VP in opposition Admitted as full member in December 2014. [83]
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party YSP in opposition Admitted as observer member in 2003. [34] Promoted to consultative member in 2008. [59]
Promoted to full member in 2012. [90]

Consultative parties

The following parties are consultative parties: [28] [29]

CountryNameAbbrGovernmentNotes
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize People's United Party PUPin oppositionAdmitted as consultative member in June/July 2014. [47]
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Botswana Democratic Party BDP in government Admitted as consultative member in June/July 2014. [47]
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo Unified Lumumbist Party PALU in opposition Admitted as observer member in December 2014. [83] Upgraded to consultative in 2019.
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti Movement for Democratic Renewal and DevelopmentMRDin oppositionAdmitted as consultative members in 2019.
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon Gabonese Progress Party PGPN/AAdmitted as consultative member in 1996. [39]
Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia United Democratic Party UDPN/AAdmitted as consultative member in 2012. [90] Boycotted last election.
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Social Democrats for the Development of Georgia SDDN/AAdmitted as consultative member in 2013. [134]
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana Convention People's PartyCPPAdmitted as consultative member in 2018
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde PAIGC in government Admitted as consultative member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan PDKIN/AAdmitted as observer member in 1996. [39] Promoted to consultative member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine Palestinian National Initiative [112] PNI in opposition Admitted as observer member in 2008. [59] Promoted to consultative member in 2012. [90]
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine Palestine Popular Struggle FrontPPSFAdmitted as consultative member in 2018.
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Sahrawi Republic Polisario Front POLISARIO in government Admitted as observer member in 2008. [59] Promoted to consultative member in 2017. [137] [138]
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party MLSTP/PSD in government Admitted as consultative member in 2013. [134]
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini People's United Democratic Movement PUDEMON/AAdmitted as consultative member in 2013. [134] Political parties are banned in Eswatini.
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Democratic Union Party PYDAdmitted as consultative member in November 2015. [49]
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Democratic Convention of African Peoples CDPAAdmitted as consultative member in 1999. [33]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Peoples' Democratic Party HDP in opposition Admitted as consultative member in 2015.
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Social Democratic Party of Ukraine [139] SDPUN/AAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34]

Observer parties

The following parties are observer parties: [28] [29]

CountryNameAbbrGovernmentNotes
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Swaziland Swaziland Democratic Party SWADEPAAdmitted as observer member in June/July 2014. [47]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan KPIKAdmitted as observer member in December 2014. [83]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Komala Party of KurdistanKPKAdmitted as observer member in December 2014. [83]
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Labour Party of KenyaAdmitted as observer member in 2012. [90]
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo Self-determination Movement VVAdmitted as observer member in 2018.
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho Lesotho Congress for Democracy LCDin oppositionAdmitted as observer member in June/July 2014. [47]
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Social Democratic Party of Serbia SDPSjunior party in coalition governmentAdmitted as observer member in 2018.
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Labour Party [140] in opposition Member since 1951. [140] Welsh Labour is in government in the Welsh Assembly, holds the London Mayoralty and London Assembly. The party asked and obtained to be downgraded to observer status in February 2013 "in view of ethical concerns, and to develop international co-operation through new networks." [141]

Former members

CountryNameAbbrNotes
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Social Democratic Party of Albania [142] PSDAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39] [142] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria National Liberation Front FLNExpelled following the 2019 Algerian protests.
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra New Democracy NDAdmitted as consultative member in 1999. [33]
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Labour Party ALPAdmitted as consultative member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Popular Socialist Party PSPAdmitted as full member in 1992. [38] Merged with the Democratic Socialist Party to form the Socialist Party.
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Socialist Party [143] [144] PSFull member since 1951. [144]
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba People's Electoral Movement [42] MEPPromoted to full member in 1992. [38] Full member since 1994. [42] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Australian Labor Party [145] ALPAdmitted as full member in 1966. [145] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados Barbados Labour Party [146] BLPAdmitted as full member in 1987. [146] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Belgian Socialist Party PSB/BSPFounder member. Split in 1978.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Socialist Party Different SP.aDelisted in 2017.
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin Democratic Union of Progressive ForcesUDFPAdmitted as observer member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin Social Democratic Party [147] PSDAdmitted as consultative member in 1999. [33] [147] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [147]
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina Alliance of Independent Social Democrats SNSDAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008 [59] Expelled in August 2012. [90]
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Botswana National Front BNFAdmitted as observer member in 1996. [39]
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia Revolutionary Left Movement [148] MIRAdmitted as consultative member in 1986. [53] Consultative member in 1987. [148] Promoted to full member in 1992. [38] [148]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria European Left BEL [149] Admitted as observer member in 1999. [33]
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso Party for Democracy and Progress / Socialist Party [60] PDP/PSAdmitted as full member circa 1995. [60] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi Front for Democracy in Burundi FRODEBUAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28]
Delisted in December 2014.
Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg  Canada Co-operative Commonwealth Federation CCFBecame the New Democratic Party in 1961.
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada New Democratic Party [150] NDP/NPDDelisted in 2018.
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Movement for Democracy and Social ProgressMDPSAdmitted as observer member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast Ivorian Popular Front [151] FPIAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39] [151] Expelled in March 2011. [18]
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Alternative Democratic Pole PDAFormer observer member. Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia M-19 Democratic Alliance Admitted as observer member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Curacao.svg  Curaçao Partido MAN MANPromoted to full member in 1989. [54] Delisted in 2017.
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Social Democrats SDFounding member. Withdrew in 2017.
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica Dominica Labour Party DLPAdmitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador Democratic Left [152] PIDMember since 1987. [152] Delisted in 2017.
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt Egyptian Social Democratic Party ESDP (or HMDI in Arabic)Admitted as consultative member in 2012. [90] Promoted to full member in November 2015. [49] Delisted in 2019 due to non-payment of membership fees.
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt National Democratic Party [64] NDPAdmitted as full member in 1989. [54] Full member since 1992. [64] Expelled in January 2011. [17] [153] [154]
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador Democratic PartyPDAdmitted as observer member in 1996. [39]
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Social Democratic Party [155] [156] SDEMember since 1990. [156] Withdrew in 2017.
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji Fiji Labour Party FLPAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Expelled in 2008, due to the party's participation in a government issued from a military coup. [59]
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Union of Citizens of Georgia CUGAdmitted as observer member in 1996. [39]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany SPDFounding member. Withdrew in 2017.
Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland Forward Admitted as consultative member in 1986. [53] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Social Democratic Convergence [157] CSDAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] [157]
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Party of the National Congress of Democratic MovementsKONAKOMAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Promoted to full member in 1996. [39]
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Struggling People's Organization OPLAdmitted (as Lavalas Political Organisation) as observer member in 1996. [39]
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Revolutionary Progressive Nationalist PartyPANPRAAdmitted as consultative member in 1989. [54] Promoted to full member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Social Democratic Party of Hungary MSZDPMember since 1990. Admitted as observer member in 1992. Promoted to consultative member in 1999.

Promoted to full member in 2003.

Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Social Democratic Party AMember since 1987. [158] Formed Social Democratic Alliance in 2000.
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Social Democratic Alliance SWithdrew in 2017.
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran League of Iranian Socialists Joined in 1960. [159] It was dissolved in 1980s.
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Democratic Party of the Left PDSAdmitted as full member in 1992. [38] Merged with others to form Democrats of the Left in 1998.
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Democrats of the Left [160] DSFull member since 1992 as Democratic Party of the Left. [160] Merged with other movements to form the Democratic Party in 2007. Listed as SI member until XXIV Congress in 2012.
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Italian Socialist Party PSIParty dissolved in 1994 and succeeded by the Italian Socialists (who formed the Italian Democratic Socialists in 1998 and resumed as the Italian Socialist Party PSI in 2007).
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDIParty merged into the Italian Democratic Socialists in 1998 (renamed into Italian Socialist Party PSI in 2007).
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Democratic Socialist Party Minsha-tōAdmitted as SI member in 1961. [161] Merged with non-socialist movements to form the New Frontier Party in 1994.
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Jordanian Democratic Party of the LeftJDPLAdmitted as observer member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Ata Meken Socialist Party [162] Admitted as observer member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party [163] LSDSPFull member since 1994. [163] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28]
Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Social Democratic Party "Harmony" SDPSAdmitted as consultative member in June/July 2014. [47] Withdrew in 2017.
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party [164] [165] LSAP/POSLFull member since 1951. [165] Delisted in 2018 for non-payment of membership fees.
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia Social Democratic Union of Macedonia [166] [167] [168] SDSMAdmitted as observer member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 2003. [34] [168] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar Party for National UnityVITMAdmitted as consultative member in 1989. [54]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Democratic Action Party [169] [136] DAPFull member since 1987. [136] Delisted in 2017. [169]
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Labour Party [170] PLFull member since 1955. [170] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Party of the Democratic Revolution [171] PRDAdmitted as full member in 1996. [39] [171]
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Social Democratic Party of Moldova PSDMAdmitted as observer member in 1996. [39]
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia Congress of Democrats CoDAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Labour Party [172] PvdADecided to minimise involvement in SI in December 2012. [173] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand New Zealand Labour Party [133] NZLPMember since 1952. [133] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua Sandinista National Liberation Front FSLNExpelled in January 2019 because of violation of human rights during the Nicaraguan protests
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria All Progressives Congress [112] APCAdmitted as consultative member in December 2014. [83]
Flag of North Vietnam (1955-1975).svg  North Vietnam Vietnamese Socialist Party [174] Consultative member between 1955 and 1969. [174]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Labour Party [175] [176] DNAMember since 1951. [176] Withdrew in 2016.
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Party for a Country of Solidarity [177] PPSAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Revolutionary Febrerista Party [178] [179] PRFAdmitted as full member in the 1970s. [179]
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Akbayan Citizens' Action Party AKBAYANAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Democratic Left Alliance [180] [181] SLDFull member since 1996. [181] Withdrew in 2017.
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Labour Union [182] UPAdmitted as full member in 1996. [39] [182] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28]
Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland SdRPAdmitted as full member in 1996. [39] Absorbed into the Democratic Left Alliance in 1999.
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Democratic Party PDAdmitted as consultative member in 1996. [39] Promoted to full member in 1999. [33] Merged with the Liberal Democratic Party to form the Democratic Liberal Party.
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Social Democratic Party of Russia SDPRAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia Progressive Labour Party Expelled in 1992. [38]
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Labour Party SKNLPAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Labour Party SLPAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent Labour Party SVGLPAdmitted as consultative member in 1989. [54] Merged with the Movement for National Unity in 1994 to form the Unity Labour Party.
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Unity Labour Party ULPDemoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Democratic Party [183] DSAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Social Democratic Party [183] SDPAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Promoted to full member in 2008. [59]
Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Ceased to exist in 2009 [183]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore People's Action Party PAPResigned in 1976 due to Dutch concerns over suppression of free speech.
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Party of the Democratic Left SDĽAdmitted as full member in 1996. [39] Merged with Direction – Social Democracy in 2005.
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Social Democratic Party of Slovakia SDSSAdmitted as full member in 1992. [38] Merged with Direction – Social Democracy in 2005.
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party SDSAdmitted (as the Social Democratic Party of Slovenia) as observer member in 1992. [38]
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Social Democrats [184] SDAdmitted (as United List of Social Democrats) as full member in 1996. [39] [184] Demoted to observer member in 2012 due to non-payment of membership fees. [28] Delisted in December 2014.
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Swedish Social Democratic Party SAPWithdrew in March 2017. [185] [186]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Social Democratic Party of Switzerland [187] SP/PSWithdrew in 2017.
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Chama Cha Mapinduzi CCMAdmitted as full member in 2013.
Flag of East Timor.svg  Timor-Leste Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor FRETILINAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Constitutional Democratic Rally [52] RCDAdmitted as full member in 1989. [54] Full member since 1993. [52] Expelled in January 2011. [16]
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Popular Unity Movement MUPAdmitted as consultative member in 1989. [54]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Democratic Left Party DSPAdmitted as consultative member in 1986. [53] Expelled in 1992. [38]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Democratic People's Party DEHAPAdmitted as observer member in 2003. [34] Merged with the Democratic Society Movement to form the Democratic Society Party which in turn was succeeded by the Peace and Democracy Party.
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Social Democracy Party [129] SODEPFull member since 1990. [129] Merged with the Republican People's Party in 1995. [129]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Social Democratic Populist Party SHPAdmitted as consultative member in 1986. [53] Promoted to full member in 1989. [54] Merged with the Republican People's Party in 1995.
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Socialist Party of Ukraine SPUAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34] Expelled in July 2011. [188]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States Democratic Socialists of America DSAHad been a member of SI since founding in 1982, withdrew in August 2017. [189]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States Social Democrats, USA [184] SDUSAMember since 1972. [184] Withdrew in 2005.
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Party for the Government of the People PGPAdmitted as consultative member in 1992. [38] Merged with the Colorado Party in 1994.
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Socialist Party of Uruguay [190] PSUAAdmitted as full member in 1999. [33] [190] Withdrew in 2017. [191]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela For Social Democracy PODEMOSAdmitted as consultative member in 2008. [59]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Movement for Socialism MASAdmitted as consultative member in 2003. [34]
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia Patriotic Front PFAdmitted as consultative member in 2013. [134]
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe Movement for Democratic Change MDCAdmitted as full member in 2008. [59] Delisted in 2017.

Fraternal organisations

Associated organisations

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Statutes of the Socialist International". Socialist International.
  2. "Finances of the International". Socialist International.
  3. "About Us". Socialist International.
  4. 1 2 "Presidium". Socialist International.
  5. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 176.
  6. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. xxiv.
  7. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. xxv.
  8. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 302.
  9. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 52.
  10. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 77.
  11. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 177.
  12. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 197.
  13. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 320.
  14. The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of South America, Routledge, 1989
  15. Väänänen, Pentti (2012). Purppuraruusu ja samettinyrkki (in Finnish) (1st ed.). Kellastupa. pp. 192–194. ISBN   9789525787115.
  16. 1 2 "SI decision on Tunisia". Socialist International. 17 January 2011.
  17. 1 2 "Letter to the General Secretary of the National Democratic Party, NDP Egypt" (PDF). Socialist International. 31 January 2011.
  18. 1 2 "SI Presidium addresses situation in Côte d'Ivoire". Socialist International. 19 March 2011.
  19. "Statutes". Socialist International. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  20. Bruderzwist unter Sozialisten - Politik - Süddeutsche.de. Sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  21. Progressive Alliance: Sozialdemokraten gründen weltweites Netzwerk - SPIEGEL ONLINE. Spiegel.de (22 May 2013). Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  22. Sozialdemokratie: „Progressive Alliance“ gegründet - Politik. FAZ. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  23. (in German) Sozialistische Internationale hat ausgedient: SPD gründet "Progressive Alliance". n-tv.de. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  24. "SPD will Sozialistischer Internationale den Geldhahn zudrehen und den Mitgliedsbeitrag nicht zahlen – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Der Spiegel. 22 January 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  25. Sigmar Gabriel (3 February 2011). "Gastbeitrag: Keine Kumpanei mit Despoten | Meinung – Frankfurter Rundschau" (in German). Fr-online.de. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  26. 1 2 Les enfants cachés du Général Pinochet. Précis de Coups d’État Modernes et autres tentatives de déstabilisation. Éditions Don Quichotte. 2015. pp. 613–614.
  27. "Honorary Presidents of the Socialist International". Socialist International.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 "Member Parties". Socialist International.
  29. 1 2 3 "Social Democratic Parties". Broad Left. 1 June 2005.
  30. "Key Political Parties in Albania". Balkan Insight.
  31. "Albania". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  32. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 323.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 "XXI Congress of the Socialist International, Paris - Decisions of the Congress Regarding Membership". Socialist International.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 "XXII Congress of the Socialist International, São Paulo - Decisions of the Congress Regarding Membership". Socialist International.
  35. "FFS (Socialist Forces Front)". European Institute for Research on Euro-Arab Co-operation. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  36. "Algeria". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014.
  37. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 319.
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 "XIX Congress of the Socialist International, Berlin - Decisions on Membership of the Socialist International". Socialist International.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 "XX Congress of the Socialist International, New York - Congress Decisions Regarding Membership". Socialist International.
  40. "Benvinguts" (in Catalan). Social Democratic Party (Andorra).
  41. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 311.
  42. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 270.
  43. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 286.
  44. "In the Socialist International". Armenian Revolutionary Federation. 22 December 2009.
  45. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 37.
  46. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 44.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "SI Council Meeting in Mexico City". Socialist International.
  48. 1 2 "SI Member Parties in Government". www.socialistinternational.org. Socialist International. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Meeting of the SI Council in Luanda, Angola 27-28 November 2015". Socialist International.
  50. "L'Action Internationale" (in French). Parti Socialiste (Belgium).
  51. "Bosnia Herzegovina". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015.
  52. 1 2 3 4 5 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 101.
  53. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "XVII Congress of the Socialist International, Lima - Decisions on Membership of the Socialist International". Socialist International.
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "XVIII Congress of the Socialist International, Stockholm - Decisions on Membership of the Socialist International". Socialist International.
  55. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 67.
  56. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 68.
  57. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 307.
  58. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 25.
  59. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 "XXIII Congress of the Socialist International, Athens - Decisions of the Congress Regarding Membership". Socialist International.
  60. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 265.
  61. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 314.
  62. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 325.
  63. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 211.
  64. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 245.
  65. "Croatia". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  66. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 312.
  67. "Movement for Social Democracy". Movement for Social Democracy.
  68. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 308.
  69. "Our Party". Czech Social Democratic Party. Archived from the original on 13 August 2012.
  70. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 95.
  71. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 108.
  72. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 87.
  73. "L'internationale socialiste" (in French). Socialist Party (France). Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  74. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 262.
  75. "Attack on President Condé an assault on democracy". Socialist International. 19 July 2011.
  76. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 148.
  77. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 351.
  78. "Meeting of the SI Council at the United Nations in Geneva". Socialist International. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  79. "A Magyar Szocialista Párt…" (in Hungarian). Hungarian Socialist Party. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  80. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 158.
  81. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 156.
  82. Gabriel Sheffer (1993). Innovative Leaders in International Politics. SUNY Press. p. 202. ISBN   978-0-7914-1520-7 . Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  83. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Meeting of the SI Council at the United Nations in Geneva". Socialist International.
  84. "International Solidarity". Labour Party (Ireland). 5 May 2004.
  85. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 180.
  86. 1 2 "Israel". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015.
  87. "Israel's Labor party quits Socialist International after it adopts BDS - BDS - Jerusalem Post".
  88. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 271.
  89. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 186.
  90. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "XXIV Congress of the Socialist International, Cape Town - Decisions on Membership". Socialist International.
  91. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 283.
  92. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 214.
  93. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 29.
  94. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 230.
  95. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 229.
  96. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 167.
  97. "Moldova". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015.
  98. "Party History". Mongolian People's Party.
  99. 1 2 3 4 5 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 238.
  100. 1 2 "Montenegro". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 18 April 2005.
  101. "Socijalistička internacionala" (in Montenegrin). Social Democratic Party of Montenegro. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014.
  102. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 313.
  103. "Relations internationales" (in French). Socialist Union of Popular Forces. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  104. "Morocco". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014.
  105. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 328.
  106. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 132.
  107. "Introduction". Nepali Congress.
  108. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 250.
  109. 1 2 3 4 5 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 267.
  110. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 261.
  111. "Fatah becomes member of Socialist International". Ma'an News Agency . 2 July 2011.
  112. 1 2 3 "Palestinian Territories". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009.
  113. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 290.
  114. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 273.
  115. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 280.
  116. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 285.
  117. "Afiliere internationala" (in Romanian). Social Democratic Party (Romania). Archived from the original on 16 April 2013.
  118. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 293.
  119. "Russia". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 22 June 2012.
  120. "Just Russia – member of Socialist International". Sergey Mironov. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  121. (in Russian). A Just Russia https://web.archive.org/web/20120907214414/http://www.spravedlivo.ru/news/anews/19005.php. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  122. "Le Parti en bref" (in French). Socialist Party of Senegal. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  123. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 326.
  124. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 107.
  125. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 24.
  126. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 336.
  127. "European Union Representation". Republican People's Party (Turkey).
  128. "Turkey". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  129. 1 2 3 4 5 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 289.
  130. "Our History". Social Democratic and Labour Party.
  131. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 305.
  132. "Nuevo Espacio" (in Spanish). New Space (Uruguay). Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  133. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 253.
  134. 1 2 3 4 5 http://www.socialistinternational.org/images/dynamicImages/files/Council%20decisions-1.pdf
  135. "Propuestas" (in Spanish). Democratic Action. Archived from the original on 22 June 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  136. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 100.
  137. Polisario Front becomes consultative member of Socialist International association Sahara Press Service, March 4, 2017
  138. MEMBER PARTIES of the SOCIALIST INTERNATIONAL - Consultative parties Socialist International
  139. "Ukraine". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  140. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 63.
  141. Black, Ann. (6 February 2013) Report from Labour’s January executive. Left Futures. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  142. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 27.
  143. "Historia del Partido Socialista" (in Spanish). Socialist Party (Argentina). Archived from the original on 30 July 2012.
  144. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 35.
  145. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 41.
  146. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 46.
  147. 1 2 3 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 310.
  148. 1 2 3 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 241.
  149. Janusz Bugajski (2002). Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 790–. ISBN   978-1-56324-676-0 . Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  150. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 251.
  151. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 184.
  152. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 102.
  153. Gültaşli, Selçuk (4 February 2011). "Socialist International cancels Mubarak's party membership". Today's Zaman . Archived from the original on 3 January 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  154. Weigel, David (4 February 2011). "Socialist International Kicks Out Mubarak". Slate .
  155. "History". Social Democratic Party (Estonia). Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  156. 1 2 Peter Lamb; James C. Docherty (2006). Historical Dictionary of Socialism (Second ed.). The Scarecrow Press. p. 119. ISBN   978-0-8108-5560-1.
  157. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 306.
  158. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 160.
  159. "Socialist League", Iran Almanac and Book of Facts (5) (5th ed.), Echo of Iran, 1966, p. 240
  160. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 105.
  161. James C. Docherty; Peter Lamb (2 October 2006). Historical Dictionary of Socialism. Scarecrow Press. pp. 187–. ISBN   978-0-8108-6477-1 . Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  162. "Kyrgyzstan". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  163. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 203.
  164. "LSAP aujourd'hui" (in French). Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  165. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 217.
  166. "International cooperation". Social Democratic Union of Macedonia.
  167. "FYR Macedonia". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 13 August 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  168. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 315.
  169. 1 2 "International Solidarity". Democratic Action Party.
  170. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 220.
  171. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 268.
  172. "Partners". Labour Party (Netherlands). Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  173. PvdA steunt oprichting Progressive Alliance | PvdA. Pvda.nl (19 December 2012). Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  174. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 355.
  175. "Information in English". Labour Party (Norway).
  176. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 255.
  177. "Party for a Country of Solidarity" (in Spanish). Party for a Country of Solidarity.
  178. "Socialist International met in Paraguay ahead of presidential elections". Socialist International.
  179. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 121.
  180. "English". Democratic Left Alliance. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  181. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 103.
  182. 1 2 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 352.
  183. 1 2 3 "Serbia". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015.
  184. 1 2 3 4 Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 316.
  185. http://www.aftonbladet.se/senastenytt/ttnyheter/inrikes/article24473893.ab%5B%5D