Frankfurt

Last updated

Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt Skyline at night (Unsplash).jpg
Alte Oper Frankfurt Germany 326-vh.jpg
Römer, Frankfurt.jpg
Frankfurt Am Main-Saalhof-Ansicht vom Eisernen Steg.jpg
Hauptwache Frankfurt am Main.jpg
Clockwise from top, Frankfurt city centre by night, the Römer, the Hauptwache, Saalhof and the Alte Oper.
Flag of Frankfurt am Main.svg
Flag
Wappen Frankfurt am Main.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Frankfurt am Main
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Frankfurt am Main
Hesse location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Frankfurt am Main
Coordinates: 50°7′N8°41′E / 50.117°N 8.683°E / 50.117; 8.683 Coordinates: 50°7′N8°41′E / 50.117°N 8.683°E / 50.117; 8.683
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Darmstadt
District Urban district
Founded1st century
Government
   Lord Mayor Peter Feldmann (SPD)
  Governing parties CDU / SPD / Greens
Area
  City248.31 km2 (95.87 sq mi)
Elevation
112 m (367 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31) [1]
  City746,878
  Density3,000/km2 (7,800/sq mi)
   Urban
2,319,029 [2]
   Metro
5,604,523 [3]
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
60306–60599, 65929–65936
Dialling codes 069, 06101, 06109
Vehicle registration F
Website www.frankfurt.de

Frankfurt (officially: Frankfurt am Main (German: [ˈfʁaŋkfʊɐ̯t ʔam ˈmaɪn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); lit. "Frank ford at the [lower-alpha 1] Main")) is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, and its 746,878 (2017) inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Cologne. On the River Main (a tributary of the Rhine), it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, and its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. [2] [4] The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million [3] and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km (25 mi) to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area (West Central German dialects).

Franks people

The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term is associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine, and imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, later being recognized by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

Ford (crossing) crossing in a river

A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading, or inside a vehicle getting its wheels wet. A ford may occur naturally or be constructed. Fords may be impassable during high water. A low water crossing is a low bridge that allows crossing over a river or stream when water is low but may be covered by deep water when the river is high.

Main (river) right tributary of Rhine river in Germany

The Main (German pronunciation: [ˈmaɪn] is a river in Germany. With a length of 525 kilometres, it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany. The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.

Contents

Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, and was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations; it lost its sovereignty upon the collapse of the empire in 1806 and then permanently in 1866, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. It has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945. The city is culturally and ethnically diverse, with around half of the population, and a majority of young people, having a migration background. A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates.

Free City of Frankfurt

For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt was a city-state within two major Germanic entities:

Holy Roman Empire varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor

The Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor was a ceremony in which the ruler of Europe's then-largest political entity received the Imperial Regalia at the hands of the Pope, symbolizing both the pope's right to crown Christian sovereigns and also the emperor's role as protector of the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy Roman Empresses were crowned as well.

Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, culture, education, tourism and transportation. It is the site of many global and European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, German Federal Bank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, Commerzbank, several cloud and fintech startups [5] and other institutes. Automotive, technology and research, services, consulting, media and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, and the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair.

Frankfurt Airport biggest airport of Germany, located in Frankfurt, Hesse

Frankfurt am Main Airport is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany and one of the world's leading financial centres. It is operated by Fraport and serves as the main hub for Lufthansa including Lufthansa CityLine and Lufthansa Cargo as well as Condor and AeroLogic. The airport covers an area of 2,300 hectares of land and features two passenger terminals with a capacity of approximately 65 million passengers per year, four runways and extensive logistics and maintenance facilities.

Financial centre Locations which are centres of financial activity

A financial centre is a broad term the IMF define as encompassing: International Financial Centres (IFCs), such as New York City, London, and Tokyo; Regional Financial Centres (RFCs), such as Boston, Frankfurt, and Sydney; and Offshore Financial Centres (OFCs), such as The Cayman Islands, Dublin, and Singapore.

European Central Bank central bank for the euro

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world. It is one of the world's most important central banks and is one of the seven institutions of the European Union (EU) listed in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The capital stock of the bank is owned by the central banks of all 28 EU member states. The Treaty of Amsterdam established the bank in 1998, and it is headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany. As of 2015 the President of the ECB is Mario Draghi, former governor of the Bank of Italy, former member of the World Bank, and former managing director of the Goldman Sachs international division (2002–2005). The bank primarily occupied the Eurotower prior to, and during, the construction of the new headquarters.

Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, and graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management. Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums (e.g. the Museumsufer ensemble with Städel and Liebieghaus, Senckenberg Natural Museum, Goethe House, and the Schirn art venue at the old town). Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers. The city is also characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, and the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany.

Education in Germany overview of the educational system in Germany

The responsibility for the education system in Germany lies primarily with the states (Länder), while the federal government plays a minor role. Optional Kindergarten education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory. The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies. Most children, however, first attend Grundschule from the age of six to eleven.

Goethe University Frankfurt university in Frankfurt, Germany

University of Frankfurt is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany. It was founded in 1914 as a citizens' university, which means it was founded and funded by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt. The original name was Universität Frankfurt am Main. In 1932, the university's name was extended in honour of one of the most famous native sons of Frankfurt, the poet, philosopher and writer/dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The university currently has around 45,000 students, distributed across four major campuses within the city.

Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences State University of Applied Sciences in Frankfurt am Main

The Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences is a public University of Applied Sciences in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Distinctions

Often stereotyped as a financial city, Frankfurt is multifaceted, including the entertainment district at Bahnhofsviertel. Rotlichviertel Frankfurt Main.JPG
Often stereotyped as a financial city, Frankfurt is multifaceted, including the entertainment district at Bahnhofsviertel.

Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.

Continental Europe continent of Europe, excluding European islands

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be referred to ambiguously as the European continent – which can conversely mean the whole of Europe – and by Europeans, simply the Continent.

Deutsche Bundesbank central bank of Germany

The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB. Both the Bundesbank and the European Central Bank (ECB) are located in Frankfurt, Germany. It is sometimes referred to as "Buba" for Bundesbank, while its official abbreviation is BBk.

Frankfurt Stock Exchange Stock exchange located in Frankfurt, Germany

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the world's 10th largest stock exchange by market capitalization.

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market.

Stock exchange organization that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade securities

A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments. Stock exchanges may also provide for facilities the issue and redemption of such securities and instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. Securities traded on a stock exchange include stock issued by listed companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds. Stock exchanges often function as "continuous auction" markets with buyers and sellers consummating transactions at a central location such as the floor of the exchange. Many stock exchanges today use electronic trading, in place of the traditional floor trading.

Market capitalization

Market capitalization is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. As outstanding stock is bought and sold in public markets, capitalization could be used as an indicator of public opinion of a company's net worth and is a determining factor in some forms of stock valuation.

In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. [6]

Frankfurt is considered a global city (alpha world city) as listed by the GaWC group's 2012 inventory. [7] Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013.

Its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air, rail and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations. [8] Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. [9] In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual 'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. [10] According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. [11]

Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline. It is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe. The Römer area was later rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for events such as Christmas markets. Other parts of the old town are to be reconstructed as part of the Dom-Römer Project by 2016.

Etymology

The legend of the Frankenfurt (ford of the Franks) Die Frankenfurt.jpg
The legend of the Frankenfurt (ford of the Franks)

Frankonovurd (in Old High German) or Vadum Francorum (in Latin) were the first names mentioned in written records from 794. It transformed to Frankenfort during the Middle Ages and then to Franckfort and Franckfurth in the modern era. According to historian David Gans, the city was named c. 146 AD by its builder, a Frankish king named Zuna, who ruled over the province then known as Sicambri. He hoped thereby to perpetuate the name of his lineage. [12] The name is derived from the Franconofurd of the Germanic tribe of the Franks; Furt (cf. English 'ford) where the river was shallow enough to be crossed on foot.

By the 19th century, the name Frankfurt had been established as the official spelling. The older English spelling of Frankfort is now rarely seen in reference to Frankfurt am Main, although more than a dozen other towns and cities, mainly in the United States, use this spelling (e.g., Frankfort, Kentucky; Frankfort, New York; Frankfort, Illinois).

The suffix 'am Main' has been used regularly since the 14th century. In English, the city's full name of Frankfurt am Main means 'Frankfurt on the Main' (pronounced like English 'mine' or German mein). Frankfurt is located on an ancient ford (German: Furt) on the Main River. As a part of early Franconia, the inhabitants were the early Franks, thus the city's name reveals its legacy as "the ford of the Franks on the Main". [13]

Among English speakers, the city is commonly known simply as Frankfurt, but Germans occasionally call it by its full name to distinguish it from the other (significantly smaller) German city of Frankfurt an der Oder in the federated state of Brandenburg on the Polish border.

The city district Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times, thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa (good table).

The common abbreviations for the city, primarily used in railway services and on road signs, are Frankfurt (Main), Frankfurt (M), Frankfurt a. M., Frankfurt/Main or Frankfurt/M. The common abbreviation for the name of the city is "FFM". Also in use is "FRA", the IATA code for Frankfurt Airport.

History

Early history and Holy Roman Empire

Roman settlements were established in the area of the Römer, probably in the first century. Nida (Heddernheim) was also a Roman civitas capital.

Alemanni and Franks lived there, and by 794, Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly and church synod, at which Franconofurd (alternative spellings end with -furt and -vurd) was first mentioned.

Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire. From 855, the German kings and emperors were elected and crowned in Aachen. From 1562, the kings and emperors were crowned in Frankfurt, initiated for Maximilian II. This tradition ended in 1792, when Franz II was elected. His coronation was deliberately held on Bastille Day, 14 July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. The elections and coronations took place in St. Bartholomäus Cathedral, known as the Kaiserdom (Emperor's Cathedral), or its predecessors.

The Frankfurter Messe (Frankfurt Trade Fair) was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted an imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the empire. The fair became particularly important when similar fairs in French Beaucaire lost attraction around 1380. Book trade fairs began in 1478.

In 1372, Frankfurt became a Reichsstadt (Imperial Free City), i.e., directly subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor and not to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.

In 1585, Frankfurt traders established a system of exchange rates for the various currencies that were circulating to prevent cheating and extortion. Therein lay the early roots for the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.

Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War, but suffered from the bubonic plague that refugees brought to the city. After the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth.

Mk Frankfurt Merian Stadtansicht.jpg
Frankfurt in 1612
Frankfurt Am Main-Peter Becker-BAAF-032-Aussicht vom Steinernen Haus in der Judengasse nach Westen-1872.jpg
Frankfurt in 1872
Hertel Kaiserplatz von Osten um 1880.jpg
Kaiserplatz, circa 1880

Impact of French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars

Following the French Revolution, Frankfurt was occupied or bombarded several times by French troops. It remained a free city until the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805/6. In 1806, it became part of the principality of Aschaffenburg under the Fürstprimas (Prince-Primate), Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg. This meant that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine. In 1810, Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt. Napoleon intended to make his adopted son Eugène de Beauharnais, already Prince de Venise ("prince of Venice", a newly established primogeniture in Italy), Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop had no legitimate heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810 to 1813, when the military tide turned in favour of the Anglo-Prussian lead allies that overturned the Napoleonic order. Dalberg abdicated in favour of Eugène de Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the latter effectively never ruled after the ruin of the French armies and Frankfurt's takeover by the allies.

Frankfurt as a fully sovereign state

After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815) dissolved the grand-duchy and Frankfurt became a fully sovereign city state with a republican form of government. Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".

After the ill-fated revolution of 1848, Frankfurt was the seat of the first democratically elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche (St. Paul's Church) and was opened on 18 May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the Prussian king declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt after the loss of sovereignty

View of Frankfurt am Main, including the Alte Brücke (Old Bridge), by Gustave Courbet (1858) Courbet Frankfurt.jpg
View of Frankfurt am Main, including the Alte Brücke (Old Bridge), by Gustave Courbet (1858)

Frankfurt lost its independence after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 when Prussia annexed several smaller states, among them the Free City of Frankfurt. Frankfurt had stayed neutral in the war,[ citation needed ] but its free press bothered the Prussians and they used the opportunity to occupy the city by force: Bismarck had been an ambassador to the German Confederation there and constantly quarrelled with the local press. The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The Prussian occupation and annexation was perceived as a great injustice in Frankfurt, which retained its distinct western European, urban and cosmopolitan character. The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in 1890.

In 1914, the citizens founded the University of Frankfurt, later named Goethe University Frankfurt. This marked the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest.

From 6 April to 17 May 1920, following military intervention to put down the Ruhr uprising, Frankfurt was occupied by French troops. [14] The French claimed that Articles 42 to 44 of the peace treaty of Versailles concerning the demilitarisation of the Rhineland had been broken. [15] In 1924, Ludwig Landmann became the first Jewish mayor of the city, and led a significant expansion during the following years. During the Nazi era, the synagogues of the city were destroyed.

Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II (1939–1945). About 5,500 residents were killed during the raids, and the once-famous medieval city centre, by that time the largest in Germany, was almost completely destroyed. It became a ground battlefield on 26 March 1945, when the Allied advance into Germany was forced to take the city in contested urban combat that included a river assault. The 5th Infantry Division and the 6th Armored Division of the United States Army captured Frankfurt after several days of intense fighting, and it was declared largely secure on 29 March 1945. [16]

After the end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse-(Darmstadt) and the Prussian Hesse provinces. The city was part of the American Zone of Occupation of Germany. The Military Governor for the United States Zone (1945–1949) and the United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) (1949–1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben Building, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies' wartime bombardment.

Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital city of the newly founded state of West Germany in 1949. The city constructed a parliament building that was never used for its intended purpose (it housed the radio studios of Hessischer Rundfunk). In the end, Konrad Adenauer, the first postwar Chancellor, preferred the town of Bonn, for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also because many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt would be accepted as the permanent capital, thereby weakening the West German population's support for a reunification with East Germany and the eventual return of the capital to Berlin.

Postwar reconstruction took place in a sometimes simple modern style, thus changing Frankfurt's architectural face. A few landmark buildings were reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner (e.g., Römer, St. Paul's Church, and Goethe House). The collection of historically significant Cairo Genizah documents of the Municipal Library was destroyed by the bombing. According to Arabist and Genizah scholar S.D. Goitein, "not even handlists indicating its contents have survived." [17]

Frankfurt Nationalversammlung 1848.jpg
The Frankfurt Parliament at St. Paul's Church in 1848
Frankfurt Am Main-Altstadt-Zerstoerung-Luftbild 1944.jpg
Aerial view of the cathedral in May 1945
Frankfurt Am Main-Samstagsberg-20070607.jpg
Reconstruction (1981–1984) of six houses at the east side of the Römerberg which were destroyed in World War II

The end of the war marked Frankfurt's comeback as Germany's leading financial centre, mainly because Berlin, now a city divided into four sectors, could no longer rival it. In 1948, the allies founded the Bank deutscher Länder, the forerunner of Deutsche Bundesbank. Following this decision, more financial institutions were re-established, e.g. Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank. In the 1950s, Frankfurt Stock Exchange regained its position as the country's leading stock exchange.

Frankfurt also re-emerged as Germany's transportation centre and Frankfurt Airport became Europe's second-busiest airport behind London Heathrow Airport in 1961.

During the 1970s, the city created one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems. [18] That system includes a suburban rail system (S-Bahn) linking outlying communities with the city centre, and a deep underground light rail system with smaller coaches (U-Bahn) also capable of travelling above ground on rails.

In 1998, the European Central Bank was founded in Frankfurt, followed by the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board in 2011.

Geography

Top of Main Tower looking East On top of the Main Tower.jpg
Top of Main Tower looking East

It is the largest city in the federated state of Hesse in the south-western part of Germany.

Site

Frankfurt's skyline from across the Main, showing construction cranes Frankfurt Skyline with Cranes.JPG
Frankfurt's skyline from across the Main, showing construction cranes

Frankfurt is located on both sides of the Main River, south-east of the Taunus mountain range. The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest, Germany's largest city forest. The city area is 248.31 km2 (95.87 sq mi) and extends over 23.4 km (14.54 mi) east to west and 23.3 km (14.48 mi) north to south. The city centre is north of the River Main in Altstadt district (the historical centre) and the surrounding Innenstadt district. The geographical centre is in Bockenheim district near Frankfurt West station.

Frankfurt is the centre of the densely populated Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region with a population of 5.5 million. Other important cities in the region are Wiesbaden (capital of Hesse), Mainz (capital of Rhineland-Palatinate), Darmstadt, Offenbach am Main, Hanau, Aschaffenburg, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Rüsselsheim, Wetzlar and Marburg.

Districts

The 46 Stadtteile (city districts) of central Frankfurt Frankfurt Subdivisions boroughs.svg
The 46 Stadtteile (city districts) of central Frankfurt

The city is divided into 46 city districts (Stadtteile), which are in turn divided into 121 city boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 448 electoral districts (Wahlbezirke). The 46 city districts combine into 16 area districts ( Ortsbezirke ), which each have a district committee and chairperson.

The largest city district by population and area is Sachsenhausen, while the smallest is Altstadt, Frankfurt's historical center. Three larger city districts (Sachsenhausen, Westend and Nordend) are divided for administrative purposes into a northern (-Nord) and a southern (-Süd) part, respectively a western (-West) and an eastern (-Ost) part, but are generally considered as one city district (which is why often only 43 city districts are mentioned, even on the City's official website). [19]

Some larger housing areas are often falsely called city districts, even by locals, like Nordweststadt (part of Niederursel, Heddernheim and Praunheim), Goldstein (part of Schwanheim), Riedberg (part of Kalbach-Riedberg) and Europaviertel (part of Gallus). The Bankenviertel (banking district), Frankfurt's financial district, is also not an administrative city district (it covers parts of the western Innenstadt district, the southern Westend district and the eastern Bahnhofsviertel district).

Many city districts are incorporated suburbs ( Vororte ), or were previously independent cities, such as Höchst. Some like Nordend and Westend arose during the rapid growth of the city in the Gründerzeit following the Unification of Germany, while others were formed from territory which previously belonged to other city district(s), such as Dornbusch and Riederwald.

History of incorporations

Until the year 1877 the city's territory consisted of the present-day inner-city districts of Altstadt, Innenstadt, Bahnhofsviertel, Gutleutviertel, Gallus, Westend, Nordend, Ostend and Sachsenhausen.

Bornheim was part of an administrative district called Landkreis Frankfurt, before becoming part of the city on 1 January 1877, followed by Bockenheim on 1 April 1895. Seckbach, Niederrad and Oberrad followed on 1 July 1900. The Landkreis Frankfurt was finally dispersed on 1 April 1910, and therefore Berkersheim, Bonames, Eckenheim, Eschersheim, Ginnheim, Hausen, Heddernheim, Niederursel, Praunheim, Preungesheim and Rödelheim joined the City. In the same year a new city district, Riederwald, was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Seckbach and Ostend.

On 1 April 1928 the City of Höchst became part of Frankfurt, as well as its city districts Sindlingen, Unterliederbach and Zeilsheim. Simultaneously the Landkreis Höchst was dispersed with its member cities either joining Frankfurt (Fechenheim, Griesheim, Nied, Schwanheim, Sossenheim) or joining the newly established Landkreis of Main-Taunus-Kreis.

Dornbusch became a city district in 1946. It was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Eckenheim and Ginnheim.

Enkheimer Ried Enkheimer Ried.jpg
Enkheimer Ried

On 1 August 1972 Hesse's smaller suburbs of Harheim, Kalbach, Nieder-Erlenbach, and Nieder-Eschbach became districts while other neighbouring suburbs chose to join the Main-Taunus-Kreis, the Landkreis Offenbach, the Kreis Groß-Gerau, the Hochtaunuskreis, the Main-Kinzig-Kreis or the Wetteraukreis.

Bergen-Enkheim was the last suburb to become part of Frankfurt on 1 January 1977.

Flughafen became an official city district in 1979. It covers the area of Frankfurt Airport that had belonged to Sachsenhausen and the neighbouring city of Mörfelden-Walldorf.

Frankfurt's youngest city district is Frankfurter Berg. It was part of Bonames until 1996.

Kalbach was officially renamed Kalbach-Riedberg in 2006 because of the large residential housing development in the area known as Riedberg.

Neighbouring districts and cities

Frankfurt urban area within Hesse Locator map of Planungsverband Ballungsraum Frankfurt Rhein-Main in Hesse.svg
Frankfurt urban area within Hesse

To the west Frankfurt borders the administrative district ( Landkreis ) of Main-Taunus-Kreis with towns such as Hattersheim am Main, Kriftel, Hofheim am Taunus, Kelkheim, Liederbach am Taunus, Sulzbach, Schwalbach am Taunus and Eschborn; to the northwest the Hochtaunuskreis with Steinbach, Oberursel (Taunus) and Bad Homburg vor der Höhe; to the north the Wetteraukreis with Karben and Bad Vilbel; to the northeast the Main-Kinzig-Kreis with Niederdorfelden and Maintal; to the southeast the city of Offenbach am Main; to the south the Kreis Offenbach with Neu-Isenburg and to the southwest the Kreis Groß-Gerau with Mörfelden-Walldorf, Rüsselsheim and Kelsterbach.

Together with these towns (and some larger nearby towns, e.g., Hanau, Rodgau, Dreieich, Langen) Frankfurt forms a contiguous built-up urban area called Stadtregion Frankfurt which is not an official administrative district. The urban area had an estimated population of 2.3 million in 2010 and is therefore the 13th largest urban area in the European Union.

Climate

Frankfurt has a temperate-oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). Its average annual temperature is 10.6 °C (51.1 °F), with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.6 °C (34.9 °F) in January to 20.0 °C (68.0 °F) in July.

Climate data for Frankfurt Airport 1981–2010, extremes 1949–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.9
(60.6)
17.8
(64.0)
24.7
(76.5)
30.3
(86.5)
33.2
(91.8)
37.5
(99.5)
38.8
(101.8)
38.7
(101.7)
32.8
(91.0)
28.0
(82.4)
19.1
(66.4)
16.3
(61.3)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F)4.2
(39.6)
5.9
(42.6)
10.7
(51.3)
15.4
(59.7)
20.0
(68.0)
23.1
(73.6)
25.5
(77.9)
25.1
(77.2)
20.3
(68.5)
14.6
(58.3)
8.4
(47.1)
4.9
(40.8)
14.8
(58.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.6
(34.9)
2.4
(36.3)
6.4
(43.5)
10.3
(50.5)
14.7
(58.5)
17.8
(64.0)
20.0
(68.0)
19.5
(67.1)
15.2
(59.4)
10.4
(50.7)
5.6
(42.1)
2.5
(36.5)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F)−1.1
(30.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.1
(35.8)
4.9
(40.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.4
(57.9)
14.0
(57.2)
10.5
(50.9)
6.6
(43.9)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F)−21.6
(−6.9)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−13.0
(8.6)
−7.1
(19.2)
−2.8
(27.0)
0.1
(32.2)
2.8
(37.0)
2.5
(36.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
−6.3
(20.7)
−11.5
(11.3)
−17.0
(1.4)
−21.6
(−6.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)44.5
(1.75)
40.9
(1.61)
48.4
(1.91)
42.1
(1.66)
63.4
(2.50)
58.1
(2.29)
64.7
(2.55)
56.5
(2.22)
53.0
(2.09)
54.7
(2.15)
49.1
(1.93)
53.9
(2.12)
629.18
(24.77)
Average rainy days16.013.014.014.015.015.014.014.012.012.014.016.0169
Mean monthly sunshine hours 508012117821121923321915610351411,662
Percent possible sunshine 18293342454647514030191635
Source #1: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst [20]
Source #2: Weather Atlas (sunshine data) [21]
Climate data for Frankfurt
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily daylight hours9.010.012.014.015.016.016.014.013.011.09.08.012.3
Average Ultraviolet index 1134676642113.5
Source: Weather Atlas [21]

Demographics

Population

Largest groups of foreign residents [22]
NationalityPopulation (30.06.2018)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 25,570
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 16,162
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 15,155
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 12,831
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 10,714
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 9,598
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 8,519
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 7,261
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 6,533
Flag of India.svg  India 6,405
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia 6,041
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 6,029
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 4,663
Flag of France.svg  France 4,621
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 4,431
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 4,013

With a population of 732,688 (2015) within its administrative boundaries [23] and of 2,300,000 in the actual urban area, [4] Frankfurt is the fifth largest city in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Cologne. Central Frankfurt has been a Großstadt (a city with at least 100,000 residents by definition) since 1875. With 414,576 residents in 1910, it was the ninth largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to 553,464 before World War II. After the war, at the end of the year 1945, the number had dropped to 358,000. In the following years, the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of 691,257 in 1963. It dropped again to 592,411 in 1986 but has increased since then. According to the demographic forecasts for central Frankfurt, the city will have a population up to 825,000 within its administrative boundaries in 2020 and more than 2.5 million inhabitants in its urban area.

During the 1970s, the state government of Hesse wanted to include the entire urban area into its administrative boundaries. This would have made Frankfurt officially the second largest city in Germany after Berlin with up to 3 million inhabitants. [24] However, because local authorities did not agree the administrative territory is still much smaller than its actual urban area.

Population of the 46 city districts on 31 December 2009
No
City district (Stadtteil)
Area in km² [25]
Population [26]
Foreign nationals [26]
Foreign nationals in % [26]
Area district (Ortsbezirk)
1 Altstadt 0.51 km²3.4751.12232.3%01 – Innenstadt I
2 Innenstadt 1.52 km²6.5772.52938.5%01 – Innenstadt I
3 Bahnhofsviertel 0.53 km²2.12581038.1%01 – Innenstadt I
4 Westend-Süd 2.47 km²17.2883.44519.9%02 – Innenstadt II
5 Westend-Nord 1.67 km²8.8542.18424.7%02 – Innenstadt II
6 Nordend-West 3.07 km²28.8085.16217.9%03 – Innenstadt III
7 Nordend-Ost 1.69 km²26.6195.58021.0%03 – Innenstadt III
8 Ostend 5.40 km²26.9557.21326.8%04 – Bornheim/Ostend
9 Bornheim 2.66 km²27.1846.24023.0%04 – Bornheim/Ostend
10 Gutleutviertel 2.20 km²5.8431.95333.4%01 – Innenstadt I
11 Gallus 4.22 km²26.71611.01241.2%01 – Innenstadt I
12 Bockenheim 8.04 km²34.7409.03426.0%02 – Innenstadt II
13 Sachsenhausen-Nord 4.24 km²30.3746.50721.4%05 – Süd
14 Sachsenhausen-Süd 34.91 km²26.1144.84718.6%05 – Süd
15 Flughafen 20.00 km²211146.6%05 – Süd
16 Oberrad 2.74 km²12.8283.11324.3%05 – Süd
17 Niederrad 2.93 km²22.9546.56928.6%05 – Süd
18 Schwanheim 17.73 km²20.1623.53217.5%06 – West
19 Griesheim 4.90 km²22.6488.02935.5%06 – West
20 Rödelheim 5.15 km²17.8414.86327.3%07 – Mitte-West
21 Hausen 1.26 km²7.1782.13529.7%07 – Mitte-West
22/23 Praunheim 4.55 km²15.7613.19720.3%07 – Mitte-West
24 Heddernheim 2.49 km²16.4433.19419.4%08 – Nord-West
25 Niederursel 7.22 km²16.3943.67122.4%08 – Nord-West
26 Ginnheim 2.73 km²16.4444.02424.5%09 – Mitte-Nord
27 Dornbusch 2.38 km²18.5113.48218.8%09 – Mitte-Nord
28 Eschersheim 3.34 km²14.8082.65717.9%09 – Mitte-Nord
29 Eckenheim 2.23 km²14.2773.67425.7%10 – Nord-Ost
30 Preungesheim 3.74 km²13.5683.44225.4%10 – Nord-Ost
31 Bonames 1.24 km²6.3621.28820.2%10 – Nord-Ost
32 Berkersheim 3.18 km²3.40059217.4%10 – Nord-Ost
33 Riederwald 1.04 km²4.9111.14223.3%11 – Ost
34 Seckbach 8.04 km²10.1941.96919.3%11 – Ost
35 Fechenheim 7.18 km²16.0615.63535.1%11 – Ost
36 Höchst 4.73 km²13.8885.27938.0%06 – West
37 Nied 3.82 km²17.8295.22429.3%06 – West
38 Sindlingen 3.98 km²9.0322.07623.0%06 – West
39 Zeilsheim 5.47 km²11.9842.55521.3%06 – West
40 Unterliederbach 5.85 km²14.3503.51124.5%06 – West
41 Sossenheim 5.97 km²15.8534.23526.7%06 – West
42 Nieder-Erlenbach 8.34 km²4.62949610.7%13 – Nieder-Erlenbach
43 Kalbach-Riedberg 6.90 km²8.4821.27915.1%12 – Kalbach-Riedberg
44 Harheim 5.02 km²4.29444610.4%14 – Harheim
45 Nieder-Eschbach 6.35 km²11.4991.97817.2%15 – Nieder-Eschbach
46 Bergen-Enkheim 12.54 km²17.9542.76415.4%16 – Bergen-Enkheim
47 Frankfurter Berg 2.16 km²7.1491.71524.0%10 – Nord-Ost
Frankfurt am Main248.33 km²679.571165.41824.3%

Immigration

According to data from the city register of residents, 51.2% of the population had a migration background as of 2015, which means that a person or at least one of their parents was born with foreign citizenship. For the first time, a majority of the city residents had a (partial) non-German background. [27] Moreover, three of four children in the city under the age of six had immigrant backgrounds. [28] and 27.7% of residents had a foreign citizenship. [29]

The city is considered a multicultural city because it is home to people of more than 200 nationalities. The city contains sizable immigrant populations from Turkey, Syria, Croatia, Italy, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia, Lebanon, Malta, Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Spain, Portugal, France, China, Japan, United States, Austria, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Morocco and India. [25] The Frankfurt urban area is also home to the second-largest Korean community in Europe, and to Germany's largest Sri Lankan Tamil community. [30]

Religion

Frankfurt was historically a Protestant-dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved there. The Jewish community has a history dating back to Medieval times and has always ranked among the largest in Germany. Two synagogues operate there. Due to the growing immigration of people from Muslim countries beginning in the 1960s, Frankfurt has a large Muslim community. The Ahmadiyya Noor Mosque, constructed in 1959, is the city's largest mosque and the third largest in Germany. [31]

As of 2013, the largest Christian denominations were Roman Catholicism (22.7% of the population) and Protestantism (19.4%). [32] Estimations put the share of Muslim inhabitants at approximately 12% (2006). [33] According to calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin, the number of Muslim migrants in Frankfurt amounted to about 84,000 in 2011, making up 12.6 percent of the population. [34] A large part of them was from Turkey and Morocco. Over 7,000 inhabitants were affiliated with the Jewish community, amounting to approximately 1% of the population. [35]

Politics

Lord Mayor Peter Feldmann (SPD) 2017-12-17 Festhallenturnier Frankfurt Peter Feldmann-4556.jpg
Lord Mayor Peter Feldmann (SPD)

Frankfurt is one of five independent district-free cities ( kreisfreie Städte ) in Hesse, which means that it does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity, in this case it is not part of a Landkreis . The other four cities are the second to fifth largest cities in Hesse: Wiesbaden, Kassel, Darmstadt and Offenbach am Main. A kreisfreie Stadt has territorial sovereignty within its defined city limits.

In 1995 Petra Roth of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) became Lord Mayor (Oberbürgermeisterin), Frankfurt's municipal leader. In 2012, Peter Feldmann (SPD) succeeded Roth as Lord Mayor. The CDU and the Alliance '90/The Greens (Bündnis '90/Die Grünen) formed the government.

International relations

Frankfurt is twinned with:

Frankfurt twin towns as of 2005 Frankfurt, Germany - Partner Cities.JPG
Frankfurt twin towns as of 2005

Partnerships

Partnerships and city friendships are a weaker form of cooperation than the sister city relationship, acting more like a fixed-term cooperation or limited to certain projects. Frankfurt has partnerships with the following cities:

Cityscape

Landmarks

Römer, the city hall Frankfurter Römer.jpg
Römer, the city hall

Römer

Römer, the German word for Roman, is a complex of nine houses that form the Frankfurt city hall (Rathaus). The houses were acquired by the city council in 1405 from a wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the city hall and was later connected with its neighbours. The Kaisersaal ("Emperor's Hall") is located on the upper floor and is where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets. The Römer was partially destroyed in World War II and later rebuilt. The surrounding square, the Römerberg, is named after the city hall.

The former Altstadt (old town) quarter between the Römer and the Frankfurt Cathedral was to be redeveloped as the Dom-Römer Quarter through 2016, including reconstructions of historical buildings that were destroyed during World War II.

Frankfurt Cathedral

Frankfurt Cathedral (Frankfurter Dom) is not a cathedral, but the main Catholic church, dedicated to St. Bartholomew. The Gothic building was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time. From 1356 onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from 1562 to 1792, Roman-German emperors were crowned there.

Since the 18th century, St. Bartholomew's has been called Dom, although it was never a bishop's seat. In 1867 it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in its present style. It was again partially destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in the 1950s. Its height is 95 meters. The cathedral tower has a viewing platform open to the public at a height of 66 meters, accessed through a narrow spiral staircase with 386 steps.

St. Paul's Church

St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche) is a national historic monument in Germany because it was the seat of the first democratically elected parliament in 1848. It was established in 1789 as a Protestant church, but was not completed until 1833. Its importance has its roots in the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the church during the revolutionary years of 1848/49 in order to write a constitution for a united Germany. The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power. In 1849 Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force and the parliament dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again.

St. Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly its interior, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is used mainly for exhibitions and events.

The view towards downtown Frankfurt from Zeil shopping street Frankfurt Hauptwache View.jpg
The view towards downtown Frankfurt from Zeil shopping street

Archäologischer Garten Frankfurt

The Archaeological Garden contains small parts of the oldest recovered buildings: an ancient Roman settlement and the Frankfurt Royal Palace (Kaiserpfalz Frankfurt) from the 6th century. The garden is located between the Römerberg and the Cathedral. It was discovered after World War II when the area was heavily bombed and later partly rebuilt. The remains were preserved and are now open to the public. There are plans underway to construct a building on top of the garden but anyhow it is decided that the garden will stay open to the public.

Haus Wertheim

Wertheim House is the only timbered house in the Altstadt district that survived the heavy bombings of World War II undamaged. It is located on the Römerberg next to the Historical Museum.

Saalhof

The Saalhof is the oldest conserved building in the Altstadt district and dates to the 12th century. It was used as an exhibition hall by Dutch clothiers when trade fairs were held during the 14th and 15th century. The Saalhof was partly destroyed in World War II and later rebuilt. Today it serves as a part of the Historical Museum.

Eiserner Steg

The Eiserner Steg (Iron Bridge) is a pedestrian-only bridge across the Main that connects Römerberg and Sachsenhausen. It was built in 1868 and was the second bridge to cross the river. After World War II, when it was blown up by the Wehrmacht, it was quickly rebuilt in 1946. Today some 10,000 people cross the bridge on a daily basis.

Alte Oper, now a concert hall, at Opernplatz Alte Oper Frankfurt Winter 2008.jpg
Alte Oper, now a concert hall, at Opernplatz

Alte Oper

The Alte Oper is a former opera house, hence the name "Old Opera". The opera house was built in 1880 by architect Richard Lucae. It was one of the major opera houses in Germany until it was heavily damaged in World War II. Until the late 1970s, it was a ruin, nicknamed "Germany's most beautiful ruin". Former Frankfurt Lord Mayor Rudi Arndt called for blowing it up in the 1960s, which earned him the nickname "Dynamite-Rudi". (Later on, Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously.)

Public pressure led to its refurbishment and reopening in 1981. Today, it functions as a famous concert hall, while operas are performed at the "new" Frankfurt Opera. The inscription on the frieze of the Alte Oper says: "Dem Wahren, Schönen, Guten" ("To the true, the beautiful, the good").

Eschenheimer Turm

The Eschenheim Tower ( Eschenheimer Turm ) was erected at the beginning of the 15th century and served as a city gate as part of late-medieval fortifications. It is the oldest and most unaltered building in the Innenstadt district.

St. Catherine's Church

St. Catherine's Church (Katharinenkirche) is the largest Protestant church, dedicated to Catherine of Alexandria, a martyred early Christian saint. It is located in the city centre at the entrance to the Zeil, the central pedestrian shopping street.

Hauptwache

Although today Hauptwache is mostly associated with the inner-city underground train station of the same name, the name originates from a baroque building on the square above the station. The Hauptwache building was constructed in 1730 and was used as a prison, therefore the name that translates as "main guard-house". Today the square surrounding the building is also called "Hauptwache" (formal: An der Hauptwache). It is situated in the city centre opposite to St. Catherine's Church and houses a famous café.

Central Station

Frankfurt Central Station (Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof), which opened in 1888, was built as the central train station for Frankfurt to replace three smaller train stations in the city centre and to boost the needed capacity for travellers. It was constructed as a terminus station and was the largest train station in Europe by floor area until 1915 when Leipzig Central Station was opened. Its three main halls were constructed in a neorenaissance-style, while the later enlargement with two outer halls in 1924 was constructed in neoclassic-style.

Frankfurter Hof

The Frankfurter Hof is a landmarked hotel in the city centre at Kaiserplatz, built from 1872 to 1876. It is part of Steigenberger Hotels group and is considered the city's most prestigious.

St. Leonhard

St. Leonhard, on the Main close to the bridge Eiserner Steg, is a Catholic late Gothic hall church, derived from a Romanesque style basilica beginning in 1425. It is the only one of nine churches in the Old Town that survived World War II almost undamaged. The parish serves the English-speaking community. The church has been under restoration since 2011.

20th-century architecture

IG Farben Gebaeude Uni Frankfurt.jpg
IG Farben Building, now the central lecture building of the Westend Campus of the Goethe University

21st-century architecture

The Squaire in 2017 The Squaire, Frankfurt am Main-1060.jpg
The Squaire in 2017

Skyscrapers

Upper section of the Main Tower with a public observation deck at 200 metres Maintower-spitze-005.jpg
Upper section of the Main Tower with a public observation deck at 200 metres

Frankfurt is one of the few European cities with a significant number of skyscrapers, (buildings at least 150 m (492.13 ft) tall). It hosts 14 out of Germany's 15 skyscrapers. Most skyscrapers and high-rise office buildings are located in the financial district (Bankenviertel) near the city centre, around the trade fair premises (Europaviertel) and at Mainzer Landstraße between Opernplatz and Platz der Republik, which connects the two areas.

The 14 skyscrapers are:

Other high-rise buildings include:

Frankfurt skyline in June 2013, view from south-west Frankfurt Skyline Pano.Südwest.20130618.jpg
Frankfurt skyline in June 2013, view from south-west

History of high-rise buildings

Skyline at dusk, seen from Deutschherrnbrücke (2014) Frankfurt Skyline (16259801511).jpg
Skyline at dusk, seen from Deutschherrnbrücke (2014)

For centuries, St. Bartholomeus's Cathedral was the tallest structure. The first building to exceed the 95-metre-high cathedral was not an office building but a grain silo, the 120-metre high Henninger Turm, built from 1959 to 1961.

The first high-rise building boom came in the 1970s when Westend Gate (then called Plaza Büro Center) and Silberturm were constructed and became the tallest buildings in Germany with a height of 159.3 metres and 166.3 metres, respectively. Around the same time, Frankfurter Büro Center and City-Haus (142.4 metres and 142.1 metres) were constructed at Mainzer Landstraße and Eurotower (148.0 metres) and Garden Tower (127.0 metres; then called Helaba-Hochhaus) were constructed in the financial district.

None of the buildings constructed during the 1980s surpassed Silberturm. The most famous buildings from this decade are the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers at Taunusanlage, both 155.0 metres tall.

The 1990s featured a second wave. Messeturm, built on the trade fair site, reached a height of 256.5 metres and became the tallest building in Europe by 1991. It was overtaken by the 259-metre high Commerzbank Tower in 1997. Other tall buildings from this decade are Westendstrasse 1 (208.0 metres), Main Tower (200.0 metres) and Trianon (186.0 metres).

In 21st-century Frankfurt, more high-rise buildings and skyscrapers (e.g., Skyper, Opernturm, Tower 185, Seat of the European Central Bank, Taunusturm) emerged, but none have surpassed Commerzbank Tower.

Other tall structures

Top of the Europaturm, a 337 m communications tower Europaturm Abend.jpg
Top of the Europaturm, a 337 m communications tower

Shopping streets

Zeil, Frankfurt's central shopping street. Frankfurt Am Main-Zeil-Ansicht vom Maintower am fruehen Abend-20110328.jpg
Zeil, Frankfurt's central shopping street.
Fressgass Ffm April 2011 EVA 8761.jpg
Sidewalk cafés at Fressgass
MyZeil Frankfurt Nacht.jpg
Shopping mall MyZeil
Goethestrasse Rothofstrasse Ffm.jpg
Luxury shopping at Goethestraße

Green city

Frankfurt City Forest seen from Goethe Tower, Frankfurt's skyline in the background (2007) Skyline-sued-ffm001.jpg
Frankfurt City Forest seen from Goethe Tower, Frankfurt's skyline in the background (2007)
Wallanlagen with Deutsche Bank Twin Towers Deutsche Bank Taunusanlage.jpg
Wallanlagen with Deutsche Bank Twin Towers

With a large forest, many parks, the Main riverbanks and the two botanical gardens, Frankfurt is considered a "green city": More than 50 percent of the area within the city limits are protected green areas. [42]

Culture

Museums

The Städel FrankfurtM Staedel.jpg
The Städel
Schirn Art Gallery from above Schirn-ffm001.jpg
Schirn Art Gallery from above
Senckenberg Natural History Museum Frankfurt Am Main-Senckenberg Naturmuseum von Osten-20120325.jpg
Senckenberg Natural History Museum

With more than 30 museums, Frankfurt has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe. 20 museums are part of the Museumsufer, located on the front row of both sides of the Main riverbank or nearby, which was created on an initiative by cultural politician Hilmar Hoffmann.

Ten museums are located on the southern riverbank in Sachsenhausen between the Eiserner Steg and the Friedensbrücke. The street itself, Schaumainkai, is partially closed to traffic on Saturdays for Frankfurt's largest flea market.

Two museums are located on the northern riverbank:

Not directly located on the northern riverbank in the Altstadt district are:

Another important museum is located in the Westend district:

Other museums are the Dialogmuseum (Dialogue Museum) in the Ostend district, Eintracht Frankfurt Museum at Commerzbank-Arena, Explora Museum+Wissenschaft+Technik (Explora Museum of Science and Engineering) in the Nordend district, the Frankfurter Feldbahnmuseum (Light Railway Museum Frankfurt) in the Gallus district, the Verkehrsmuseum Frankfurt (Transport Museum Frankfurt) in the Schwanheim district, the Hammer Museum in the Bahnhofsviertel district and the Geldmuseum der Deutschen Bundesbank (Money Museum of the German Federal Bank) in the Ginnheim district.

Performing arts

Festhalle Frankfurt Festhalle-Frankfurt-am-Main-2.jpg
Festhalle Frankfurt
The English Theatre The English Theatre Ffm DSC 0808.jpg
The English Theatre

Music

Eurodance and Trance music originated in Frankfurt. In 1989 German producers Michael Münzing and Luca Anzilotti (under the pseudonyms Benito Benites and John "Virgo" Garrett III) formed the Snap! project. Snap! songs combined Rap and Soul vocals adding rhythm by using computer technology and mixing electronic sounds, bass and drums. By doing so a new genre was born: Eurodance. [43] In the early 1990s, DJs including Sven Väth and DJ DAG (of Dance 2 Trance) first played a harder, deeper style of acid house that became popular worldwide over the next decade as Trance music. Some of the early and most influential Eurodance, Trance and Techno acts, e.g., La Bouche, Jam and Spoon, Magic Affair, Culture Beat, Snap!, Dance 2 Trance, Oliver Lieb and Hardfloor, and record labels such as Harthouse and Eye Q, were based in the city in the early 1990s.

Venues

  • Oper Frankfurt – A leading Germany opera company and one of Europe's most important. It was elected Opera house of the year (of Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland) by German magazine Opernwelt in 1995, 1996 and 2003. It was also elected Best opera house in Germany in 2010 and 2011. Its orchestra was voted Orchestra of the year in 2009, 2010 and 2011. [44]
  • Schauspiel Frankfurt – Theatre at Willy-Brandt-Platz in the financial district, next to the Frankfurt Opera.
  • Frankfurt Radio Symphony (hr-Sinfonieorchester in German) – one of the top symphony orchestras in the world
  • Festhalle Frankfurt – Multi-purpose hall next to the Messeturm at the grounds of the Frankfurt Trade Fair. It is mostly used for concerts, exhibitions or sport events and can accommodate up to 13,500.
  • Commerzbank-Arena – Frankfurt's largest sports stadium and one of Germany's ten largest. It is located in the Frankfurt City Forest near Niederrad. It is primarily used for soccer and concerts with a capacity up to 51,500. It opened in 1925 and underwent several major reconstructions. Locals still prefer to call the stadium by its traditional name, Waldstadion (Forest Stadium).
  • Alte Oper – A major concert hall.
  • JahrhunderthalleCentury Hall is a large concert and exhibition hall in Unterliederbach district. Sometimes referred to as "Jahrhunderthalle Höchst", because it was built to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the chemical company Hoechst AG in 1963.
  • The English Theatre – Located on the ground floor of the Gallileo high-rise building, this is the largest anglophone theatre in continental Europe. It was established in 1979.
  • TigerpalastTiger Palace is a varieté in the city centre near the Zeil. It was established in 1988 and houses the famous Tiger-Restaurant which was awarded a Michelin star.
  • Künstlerhaus MousonturmHouse of Artists Mouson Tower is a free theatre, which means that it has a smaller budget than traditional theatres and used more unconventional performing methods. It is located in an old factory in the Ostend district.
  • Die SchmiereThe Grease is a cabaret and Frankfurt's oldest privately owned theatre. It is located in the Karmeliterkloster in the Altstadt district. According to its own advertising it is the worst theatre in the world.
  • Die KomödieThe Comedy is a boulevard theatre in the city centre near Willy-Brandt-Platz.

Botanical gardens

Palmengarten Palmengarten-ffm-Haus Rosenbrunn-002.jpg
Palmengarten

Frankfurt is home to two major botanical gardens.

Foreign culture

Amerika-Haus Frankfurt Instituto-cervantes-ffm003.jpg
Amerika-Haus Frankfurt

Festivals

The Museumsuferfest in 2005 Museumsuferfest 2005 - Riesenrad.jpg
The Museumsuferfest in 2005
Wäldchestag in 2002 Frankfurt-Waeldchestag.jpg
Wäldchestag in 2002
"OVO" at Luminale 2012 Luminale 2012 - OVO.jpg
"OVO" at Luminale 2012

Nightlife

Cocoon Club CocoonClub - public coccon.jpg
Cocoon Club
Frankfurt at Night Frankfurt Skyline at Night.jpg
Frankfurt at Night

Frankfurt offers a variety of restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs. Clubs concentrate in and around the city centre and in the Ostend district, mainly close to Hanauer Landstraße. Restaurants, bars and pubs concentrate in Sachsenhausen, Nordend, Bornheim and Bockenheim.

One of the main venues of the early Trance music sound was the Omen nightclub (closed 1998). Another popular disco club of the 1980-1990s and a hotspot for Techno/Trance music was the Dorian Gray, located within Terminal 1 at Frankfurt Airport. Because of the location at the airport the club had no restrictions regarding opening hours. The club had to close at the end of 2000 because of stricter fire safety regulations. Also notable for its extraordinary design was Coocoon Club in Fechenheim which opened in 2004 was and voted best techno club of the year by music magazines "Groove" and "Raveline" in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007. It closed in 2012. [45]

Batschkapp, 2014 Batschkapp-2014-Gwinnerstrasse-Ffm-Seckbach-726-728.jpg
Batschkapp, 2014

Domestic culture

A "Frankfurt kitchen" in the version of 1926 in an Austrian museum Frankfurter-kueche-vienna.JPG
A "Frankfurt kitchen" in the version of 1926 in an Austrian museum

Culinary specialties

"Bembel" and "Geripptes" Apfelwein Geripptes Bembel.jpg
"Bembel" and "Geripptes"
Frankfurter Rippchen Frankfurter-rippchen-mit-kraut-kpl.001-1.jpg
Frankfurter Rippchen

Transport

Airports

Frankfurt Airport (with the fourth runway under construction in 2010) and the Frankfurter Kreuz (lower right corner) AirportFrankfurt fromair 2010-09-19.jpg
Frankfurt Airport (with the fourth runway under construction in 2010) and the Frankfurter Kreuz (lower right corner)

Frankfurt Airport

The city can be accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city centre. The airport has four runways and serves 265 non-stop destinations. Run by transport company Fraport it ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa. Depending upon whether total passengers or flights are used for calculations, it ranks third or second busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport. Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in 2012 was 57.5 million. There are plans to expand the airport with a third passenger terminal to increase the capacity up to 88 million in 2020.

The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two railway stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction Offenbach Ost or Hanau Hbf) departing at the regional station take 10–15 minutes from the airport to Frankfurt Central Station and onwards to the city centre (Hauptwache station), the IC and ICE trains departing at the long-distance station take 10 minutes to Frankfurt Central Station.

Frankfurt Hahn Airport

Despite the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is situated approximately 120 km (75 mi) from the city in Lautzenhausen (Rhineland-Palatinate). Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus. An hourly bus service runs from Frankfurt Central Station, taking about 1-hour and 45 minutes.[ citation needed ] Passenger traffic at Hahn Airport in 2010 was 3.5 million.

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport (Flugplatz Frankfurt-Egelsbach) is a busy general aviation airport located south-east of Frankfurt Airport, near Egelsbach.

Roads

The western approach on the A3 to the Frankfurter Kreuz A 3 Frankfurter Kreuz, 2014.JPG
The western approach on the A3 to the Frankfurter Kreuz

Frankfurt is a traffic hub for the German motorway ( Autobahn ) system. The Frankfurter Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange close to the airport, where the Bundesautobahn 3 (A3), Cologne to Würzburg, and the Bundesautobahn 5 (A5), Basel to Hanover, meet. With approximately 320,000 cars passing through it every day it is Europe's most heavily used interchange. The Bundesautobahn 66 (A66) connects Frankfurt with Wiesbaden in the west and Fulda in the east. The Bundesautobahn 661 (A661) is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south (Egelsbach), runs through the eastern part and ends in the north (Oberursel). The Bundesautobahn 648 (A648) is a very short motorway in the western part which primarily serves as a fast connection between the A 66 and the Frankfurt Trade Fair. The A5 in the west, the A3 in the south and the A661 in the north-east form a ring road around the inner city districts and define a Low-emission zone (Umweltzone; established in 2008), meaning that vehicles have to meet certain emission criteria to enter the zone.

The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars during rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets Zeil, Goethestraße and Freßgass, are pedestrian-only streets. Car parks are located throughout the city and especially in the city centre.

Railway stations

Frankfurt Central Station Hauptbahnhof Frankfurt.jpg
Frankfurt Central Station
ICE3 at Frankfurt Central Station Hauptbahnhof Frankfurt ICE3-NL 251-dLuh.jpg
ICE3 at Frankfurt Central Station
Tram at Frankfurt South station VGF S201 29.11.2005 Suedbahnhof.JPG
Tram at Frankfurt South station
S-Bahn at Central station (underground) Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof tief S-Bahn S6.jpg
S-Bahn at Central station (underground)

Frankfurt Central Station

Frankfurt Central Station (Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof, often abbreviated as Frankfurt (Main) Hbf or F-Hbf) is the largest railway station in Germany by railway traffic. By daily passenger volume, it ranks second together with Munich Central Station (350,000 each) after Hamburg Central Station (450,000). It is located between the Gallus, the Gutleutviertel and the Bahnhofsviertel district, not far away from the trade fair and the financial district. It serves as a major hub for long-distance trains (InterCity, ICE) and regional trains as well as for Frankfurt's public transport system. It is a stop for most of ICE high speed lines, making it Germany's most important ICE station. ICE Trains to London via the Channel Tunnel were planned for 2013. [49] All Rhine-Main S-Bahn lines, two U-Bahn lines (U4, U5), several tram and bus lines stop there. Regional and local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund (RMV), the second largest integrated public transport systems in the world, after Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg.

Frankfurt Airport stations

Frankfurt Airport can be accessed by two railway stations: Frankfurt Airport long-distance station (Frankfurt Flughafen Fernbahnhof) is only for long-distance traffic and connects the airport to the main rail network, with most of the ICE services using the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line. The long-distance station is located outside the actual airport ground but has a connecting bridge for pedestrians to Terminal 1, concourse B. Frankfurt Airport regional station (Frankfurt Flughafen Regionalbahnhof) is for local S-Bahn trains (lines S8, S9) and regional trains. The regional station is located within Terminal 1, concourse B.

Frankfurt South station

Frankfurt's third long-distance station is Frankfurt South station (Frankfurt Südbahnhof, often abbreviated as Frankfurt (Main) Süd or F-Süd), located in Sachsenhausen. It is an important destination for local trains and trams (lines 14 to 16, 19) and the terminal stop for four U-Bahn lines (U1, U2, U3, U8) and four S-Bahn lines (S3, S4, S5, S6).

Messe stations

The Frankfurt Trade Fair offers two railway stations: Messe station is for local S-Bahn trains (lines S3-S6) and is located at the centre of the trade fair premises while Festhalle/Messe station is served by U-Bahn line U4 and is located at the north-east corner of the premises.

Konstablerwache station and Hauptwache station

Two other major railway stations in the city centre are Konstablerwache and Hauptwache, located on each end of the Zeil. They are the main stations to change from east-to-west-bound S-Bahn trains to north-to-south-bound U-Bahn trains. Konstablerwache station is the second-busiest railway station regarding daily passenger volume (191,000) after the central station. The third-busiest railway station is Hauptwache station (181,000).[ citation needed ]

Coach stations

There are three stations for intercity bus services in Frankfurt: one at the south side of the Central Station, one at the Terminal 2 of the airport and another one at Stephanstraße. [50]

Public transport

U-Bahn train at Hauptwache Frankfurt U-Bahn Train Type U4.jpg
U-Bahn train at Hauptwache
Public transport network Frankfurt am Main - Netzplan Schienennahverkehr.png
Public transport network
S-Bahn map (2011) S-Bahn Rhein-Main Map.svg
S-Bahn map (2011)

The city has two rapid transit systems: the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn, as well as an above-ground tram system. Information about the U- and S-Bahn can be found on the website of the RMV. [51]

S-Bahn

Nine S-Bahn lines (S1 to S9) connect Frankfurt with the densely populated Rhine Main Region. Most routes have at least 15-minute service during the day, either by one line running every 15 minutes, or by two lines servicing one route at a 30-minute interval. All lines, except line S7, run through the Frankfurt city tunnel and serve the stations Ostendstraße, Konstablerwache, Hauptwache, Taunusanlage and Frankfurt Central Station. When leaving the city the S-Bahn travels above ground. It provides access to the trade fair (S3, S4, S5, S6), the airport (S8, S9), the stadium (S7, S8, S9) and nearby cities such as Wiesbaden, Mainz, Darmstadt, Rüsselsheim, Hanau, Offenbach am Main, Oberursel, Bad Homburg, Kronberg, Friedberg and smaller towns that are on the way. The S8/S9 runs 24/7.

U-Bahn

The U-Bahn has nine lines (U1 to U9) serving Frankfurt and the larger suburbs of Bad Homburg and Oberursel in the north. The trains that run on the U-Bahn are in fact light rail ( Stadtbahn ) as many lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of underground further from the city centre. The minimum service interval is 2.5 minutes, although the usual pattern is that each line runs at 7.5 to 10-minute intervals, which produce between 3 and 5-minute intervals on city centre tracks shared by more than one line.

Tram

Frankfurt has ten tram lines (11, 12, 14 to 21), with trams arriving usually every 10 minutes. Many sections are served by two lines, combining to run at 5-minute intervals during rush-hour. Trams only run above ground and serve more stops than the U-Bahn or the S-Bahn.

Bus

A number of bus lines complete the Frankfurt public transport system. Night buses replace U-Bahn and tram services between 1:30 am and 3:30 am. [52] The central junction for the night bus service is Konstablerwache in the city centre, where all night bus lines start and end.

Taxis

Taxicabs can usually be found outside the major S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations, at the central station, the south station, the airport, the trade fair and in the crowded inner-city shopping streets. The common way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or to go to a taxi rank. However, although not the norm, one can hail a passing taxi on the street.

Uber ceased operations in Frankfurt on 9 November 2015 after operating in the city for 18 months. [53]

Bicycles

Velotaxi at the Zeil Frankfurt Velotaxi.jpg
Velotaxi at the Zeil

Deutsche Bahn makes bicycles available for hire through their Call a Bike service. The bicycles are stationed all over the city, including at selected railway stations. They can easily be spotted because of their eye-catching silver-red colour. To rent a specific bike, riders either call a service number to get an unlock code or reserve the bike via the smartphone application. To return the bike, the rider locks it within a designated return area (and calls the service number, if not booked via the app). [54]

Nextbike also makes bicycles available for hire in Frankfurt. They are stationed all over the city. These can be spotted with their blue color scheme.

Cycle rickshaws (velotaxis), a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver, are also available. These are allowed to operate in pedestrian-only areas and are therefore practical for sightseeing.

Frankfurt has a network of cycle routes. Many long-distance bike routes into the city have cycle tracks that are separate from motor vehicle traffic. A number of roads in the city centre are "bicycle streets" where the cyclist has the right of way and where motorised vehicles are only allowed access if they do not disrupt the cycle users. In addition, cyclists are allowed to ride many cramped one-way streets in both directions. As of 2015, 15 percent of citizens used bicycles. [55]

Economy and business

Frankfurt is one of the world's most important financial centres and Germany's financial capital, followed by Munich. Frankfurt was ranked 8th at the International Financial Centers Development Index (2013), 8th at the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index (2008), 9th at the Global Financial Centres Index (September 2013), [56] 10th at the Global Power City Index (2011), 11th at the Global City Competitiveness Index (2012), 12th at the Innovation Cities Index (2011), [57] 14th at the World City Survey (2011) and 23rd at the Global Cities Index (2012). [58]

The city's importance as a financial centre has risen since the eurozone crisis. Indications are the establishment of two institutions of the European System of Financial Supervisors (European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board) in 2011 and the Single Supervisory Mechanism by which the European Central Bank was to assume responsibility for specific supervisory tasks related to the financial stability of the biggest and most important Eurozone banks.

According to an annual study by Cushman & Wakefield, the European Cities Monitor (2010), Frankfurt has been one of the top three cities for international companies in Europe, after London and Paris, since the survey started in 1990. [59] It is the only German city considered to be an alpha world city (category 3) as listed by the Loughborough University group's 2010 inventory, [60] which was a promotion from the group's 2008 inventory when it was ranked as an alpha minus world city (category 4). [61]

With over 922 jobs per 1,000 inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. On work days and Saturdays one million people commute from all over the Rhein-Main-Area.

The city is expected to benefit from international banks relocating jobs from London to Frankfurt as a result of Brexit to retain access to the EU market. [62] [63] Thus far, Morgan Stanley, Citigroup Inc., Standard Chartered Plc and Nomura Holdings Inc. announced to move their EU headquarters to Frankfurt. [63]

Central banks

The new headquarters of the European Central Bank in the Ostend district European Central Bank - building under construction - Frankfurt - Germany - 14.jpg
The new headquarters of the European Central Bank in the Ostend district

Frankfurt is home to two important central banks: the German Bundesbank and the European Central Bank (ECB). [64]

European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (Europäische Zentralbank) is one of the world's most important central banks. The ECB sets monetary policy for the Eurozone, consisting of 19 European Union member states that have adopted the Euro (€) as their common currency. From 1998 the ECB Headquarters have been located in Frankfurt, first in the Eurotower at Willy-Brandt-Platz and in two other nearby high-rises. The new Seat of the European Central Bank in the Ostend district, consisting of the former wholesale market hall ( Großmarkthalle ) and a newly built 185-metre skyscraper, was completed in late 2014. The new building complex was designed to accommodate up to 2,300 ECB personnel. The location is a few kilometres away from the city centre and borders an industrial area as well as the Osthafen (East Harbour), It was primarily chosen because of its large premises which allows the ECB to install security arrangements without high fences.

The city honours the importance of the ECB by officially using the slogan "The City of the Euro" since 1998.

German Federal Bank

The German Federal Bank (Deutsche Bundesbank), located in Ginnheim, was established in 1957 as the central bank for the Federal Republic of Germany. Until the euro (€) was introduced in 1999, the Deutsche Bundesbank was responsible for the monetary policy of Germany and for the German currency, the Deutsche Mark (DM). The Bundesbank was greatly respected for its control of inflation through the second half of the 20th century. Today the Bundesbank is an integral part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) which is formed by all 27 European Union member states.

Commercial banks

Deutsche Bank Twin Towers in the financial district Frankfurt Deutsche Bank.jpg
Deutsche Bank Twin Towers in the financial district
Westend Tower, also known as Westendstraße 1 or Crown Tower, Headquarters of DZ Bank Westendtower-5.JPG
Westend Tower, also known as Westendstraße 1 or Crown Tower, Headquarters of DZ Bank
Opernturm, Headquarters of UBS Germany, at the Opernplatz OpernturmVoll.jpg
Opernturm, Headquarters of UBS Germany, at the Opernplatz

In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had a registered office, including the headquarters of the major German banks, as well as 41 offices of international banks. [6] Frankfurt is therefore known as Bankenstadt ("City of the banks") and nicknamed "Mainhattan" (a portmanteau of the local Main river and Manhattan in New York City) or "Bankfurt". 73,200 people were employed at banks in 2010.

Other major German banks include Frankfurter Volksbank, the second-largest Volksbank in Germany, Frankfurter Sparkasse and old-established private banks such as Bankhaus Metzler, Hauck & Aufhäuser and Delbrück Bethmann Maffei.

Many international banks have a registered or a representative office, e.g., Credit Suisse, UBS, Bank of America, Morgan Stanley, Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, JPMorgan Chase & Co., Bank of China, Banco do Brasil, Itaú Unibanco Société Générale, BNP Paribas, SEB, Royal Bank of Scotland and Barclays.

Frankfurt Stock Exchange

Bull and bear in front of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange Bulle und Bär Frankfurt.jpg
Bull and bear in front of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse) began in the 9th century. By the 16th century Frankfurt had developed into an important European hub for trade fairs and financial services. Today the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is by far the largest in Germany, with a turnover of more than 90 percent of the German stock market and is the third-largest in Europe after the London Stock Exchange and the European branch of the NYSE Euronext. The most important stock market index is the DAX, the index of the 30 largest German business companies listed at the stock exchange. The stock exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse, which is itself listed in the DAX. Deutsche Börse also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and clearing company Clearstream. Trading takes place exclusively via the Xetra trading system, with redundant floor brokers taking on the role of market-makers on the new platform.

On 1 February 2012 European Commission blocked the proposed merger of Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext. "The merger between Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext would have led to a near-monopoly in European financial derivatives worldwide. These markets are at the heart of the financial system and it is crucial for the whole European economy that they remain competitive. We tried to find a solution, but the remedies offered fell far short of resolving the concerns." [66] European competition commissioner, Joaquín Almunia, said.

It is located in the city centre at the Börsenplatz. Deutsche Börse's headquarters are formally registered in Frankfurt but it moved most of its employees to a high-rise called "The Cube" in Eschborn in 2010, primarily due to significantly lower local corporate taxes.

Frankfurt Trade Fair

Messeturm seen from the trade fair premises Messefrankfurt-messeturm-und-messebesucher.jpg
Messeturm seen from the trade fair premises

Frankfurt Trade Fair (Messe Frankfurt) has the third-largest exhibition site in the world with a total of 578,000 square metres (6,221,540 square feet). The trade fair premises are located in the western part between Bockenheim, the Westend and the Gallus district. It houses ten exhibition halls with a total of 321,754 square meters (3,463,331 square feet) of space and 96,078 square metres (1,034,175 square feet) of outdoor space.

Hosted in Frankfurt are the Frankfurt Motor Show (Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung – IAA), the world's largest auto show, the Frankfurt Book Fair (Frankfurter Buchmesse), the world's largest book fair, the Ambiente Frankfurt, the world's largest consumer goods fair, the Achema, the world's largest plant engineering fair, and many more like Paperworld, Christmasworld, Beautyworld, Tendence Lifestyle or Light+Building.

Messe Frankfurt GmbH, the owner and operator company, organized 87 exhibitions in 2010, 51 thereof in foreign countries. It is one of the largest trade fair companies with commercial activities in over 150 countries.

Messeturm

A landmark building of the trade fair (and of the whole city) is the Messeturm (the name translates as Fair Trade Tower), which was the tallest building in Europe from 1991 to 1997. It is located on the north-east corner of the trade fair premises at the so-called city entrance. Despite the name it is not used for exhibition but serves as an office tower.

Aviation

Two Lufthansa Airbus A380s at Frankfurt Airport 2010-07-21 A380 LH D-AIMB EDDF 06.jpg
Two Lufthansa Airbus A380s at Frankfurt Airport

Frankfurt Airport is one of the busiest airports in the world and is also the single largest place of work in Germany with over 500 companies which employ 71,500 people (2010). [67]

Lufthansa

The largest employer at Frankfurt Airport is Lufthansa, Germany's flag carrier and Europe's largest airline. Lufthansa employs 35,000 people in Frankfurt. [68] [69] The Lufthansa Aviation Center (LAC) is the main operation base of Lufthansa at Frankfurt Airport. The airport serves as Lufthansa's primary hub with 157 worldwide destinations (compared to 110 destinations at Munich Airport, Lufthansa's second-largest hub). Lufthansa Cargo is based in Frankfurt and operates its largest cargo center (LCC) at Frankfurt Airport. Lufthansa Flight Training is also based here.

Fraport

Fraport is the owner and operator of Frankfurt Airport. It is the airport's second-largest employer (19,800 workers in 2010). [70] Fraport also operates other airports worldwide, e.g., King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah, Jorge Chávez International Airport in Lima and Antalya Airport.

Condor

Condor is a German airline and part of Thomas Cook Group, based at Frankfurt Airport.

Other industries

Accountancy and professional services

Three of the four largest international accountancy and professional services firms (Big Four) are present.

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) German headquarters are located at Tower 185. KPMG moved its European Headquarters (KPMG Europe LLP) to The Squaire. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu are present, while Ernst & Young is located in Eschborn.

Credit rating agencies

The three major international credit rating agenciesStandard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch Ratings – have their German headquarters in Frankfurt.

Investment trust companies

DWS Investments is the largest investment trust company in Germany and manages €288 billion fund assets. It is one of the 10 largest investment trust companies in the world. [71] Other large investment trust companies are Allianz Global Investors Europe (a division of Allianz SE, and a top-five global active investment manager with €1,933 billion assets under management globally), Union Investment and Deka Investmentfonds.

Management consultancies

Many of the largest international management consultancies are represented, including Arthur D. Little, McKinsey & Company, Boston Consulting Group, Booz & Company, Oliver Wyman, Bearing Point, Capgemini, Bain & Company and Roland Berger Strategy Consultants.

Real estate services companies

Located in Frankfurt are the German headquarters of Jones Lang LaSalle and BNP Paribas Real Estate.

Law firms

Frankfurt has the highest concentration of lawyers in Germany, with one lawyer per 97 inhabitants (followed by Düsseldorf with a ratio of 1/117 and Munich with 1/124) in 2005. [72]

Most of the large international law firms maintain offices, among them Allen & Overy, Baker & McKenzie, Bird & Bird, Clifford Chance, Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, Debevoise & Plimpton, DLA Piper, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Hogan Lovells, Jones Day, Latham & Watkins, Linklaters, Mayer Brown, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, Norton Rose, Shearman & Sterling, Sidley Austin, SJ Berwin, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, Sullivan & Cromwell, K&L Gates, Taylor Wessing and White & Case.

Advertising agencies

Although it is best known for its banks and financial institutions, Frankfurt is also a centre for media companies. Around 570 companies of the advertising industry and 270 public relations companies are there.

According to a ranking of German FOCUS magazine (November 2007) seven of the 48 largest advertising agencies in Germany are based in Frankfurt, including McCann-Erickson, Saatchi & Saatchi, JWT, and Publicis. [73]

Food

Frankfurt is home to the German headquarters of Nestlé, the world's largest food company, located in Niederrad. Other important food companies are Ferrero SpA (German headquarters) and Radeberger Gruppe KG, the largest private brewery group in Germany.

Automotive

The South-Korean automobile manufacturer Kia Motors moved its European headquarters to Frankfurt in 2007. In the same year Italian manufacturer Fiat opened its new German headquarters. The automotive supplier Continental AG has the headquarters and a major manufacturing plant of its Chassis & Safety division (formerly ITT Automotive) located in Frankfurt Rödelheim.

Construction

Some of the largest German construction companies have offices, e.g., Bilfinger Berger, Hochtief, Züblin and BAM Deutschland.

Property and real estate

Frankfurt has Germany's highest concentration of homeowners. This is partly attributed to the financial sector, but also to its cosmopolitan nature, with expatriates and immigrants representing one fourth of its population. For this reason Frankfurt's property market often operates differently than the rest of the country where the prices are generally flatter.

Other

Industriepark Höchst Industriepark Höchst, Leunabrücke.jpg
Industriepark Höchst
Frankfurt Central Station, operated by Deutsche Bahn Hauptbahnhof-ffm-gleisfeld-014.jpg
Frankfurt Central Station, operated by Deutsche Bahn
Mainova heating plant Mainova - Müllheizkraftwerk Nordweststadt - Frankfurt am Main.jpg
Mainova heating plant

Frankfurt is home to companies from the chemical, the transportation, the telecommunication and the energy industry. Some of the larger companies are:

Urban area (suburban) businesses

Within Frankfurt's urban area are several important companies.

The business centre of Eschborn is located right at Frankfurt's city limits in the west and attracts businesses with significantly lower corporate taxes compared to Frankfurt. Major companies in Eschborn include Ernst & Young, Vodafone Germany, Randstad Holding and VR Leasing. Deutsche Börse moved most of its employees to Eschborn in 2010.

Rüsselsheim is internationally known for its automobile manufacturer Opel, one of the biggest automobile manufacturers in Germany. With 20,000 employees in 2003, Opel was one of the five largest employers in Hesse.

Offenbach am Main is home to the European headquarters of automobile manufacturer Hyundai Motor Company, to the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer Honda, to Honeywell Germany and to Deutscher Wetterdienst, the central scientific agency that monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany.

Two DAX companies are located in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Fresenius SE & Co. KGaA and Fresenius Medical Care. Other major companies are Hewlett-Packard, Bridgestone, Deutsche Leasing and Basler Versicherungen.

Kronberg im Taunus is home of the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer Jaguar Cars as well as the German headquarters of Accenture.

Lufthansa Systems, a subsidiary of Lufthansa, is located in Kelsterbach.

LSG Sky Chefs, another subsidiary of Lufthansa, is located in Neu-Isenburg.

The German headquarters of Thomas Cook Group are based in Oberursel.

Langen is home to Deutsche Flugsicherung, the German air traffic control.

Quality of life

Rush hour on Autobahn 5 A5 with Frankfurt airport on the horizon - Autobahn A5 mit Flughafen Frankfurt am Horizont - 02.jpg
Rush hour on Autobahn 5

According to a ranking list (2001) produced by the University of Liverpool, Frankfurt is the richest city in Europe by GDP per capita, followed by Karlsruhe, Paris and Munich. [74]

Frankfurt was voted the 7th in the Mercer Quality of Living Survey by the Mercer Quality of Living Survey (2012), [75] seventh in the Mercer Quality of Living Survey (2010) and 18th at the Economist's World's Most Liveable Cities Survey (2011). [76] According to an annual citizen survey (2010), arranged by the city council, 66 percent inhabitants are satisfied or highly satisfied with the city, while only 6 percent said that they are dissatisfied. Compared to the 1993's survey the number of satisfied inhabitants has grown about 22 percent while the number of dissatisfied inhabitants was reduced by 8 percent. 84 percent of the inhabitants like to live in Frankfurt, 13 percent would rather choose to live somewhere else. 37 percent are satisfied with the public safety (1993: only 9 percent), 22 percent are dissatisfied (1993: 64 percent). [77]

Frankfurt consistently has the highest levels of crime per 100,000 inhabitants in Germany (15.976 crimes per annum in 2008) and is therefore dubbed the German "crime capital". [78] However, this statistic is often criticized[ citation needed ] because it ignores major factors: It is calculated based on the administrative 680,000-inhabitant figure while the urban area has 2.5 M inhabitants and on weekdays adds another million people[ citation needed ] (not counting the 53 million passengers passing through the airport each year). The rate for personal safety-relevant crimes such as murder, manslaughter, rape or bodily harm, is 3.4 percent, placing Frankfurt twelfth in the ranking (related to the official 680,000-inhabitant figure) or number 21 (related to the one-million-figure). [79]

Governmental institutions

Westhafen Tower, home to the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) Frankfurt Westhafen Tower 2011a.jpg
Westhafen Tower, home to the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA)

European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority

The European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) is an institution of the European Union and part of the European System of Financial Supervisors that was created in response to the financial crisis. It was established on 1 January 2011.

Federal Financial Supervisory Authority

Frankfurt is one of two locations of the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, short: BaFin). The BaFin is an independent federal institution and acts as Germany's financial regulatory authority.

International Finance Corporation

Frankfurt is home to the German office of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), which is part of the World Bank Group. The IFC promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries.

German National Library

Frankfurt is one of two sites of the German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek), the other being Leipzig. The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek is the largest universal library in Germany. Its task, unique in Germany, is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications from 1913 on, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, and to make them available to the public.

Trade unions and associations

Main Forum, home to IG Metall Ig-metall-haus-2010-ffm-028.jpg
Main Forum, home to IG Metall

Frankfurt is home to multiple trade unions and associations, including:

trade associations include:

Tourism

Sights

Old Opera House in Central Frankfurt Alte Oper Frankfurt & UBS Abend.jpg
Old Opera House in Central Frankfurt
Wiesbaden Kurhaus with the Casino Kurhaus Wiesbaden blaue Stunde 290-L4.jpg
Wiesbaden Kurhaus with the Casino
Roman Empire Army Camp Saalburg Saalburg.jpg
Roman Empire Army Camp Saalburg

Frankfurt is one of Germany's leading tourist destinations. In addition to its infrastructure and economy, its diversity supports a vibrant cultural scene. This blend of attractions led 4.3 million tourists (2012) to visit Frankfurt. [80] The Hotels in central Frankfurt offer 34,000 beds in 228 hotels, of which 13 are luxury hotels and 46 are first-class hotels. [81]

Sights in the Frankfurt Rhein-Main-Area

The real Frankenstein Castle Mühltal - Burg Frankenstein 11 ies.jpg
The real Frankenstein Castle
Waldspirale Limmeuble Waldspirale (Darmstadt) (7954668126).jpg
Waldspirale
Darmstadt Mathildenhoehe and Russian Tsar's chapel Darmstadt Russisch-Orthodoxe Kapelle Front 4.JPG
Darmstadt Mathildenhoehe and Russian Tsar's chapel

Besides the tourist attractions in central Frankfurt many internationally famous sites are within 80 km (50 mi) of the city, such as:

North

West

East

South

Consulates

Greek consulate Frankfurt, Zeppelinallee 43, griechisches Generalkonsulat.JPG
Greek consulate

As a profoundly international city, Frankfurt hosts 92 diplomatic missions (consulates and consulates-general). Worldwide, only New York City and Hamburg are non-capital cities with more foreign representation. The Consulate General of the United States in Eckenheim is the largest American consulate in the world.

Courts

Several courts are located in Frankfurt, including:

Media

Newspapers

Two important daily newspapers are published. The conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , also known as FAZ, was founded in 1949 and is the German newspaper with the widest circulation outside of Germany, with its editors claiming to deliver the newspaper to 148 countries every day. The FAZ has a circulation of over 380,000 copies daily. The other important newspaper, the Frankfurter Rundschau , was first published in 1945 and has a daily circulation of over 181,000.

Magazines

Several magazines also originate from Frankfurt. The local Journal Frankfurt is the best-known magazine for events, parties, and "insider tips". Öko-Test is a consumer-oriented magazine that focuses on ecological topics. Titanic is a well-known and often criticized satirical magazine with a circulation of approximately 100,000.

Radio and TV

Frankfurt's first radio station was the Südwestdeutsche Rundfunkdienst AG (Southwest German Broadcast Service), founded in 1924. Its successor service is the public broadcaster Hessischer Rundfunk (Hessian Broadcast Service). It is located at the "Funkhaus am Dornbusch" in the Dornbusch district and is one of the most important radio and television broadcasters in Hesse, with additional studios in Kassel, Darmstadt and Fulda.

Bloomberg TV and RTL Television have regional studios.

Other radio broadcasters include Main FM and Radio X.

From August 1945 to October 2004, the American Forces Network (AFN) had broadcast from Frankfurt. Due to troop reductions the AFN's location has been closed with AFN now broadcasting from Mannheim.

News agency

Frankfurt is home to the German office of Reuters, a global news agency.

Education and research

Frankfurt hosts two universities and several specialist schools. The two business schools are Goethe University Frankfurt's Goethe Business School and Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.

Johann Wolfgang Goethe University

The oldest and best-known university is the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, with locations in Bockenheim, Westend, and Riedberg, and the university hospital in Niederrad. Goethe Business School is part of the University's House of Finance at Campus Westend. The Business School's Full Time MBA program has over 70% international students.

Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences

The Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences was created out of several older organisations in 1971, and offers over 38 study areas, in the arts, sciences, engineering and law. Some of the most important research projects: Planet Earth Simulator, FraLine-IT-School-Service, quantitative analysis of methane in human corpses with the help of a mass spectrometer, software engineering (e.g., fraDesk), analysis of qualitative and quantitative gas in human lungs, long-term studies on photovoltaic modules (to name only a few).

Frankfurt School of Finance and Management

The city is also home to a business school, Frankfurt School of Finance & Management, formerly known as the Hochschule für Bankwirtschaft (Institution of Higher Learning for Banking Economics), with its new campus near Deutsche Nationalbibliothek U-Bahn stop (recently moving from its previous location in the Ostend (Eastend) neighbourhood). In 2001, it became a specialist institution for Economics and Management, or FOM. Frankfurt School is consistently ranked among the best business schools in the world, attributed to its high research output and quality of undergraduate and graduate training. [89]

Städelschule

Frankfurt has the State Institution of Higher Learning for Artistic Education known as the Städelschule, founded in 1817 by Johann Friedrich Städel. It was taken over by the city in 1942 and turned into a state art school.

Music schools and conservatory

Music institutions are the Frankfurt University of Music and Performing Arts, and the Hoch Conservatory (Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium) which was founded in 1878. The International Ensemble Modern Academy is a significant institution for the study of contemporary music. [90]

Other notable schools

The Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology (German:Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen), a private institution with membership in the German Jesuit Association, has been located in Sachsenhausen since 1950.

The city is home to three Max Planck Society institutes: the Max Planck Institute for European History of Law (MPIeR), Max Planck Institute for Biophysics, and the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research.

The Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, sponsored by several institutional and private sources, is involved in theoretical research in physics, chemistry, neuroscience, and computer science.

Frankfurt is host to the Römisch-Germanische-Kommission (RGK), the German Archaeological Institute branch for prehistoric archaeology in Germany and Europe. The RGK is involved in a variety of research projects. Its library, with over 130,000 volumes, is one of the largest specialised archaeological libraries in the world.

Education and media

Frankfurt schools rank among the best equipped schools nationwide for availability of PCs and other media facilities. In order to assure maintenance and support of the school PCs, the city in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences launched the project Fraline – IT-Schul-Service, an initiative employing students to provide basic school IT-support.

Sports

Frankfurt is home to several professional sports teams. Some of them have won German Championships. E.g. the Skyliners Frankfurt won the German Basketball Championship in 2004 and the German Cup in 2000. Women's side 1. FFC Frankfurt are Germany's record title holders; Eintracht Frankfurt are one-time German champions, five-times winners of the DFB-Pokal, and winners of the UEFA Cup in 1980. Frankfurt hosts the following sports teams or clubs:

Frankfurt is host to the classic cycle race Eschborn-Frankfurt City Loop (known as Rund um den Henninger-Turm from 1961 to 2008). The city hosts also the annual Frankfurt Marathon and the Ironman Germany. In addition to the former, it is one of 13 global host locations to the J.P. Morgan Corporate Challenge , Germany's biggest corporate sports event. Rhein-Main Eissport Club forms the base of the German bandy community.

See also

Related Research Articles

Hesse State in Germany

Hesse or Hessia, officially the State of Hesse, is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt am Main.

Offenbach am Main Place in Hesse, Germany

Offenbach am Main is a city in Hesse, Germany, located on the left bank of the river Main and part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. Offenbach has a population of 126,934.

Frankfurt Airport long-distance station

Frankfurt am Main Airport long-distance station is a railway station at Frankfurt Airport in Frankfurt, Germany. It is served by long-distance trains, mostly ICE services running on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line. It is the largest railway station serving an airport in Germany with about 23,000 passengers each day. The station is served by 210 long-distance trains daily, of which 185 are Intercity-Expresses. It and Limburg Süd Station are the only railway stations in Germany that are served exclusively by long-distance trains.

Westend (Frankfurt am Main) Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main in Hesse, Germany

Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd are two city districts of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The division into a northern and a southern part is mostly for administrative purposes as the Westend is generally considered an entity. Both city districts are part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II.

Bahnhofsviertel Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main in Hesse, Germany

The Bahnhofsviertel is a city district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I.

Flughafen Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main in Hesse, Germany

Frankfurt-Flughafen is a city district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Unterwald and Flughafen.

Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof main railway station in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof, often abbreviated as Frankfurt (Main) Hbf and sometimes translated as Frankfurt central station, is the busiest railway station in Frankfurt, Germany. The name affix "Main" comes from the city's full name, Frankfurt am Main. Because of its location in the middle of Germany and usage as a hub for long and short distance travelling, Deutsche Bahn refers to it as the most important station in Germany.

Hamburg Hauptbahnhof railway station for the German city of Hamburg

Hamburg Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station of the city of Hamburg, Germany and is classed by Deutsche Bahn as a category 1 railway station. Opened in 1906 to replace 4 separate terminal stations, today Hamburg Hauptbahnhof is operated by DB Station&Service AG. With an average of 550,000 passengers a day, it is Germany's busiest railway station and the second-busiest in Europe after the Gare du Nord in Paris.

IG Farben Building A building complex of the University of Frankfurt, Germany

The IG Farben Building, also known as the Poelzig Building and Abrams Building, formerly informally called The Pentagon of Europe, is a building complex in Frankfurt, Germany, which currently serves as the main building of the West End Campus of the University of Frankfurt. It was built from 1928 to 1930 as the corporate headquarters of the IG Farben conglomerate, then the world's largest chemical company and the world's fourth-largest company overall.

Deutsche Bank Twin Towers two highrises in Frankfurt, Germany

The Deutsche Bank Twin Towers, also known as Deutsche Bank Headquarters, is a twin tower skyscraper complex in the Westend-Süd district of Frankfurt, Germany. Both towers rise to 155 m (509 ft) and serve as headquarters for Deutsche Bank, the largest bank in Germany. The twin towers are sometimes nicknamed Debit and Credit, the two aspects of every financial transaction.

Frankfurt Airport regional station railway station

Frankfurt (Main) Airport regional station is an underground railway station at Frankfurt Airport in Frankfurt, Germany. It provides local S-Bahn and Regionalbahn services to the city and the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. The station opened on 14 March 1972 together with a new passenger terminal. At the time it was only the second railway station serving an airport in Germany.

Bankenviertel

Bankenviertel is the name of the central business district in Frankfurt, Germany. It designates an area in the city centre where many banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions are located. It is the most important financial centre in Germany and one of the largest in Europe along with La Défense in the Paris aire urbaine and London's City and Canary Wharf.

Hanau Hauptbahnhof railway station in Hanau, Germany

Hanau Hauptbahnhof is a railway station at Hanau in the German state of Hesse, and is a major railway junction east of Frankfurt am Main. It was opened in 1867, but the current building was built in the late 1960s. It is located about 1.5 kilometres south-east of central Hanau. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn (DB) as a category 2 station and has many train services, including Intercity Express, regional and S-Bahn services.

Frankfurt Taunusanlage station railway station

Frankfurt (Main) Taunusanlage station is train station in the city centre of Frankfurt, Germany. It is served by eight S-Bahn lines.

Mainzer Landstraße

Mainzer Landstraße is one of the main arterial roads in Frankfurt am Main, running west from the city centre to the outlying suburbs of the city. The road runs largely parallel with the River Main along its northern bank, and at 8.3 kilometres (5.2 mi) in length is Frankfurt's second longest road.

Frankfurt Frankfurter Berg station railway station in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt Frankfurter Berg station is a railway station located in the Frankfurter Berg district of Frankfurt, Germany. The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 5 station and part of the Main–Weser Railway. The station was called Bonames until 1996.

Kaiserhofstraße street in Frankfurt, Germany

The Kaiserhofstraße (4–19) is a short, mostly pedestrian upmarket street in the city centre of Frankfurt, Germany, located in the Opera Quarter in the western part of the district of Innenstadt, within the central business district known unofficially as the Bankenviertel.

Frankfurt Rhein-Main Regional Authority Place in Germany

The Regional Authority FrankfurtRheinMain is the cooperation body of the administratively fragmented Frankfurt am Main urban area and the common authority for Frankfurt am Main and its 75 neighboring communities. It manages and coordinates the regional development of Frankfurt am Main and its suburbs. It also represents the Frankfurt urban area nationally and internationally and is responsible for the strategic alignment of the local decision-making, for the development of a common regional image and an improved regional harmonisation. The authority draws up and updates the regional preparatory land use plans, local development and zoning plans, and carries out an intensive regional monitoring to coordinate the development of the urban region.

References

Notes

  1. an dem → am
A. ^ Topped out but not completed.

Citations

  1. "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). September 2018.
  2. 1 2 The FrankfurtRheinMain region – facts and figures Retrieved 18 January 2017
  3. 1 2 Regional Monitoring 2015. Facts and Figures – FrankfurtRheinMain Metropolitan Region Retrieved 18 January 2017
  4. 1 2 European Union: State of European Cities Report "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Retrieved 22 April 2014
  5. "Global Startup Ecosystem Survey – Startup Genome. Frankfurt among the global startup capitals" . Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  6. 1 2 Internetredaktion (23 May 2012). "Bundesbank: Bankenplatz Frankfurt" (PDF) (in German). Bundesbank.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2011.
  7. "The World According to GaWC". GaWC. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  8. Bahnhof.de Frankfurt Hbf. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  9. Strassenwaerter Archived 2 May 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  10. "Mercer's Survey 2011". Mercer. 29 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014.
  11. "World's most expensive place to live is..." The Economist. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012.
  12. Dovid Solomon Ganz, Tzemach David (part 2), Warsaw 1859, p. 13b (Hebrew); Polish name of book: Cemahc Dawid; cf. J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, Fredegar and the History of France, University of Manchester, n.d. pp. 536–538.
  13. Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the world. McFarland. p. 135. ISBN   978-0-7864-2248-7 . Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  14. Chronology: Emergence of a Modern City 1866–1945 Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  15. "French march into Germany". The Times. 7 April 1920. p. 10. "The French commander issued a notice to the public informing them that the occupation was consequent upon the German advance in the Ruhr contrary to the Peace Treaty."
  16. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 57, 84.
  17. Goitein, S.D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza, Vol. I – Economic Foundations. University of California Press, 2000, p. 5
  18. "Port of Frankfurt". World Port Source. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  19. "Stadtteile". Frankfurt.de.
  20. "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte".[ permanent dead link ]
  21. 1 2 "Frankfurt, Germany – Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  22. "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Frankfurt am Main 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  23. "Bevölkerung der Hessischen Gemeinden". Statistik-Hessen.de. 30 September 2015. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  24. H. Voit, Die kommunale Gebietsreform in: Erwin Stein (Hrsg.): 30 Jahre Hessische Verfassung, Wiesbaden 1976, p. 416 ff. (Text in German)
  25. 1 2 "Statistisches Jahrbuch Frankfurt am Main 2009" (PDF).
  26. 1 2 3 "Statistisches Jahrbuch Frankfurt am Main 2010" (PDF).
  27. "Mehr als die Hälfte mit ausländischen Wurzeln ", (german). Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  28. "Einwanderer stellen in Frankfurt die Mehrheit", (german). Retrieved 2 July 2017
  29. "Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. Ausländische Bevölkerung – Ergebnisse des Ausländerzentralregisters", (german), Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  30. "Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland – Neue Daten zur Migration in Deutschland verfügbar". Destatis.de. 20 October 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
  31. "50 JAHRE NUUR-MOSCHEE". 3 October 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  32. "Frankfurter Statistisches Jahrbuch 2014, Kapitel 2: Bevölkerung" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  33. "Muslime in Frankfurt am Main – Ergebnisse einer Schätzung" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  34. "Kartenseite: Muslime in Deutschland 2011 – Landkreise – Karte" (PDF). Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  35. "Jüdische Gemeinde Frankfurt – Wir über uns" . Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  36. "Eskişehir – Sister Cities". [[copyright|]] 2011 Eskişehir Metropolitan Municipality. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  37. "Canada–Germany: Institutions and Organizations". canadainternational.gc.ca.
  38. "Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  39. Robertson, Staun. "Zyklon B Poison Gas". A History of Jews in Hamburg. University of Hamburg. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008.
  40. "Poelzig Building / Westend Campus". Historical Frankfurt. Tourismus+Congress GmbH. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011.
  41. "Der neue Goetheturm wird ganz wie der alte" (in German). Hessenschau. 3 November 2017. Archived from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  42. "Auf dem Weg zur Green City". Frankfurt.de.
  43. "Neue Ehrlichkeit. Mit Tanzmusik aus dem Computer feign zwei Frankfurter Klangbastler weltweit Erfolge" (PDF). Der Spiegel (in German). Hamburg. 3 October 1994. p. 268. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  44. "Opernwelt Pressemitteilung". Kultiversum.de.
  45. Cocoon Club droht die Schließung, http://www.spiegel.de, 1 November 2012 (in German)
  46. http://www.fr-online.de/frankfurt/clubs--living-xxl-geschlossen,1472798,24603930.html
  47. http://www.journal-frankfurt.de/journal_news/Nightlife-103/Kultclub-im-Japan-Center-nur-noch-bis-Jahresende-Club-101-schliesst-nach-13-Jahren-28122.html
  48. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  49. "High-speed trains to link England and Germany". Brisbanetimes.com.au. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  50. "Frankfurt: Stations". Travelinho.com.
  51. "Rhein-Main Transport Association". RMV.DE. 24 November 2010. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  52. "Nightbus Frankfurt Rheinmain". Nachtbus-frankfurt.de. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  53. Lomas, Natasha (November 2, 2015). "Uber Pulls Out of Three German Cities After Court Ban Shrinks Driver Pool". TechCrunch .
  54. "Call a Bike: Startseite". callabike-interaktiv.de.
  55. 36.31.5, Stadt Frankfurt am Main – Der Oberbürgermeister – Straßenverkehrsamt Radfahrbüro. "Radfahrbüro der Stadt Frankfurt". www.radfahren-ffm.de. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  56. "The Global Financial Centres Index 12.5" (PDF). Long Finance. January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  57. Innovation Cities Index 2011 Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  58. Kearney, Inc., A.T. "The 2012 Global Cities Index". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013.
  59. "ECM 2009v1:V1" (PDF).
  60. Beaverstock, J.V.; Smith, R.G.; Taylor, P.J. "The World According to GaWC 2010". Globalization and World Cities. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013.
  61. "GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. 13 April 2010.
  62. Treanor, Jill (2017-12-11). "Brexit: City of London will lose 10,500 jobs on day one, says EY". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  63. 1 2 "Here's Where London Bankers Are Moving After Brexit". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  64. "Tower envy: Frankfurt may be home to one central bank too many". POLITICO. 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  65. "Größte Banken der Welt". Manager-magazin.de.
  66. "Mergers: Commission blocks proposed merger between Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext, European Commission – Press release". europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-02-19.
  67. Rolf Didszuns (21 October 2011). "Frankfurt-Interaktiv: Flughafen Frankfurt". Frankfurt-interaktiv.de.
  68. "Lufthansa-Konzernzentrale teurer als geplant". Focus.de. 18 July 2006.
  69. Report-k.de: Lufthansa-Verwaltung in Köln-Deutz eröffnet Archived 24 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  70. "Personal in Zahlen". Fraport.de.
  71. DWS: Unternehmensprofil
  72. "Anwaltsdichte in Deutschland". Juraforum.de.
  73. "FOCUS: Die größten Werbeagenturen 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-03.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  74. Nick Swift: European cities outperform their English counterparts . citymayors.com (Zugriff am 1. November 2006)
  75. "Global Cities Survey 2011". Knightfrank.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012.
  76. "FR-Online: Frankfurt ist zweitattraktivste Stadt Deutschlands" (in German). Fr-online.de.
  77. "Frankfurt.de: Statistik aktuell Nr. 8/2011" (PDF).
  78. Source: Polizeiliche Kriminalstatistik 2008 Archived 19 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  79. "Frankfurt.de: Kriminalitätsstatistik 2009" (PDF).
  80. frankfurt-tourismus.de Gäste- und Übernachtungszahlen 2012 Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  81. Frankfurt – Data, Facts, Figures "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Retrieved 23 April 2014
  82. https://lag-frankfurt-justiz.hessen.de/irj/LAG_Hessen_Internet
  83. (in German) Website of the Higher Regional Court
  84. (in German) Website of the Regional Court
  85. https://ag-frankfurt-justiz.hessen.de/irj/AMG_Frankfurt_Internet
  86. https://sg-frankfurt-justiz.hessen.de/irj/SG_Frankfurt_am_Main_Internet
  87. https://arbg-frankfurt-justiz.hessen.de/irj/ArbG_Frankfurt_am_Main_Internet
  88. https://vg-frankfurt-justiz.hessen.de/irj/VG_Frankfurt_am_Main_Internet
  89. "FT Masters in Managemenet". FT. 2017.
  90. "International Ensemble Modern Academy". internationale-em-akademie.de.

Further reading

History

Architecture

Others