NFL Europe

Last updated

NFL Europa
NFL Europe.gif
FormerlyWorld League of American Football (1991)
World League (1992, 1995-97)
NFL Europe League (1998-2005)
Sport American football
FoundedJuly 19, 1989 [1]
Inaugural season 1991
CeasedJuly 29, 2007 [2]
Divisions3 (1991-1992)
No. of teams10 (1991–1992)
6 (1995–2007)
Countries Canada (1991-92)
Germany (1991-92, 1995-2007)
Netherlands (1995-2007)
Spain (1991-92, 1995-2003)
United Kingdom (1991-92, 1995-2004)
United States (1991-92)
Last
champion(s)
Hamburg Sea Devils (1)
Most titles Frankfurt Galaxy (4)
Related
competitions
National Football League

NFL Europe League (simply called NFL Europe and known in its final season as NFL Europa League) was a professional American football league that functioned as the developmental minor league of the National Football League (NFL). Originally founded in 1989 as the World League of American Football (or WLAF), the league was envisioned as a transatlantic league encompassing teams from both North America and Europe. Initially, the WLAF consisted of seven teams in North America and three in Europe. It began play in 1991 and lasted for two seasons before suspending operations; while the league had been "wildly popular" in Europe, it failed to achieve success in North America. After a two-year hiatus, it returned as a six-team European league, with teams based in England, Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. NFL Europa was dissolved in 2007 due to its continued unprofitability and the NFL's decision to shift its focus towards hosting regular-season games in Europe; at the time of its closure, the league consisted of five German teams and one team based in the Netherlands.

Contents

The league operated under rules nearly identical to the NFL, but featured some differences and experimental rules changes designed to appeal to fans of association football (soccer) and rugby football. NFL teams were incentivized to allocate players through the granting of additional training camp positions for each allocated player, and each team in NFL Europe was required to employ a number of "local" players. Most of the league's players were American, with "local" players tending to be converted rugby or soccer players playing at the punter or placekicker positions. Several NFL Europe alumni - including quarterbacks Brad Johnson, Kurt Warner, and Jake Delhomme - went on to have successful careers in the NFL, and two NFL Europe alumni (Adam Vinatieri and Dante Hall) made the National Football League 2000s All-Decade Team.

The league's schedule went through several formats throughout its existence, but each season always culminated in the championship World Bowl game. In its initial run, each team played a ten-game schedule, and the winners of each of the three divisions (Europe, North America East, and North America West), along with the team with the best record that didn't win a division, would play in a four-team playoff. Following its revival as a six-team European league, the ten-game schedule was retained as double round-robin regular season. From 1995 to 1997, the World Bowl was played between the team with the best record in the first half of the season and the team with the best record in the second half of the season; from 1998 on, the two teams with the best records across the entire season played in the World Bowl. The Frankfurt Galaxy - the only team to play all 15 seasons of the league's existence - won the most World Bowl titles (four) and recorded the most World Bowl appearances (eight), while the final league title was won by the Hamburg Sea Devils.

History

Founding and origins


In 1974, the National Football League (NFL) announced plans to launch a professional American football league in Europe, the Intercontinental Football League (IFL). Aiming for a launch in the spring of 1975, the IFL would feature six teams (located in Istanbul, Rome, Munich, Berlin, Vienna, and Barcelona, respectively) and would be a satellite league of the NFL, with initial funds made by the NFL owners and the rosters consisting of "second-line athletes and rookies from established NFL teams". [3] The brainchild of Bob Kap, the proposed league had already sold six franchises and had secured the rights to loan players from the NFL. [4] The league had also pre-selected four more cities for expansion teams, and Al Davis and Tex Schramm were assigned to head the committee that would put the league together. The IFL did not materialize - the Pro Football Researchers Association attributed this failure to Europe not being ready for American football, potential competition with the World Football League (WFL), a players' strike during the summer of 1974, and the recession. [3] Another factor was the turmoil in Europe in 1974: Turkey had invaded Cyprus, the American ambassador to Cyprus had been assassinated, Basque separatists had assassinated the prime minister of Spain, and terrorist groups like the Red Brigades had engaged in kidnapping. [4] The State Department discouraged NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle from pursuing the league, and the IFL also suffered a potentially fatal blow when Pan American World Airways, who Kap had brought on as a sponsor, pulled out of the project. Ultimately, Rozelle deemed the creation of the league "impractical". [4]

By 1980, the popularity of American football was increasing in Europe without any push by the NFL. The NFL capitalized on this newfound interest by holding American Bowl games (pre-season exhibition contests held overseas), and the popularity of these games, particularly in London, led to a renewed interest from Rozelle in creating an American football league in Europe. [3] In 1989, the NFL announced plans to create an international spring football league. The NFL initially wanted the new league to be known as the International Football League, but it had to change the name after discovering that the name was already owned by Donald Trump and Charley Finley, who were allegedly in the process of forming their own league. The name World League of American Football (WLAF) was eventually settled on; this name was chosen to avoid associating it with the dissolved World Football League, and the term "American football" was included in the league's name because "football" in Europe typically refers to association football, known in the United States as soccer. The NFL and WLAF attempted to downplay its status as a minor league and refused to acknowledge the WLAF as a farm league of the NFL. [3] The NFL approved the creation of the WLAF in July 1989, with Schramm to head up the project and the league expected to begin play in 1990 or 1991. [1] The league was expected to have 12 teams (six in the United States, four in Europe, one in Canada and one in Mexico), [5] and it secured a two-year television deal with ABC and a four-year television deal with USA Network to air regular and post-season games. [6] Schramm was fired as league president in October 1990 due to differences between him and the NFL as to the direction the WLAF would take; Schramm had wanted the WLAF to be an "independent, major international league which would be strong enough to stand on its own feet", while the NFL had wanted the WLAF to be a small league with close ties to the NFL. [7]

The first logo of the WLAF. WLAF.png
The first logo of the WLAF.

On November 14, 1990, the WLAF announced it would begin play in 1991 with ten teams (six of them in the United States, three of them in Europe, and one in Canada) split into three divisions (North America West, North America East, and Europe). A 50-game schedule stretching from March 23, 1991 to May 27, 1991 was agreed upon, and a draft was held from February 14, 1991 to February 24, 1991. [6] Unlike the NFL draft, the World League draft was a position-by-position draft - potential draftees were divided into ten position groups, meaning each of the ten teams would have the number-one pick at a position group. All players were to receive a base salary of $20,000, but players could receive more money by meeting performance-based incentives with a maximum total salary of $100,000. [8] Each NFL team could allocate up to four players to the WLAF, although only two, the New Orleans Saints and Kansas City Chiefs opted to do so. [9]

WLAF (1991-92)

World Bowl '91, the league's first championship game, was held at Wembley Stadium; the London Monarchs defeated the Barcelona Dragons 21-0. Twin Towers, Wembley Stadium - geograph.org.uk - 1125645.jpg
World Bowl '91, the league’s first championship game, was held at Wembley Stadium; the London Monarchs defeated the Barcelona Dragons 21-0.

The World League of American Football, described by The New York Times as the "first trans-Atlantic major sports league", began play on March 23, 1991, with three games held in Frankfurt, Germany, Birmingham, Alabama, and Sacramento, California, respectively. [11] After the conclusion of the regular season, the WLAF playoffs were held, featuring the three division champions (London Monarchs, New York/New Jersey Knights, and Birmingham Fire) and one wild-card team (Barcelona Dragons). [12] London and Barcelona won their playoff games to meet in World Bowl '91 at Wembley Stadium, which London won 21-0. [10]

Following its first season, the World League of American Football was at risk of folding. It suffered a loss of nearly $7 million, and none of its teams made a profit. In addition to the monetary loss for the league, television ratings on ABC and USA network were poor. According to Dan Rooney, the NFL chairman of the World League, cost estimates were accurate, but the league overestimated the amount of revenue the WLAF would make. The league's television contracts were also at risk due to poor ratings, with USA Network having lost money. [13] The WLAF averaged around 26,000 fans a game in its first season; the European teams had a higher attendance than the North American teams, bolstering the average. [14] Ultimately, the NFL decided to bring the league back for a second season in 1992. The league name was shortened to World League by league officials, who felt the surprising success of the league in Europe made the "American football" part unnecessary, and the Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks folded, replaced by the Ohio Glory. [14]

NFL Europe/Europa (1995-2007)

The final logo of the league, introduced upon its name change to NFL Europa in 2006. NFL Europe Logo.svg
The final logo of the league, introduced upon its name change to NFL Europa in 2006.

Although the league was "wildly popular" in Europe, with attendance averaging 45,000 for the London Monarchs, it was "ignored" in the United States. The World League suspended play for the 1993 and 1994 season before returning in 1995 as a six-team, exclusively European league. All three of the original European teams returned along with three new teams (the Amsterdam Admirals, Rhein Fire, and Scottish Claymores). Each team was required to have seven "local" players on their 40-man roster. [15] Fox became a co-owner of the WLAF and a major financial contributor in return for broadcasting rights. [16] The league was renamed the NFL Europe League (NFLEL) in 1998, and the London Monarchs were renamed the England Monarchs in an attempt to spur attendance, which had fallen below 10,000 per game. [17] The Monarchs would fold the following season and were replaced by the Berlin Thunder. [18]

NFL Europe commemorated its 10th season in 2002, but still remained far from being profitable. The league announced a three-year with the soccer club FC Barcelona to jointly promote American football in Europe and soccer in the United States; the Barcelona Dragons franchise was renamed FC Barcelona Dragons. [19] The collaboration with FC Barcelona would prove to be unsuccessful, however, and the Barcelona Dragons would fold after the 2003 season due to declining attendance. [20] The team's attendance had fallen to under 7,000 per game, a 50% decline since the 1997 season, when the team had won the World Bowl. [21] The Dragons were replaced by the Cologne Centurions in 2004, and the following year the Scottish Claymores folded; although the team boasted the largest following of any Scottish sports team outside the Old Firm, averaging 10,799 per game, the league had determined an additional German team could bring in 30,000 per game. [22]

The Claymores were replaced the following year by the Hamburg Sea Devils, which left the Amsterdam Admirals as the only team in the league not to be based in Germany. This was part of a strategic pivot to Germany, which had been the most receptive country to the league and the sport in general. [23] Accordingly, the league changed its name to NFL Europa in 2006, ahead of the league's 15th season, to reflect the league's focus on Germany and the Netherlands. [24]

Closure and legacy

Quarterback Kurt Warner was allocated to the Amsterdam Admirals in 1998. The following year, Warner led the St. Louis Rams to victory in Super Bowl XXXIV. KurtWarnerSuperBowlXXXIV.jpg
Quarterback Kurt Warner was allocated to the Amsterdam Admirals in 1998. The following year, Warner led the St. Louis Rams to victory in Super Bowl XXXIV.

On July 29, 2007, less than a week after World Bowl XV, the NFL announced the closure of NFL Europa. The league had been losing a reported US$30 million a year, and the NFL had decided to shift their strategy in marketing football abroad towards holding NFL regular-season games outside the United States. [2] The NFL owners who funded the league were reportedly dissatisfied with NFL Europa's lack of revenue as well as its decreasing success in player development. [26] The league had nearly folded in 2003, when eight of the 32 NFL owners voted against funding it, one short of the nine votes needed to end the league, and its gradual progression into a German-dominated league had ran counter to the NFL's goals of selling merchandise throughout the European continent. [27] The league's inability to garner a live television contract with local media markets also played a role in its demise, as the potential revenue from a deal could have helped the league financially. [28]

Andrei S. Markovits and Lars Rensmann described the league as an "abysmal failure", noting its poor quality of play, frequent name changes, and franchise relocations as well as the accessibility of regular NFL games in Europe as reasons for its collapse. [29] Len Pasquarelli of ESPN.com noted that the league had strayed from its original goal, with the allocation system of players gradually being abused to amass training camp exemptions rather than to develop players. [26] John Mara, the co-owner of the New York Giants, said that the league "had some useful purpose in developing players" and that it helped the NFL determine that there was an interest in American football in Europe. [28]

Looking back on NFL Europe in 2017, Kevin Seifert of ESPN.com noted its strong record in developing quarterbacks: Kurt Warner (a Super Bowl champion and two-time MVP), Brad Johnson (who won a Super Bowl in 2002 with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers), Jake Delhomme (who led the Carolina Panthers to an NFC championship in 2003), and journeyman quarterback Jon Kitna all spent time in NFL Europe. [25] Two NFL Europe alumni (kicker Adam Vinatieri and return specialist Dante Hall) were included on the NFL’s 2000s All-Decade Team. [30] The league also provided an opportunity for the NFL to experiment with rules and to develop officials and coaches. Some NFL coaches and executives have suggested reviving the concept of a developmental league, [31] and several independent leagues have been created to fill the need, but with little success. [25] At a press conference before Super Bowl LI, league commissioner Roger Goodell said the NFL had been "actively considering" creating a new developmental league. [32]

Since the closure of NFL Europa, the NFL has held regular-season games annually in London [33] and has also hosted regular-season games in Mexico City and Toronto. [34] The league is pursuing the goal of a franchise in London, as well as potential regular-season games in China. [35] In 2021, the NFL announced its was looking for partners to host a regular-season game in Germany. [36] In 2022, the league announced four regular-season games would be held in Germany, the first set for November 13, 2022 between the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Seattle Seahawks to be played at Munich's Allianz Arena. NFL.com writer Judy Battista noted Germany was the "fastest-growing international community" for the league, and attributed this in part to the popularity of the former NFL Europe's German teams, but argued the large number of expats as well as the American military presence were greater factors. [37]

In 2007, fans and former members of the Frankfurt Galaxy - the most successful of NFL Europe's teams on the field and in crowd attendance - created the Frankfurt Universe. [38] The new team was promoted to the German Football League 2 in 2011, and won promotion to the German Football League (GFL) in 2015. [39] The European League of Football (ELF), a pan-European league that began play in 2021, [40] signed an agreement with the NFL allowing them to utilize the branding of the former teams of NFL Europe. [41] The ELF's Barcelona Dragons, Berlin Thunder, Cologne Centurions, Hamburg Sea Devils, Frankfurt Galaxy, and Rhein Fire all share the names and imagery of their NFL Europe predecessors. [42]

Season structure and development

TeamWLPCT
Hamburg Sea Devils 73.700
Frankfurt Galaxy 73.700
Cologne Centurions 64.600
Rhein Fire 46.400
Amsterdam Admirals 46.400
Berlin Thunder 28.200
This chart demonstrates the league’s table for the 2007 season. From 1998 to 2007, each team played 10 games (a home and away game against every other team in the league), and the top two teams at the end of the season (highlighted in green) qualified for the championship game, the World Bowl. [43] The Hamburg Sea Devils won the game 37-28, securing the league’s championship. [44]

From 1991-92, the 12-team WLAF was split into three divisions: North America East, North America West, and Europe with a ten-game regular season schedule. All three division champions, in addition to the team with the best record who didn't win a division, made the playoffs. The winners of the two playoff games played for the league championship in the World Bowl. [45] The ten game schedule was retained upon the league's return in 1995, but was modified with the new six-team format. Each team played every other team twice in a double round-robin regular season. Following the regular season, two teams would be selected for the World Bowl; the team that led the league's standings after week five would host the game, and the team with the best overall record at the end of the season would be their opponent. [46] This format was criticized for making the second half of the league's season less competitive, and beginning with the 1998 season it was changed to have the two teams with the best overall records play in the World Bowl instead. [43]

The league played under standard NFL rules, with several exceptions. [47] In an effort to appeal to fans of rugby and soccer, the league instituted rules to speed up the pace of the game and awarded four points for field goals made from beyond 50 yards as opposed to the typical three points. [48] Rule changes instituted upon the league's revival in 1995 included the creation of the defensive two-point conversion, referred to by the league as the "deuce", as well as only requiring receivers to have one foot in bounds on a completed pass. [14] The regular-season overtime period consisted of a single 10-minute quarter where both teams were required to have control of the ball at least once, and the play clock was set to 35 seconds. [47] Starting with the 1997 season, the league required the receiver to have two feet in bounds for a completed pass. [46] Ties were possible in the league, with two (a 1992 game between the London Monarchs and Birmingham Fire and a 2006 game between the Berlin Thunder and Hamburg Sea Devils) occurring in league history. [49]

NFL teams were allowed to allocate players to NFL Europe. In exchange for doing this, they were awarded with exemptions for training camp, allowing them to bring more players than would otherwise be allowed. [26] A certain number of players on each team of NFL Europe were required to be "local players", and at least two local players were required to be on the field at all times during games. Despite this, most of the league's most prominent players were Americans; "local players" were often converted rugby or soccer players playing as punters or placekickers. [50]

Teams

World League of American Football/World League (1991-92)

World League/NFL Europe League/NFL Europa (1995-2007)

Trophy and awards

NFL Europe presented several awards and honors. The World Bowl trophy, awarded to the winners of the annual World Bowl game, was a 40-pound glass globe. [57] The winning team also received championship rings [58] Other awards included regular season most valuable player awards on offense and defense, a coach of the year award, and an award for the World Bowl MVP. The league also awarded offensive, defensive, special teams, and national players of the week, [59] and named an all-league team at the end of the season. [60]

Award winners

SeasonOMVPTeamDMVPTeamCoTYTeamRef.
1991 Stan Gelbaugh Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London Monarchs John Brantley Flag of the United States.svg Birmingham Fire Larry Kennan Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London Monarchs [61] [62]
Danny Lockett Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London Monarchs
Anthony Parker Flag of the United States.svg New York/New Jersey Knights
1992 David Archer Flag of the United States.svg Sacramento Surge Adrian Jones Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons Galen Hall Flag of the United States.svg Orlando Thunder [63] [64] [65]
1995 Paul Justin Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy Malcolm Showell Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals Ernie Stautner Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy [66] [67]
1996 Sean Lachapelle Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores Ty Parten Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores Jim Criner Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores [68]
1997 T. J. Rubley Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire Jason Simmons Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores Galen Hall (2) Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire [69]
1998 Marcus Robertson Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire Josh Taves Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons Dick Curl Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy [70]
1999 Lawrence Phillips Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons Mike Maslowski Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons Dick Curl (2) Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy [71]
2000 Aaron Stecker Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores Jonathan Brown Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder Galen Hall (3) Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire [72]
Duane Hawthorne Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores
2001 Mike Green Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons Roshaun Matthews Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals Jack Bicknell Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons [73]
2002 Jamal Robertson Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire Deke Cooper Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire Peter Vaas Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder [74]
2003 Ken Simonton Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores Rashidi Barnes Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy Doug Graber Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy [75]
2004 Rohan Davey Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder Corey Jackson Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy Rick Lantz Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder [60]
2005 Dave Ragone Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder Rich Scanlon Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder Bart Andrus Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals [76]
2006 Gibran Hamdan Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals Tony Brown Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals Mike Jones Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy [77]
Philippe Garden Flag of Germany.svg Cologne Centurions
2007 Derrick Ross Flag of Germany.svg Cologne Centurions Jason Hall Flag of Germany.svg Cologne Centurions Vince Martino Flag of Germany.svg Hamburg Sea Devils [78]
J. T. O'Sullivan Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy

Television coverage

1991-92

In the United States, television coverage was provided by the ABC and USA Network. The reported cost of the contracts varied. According to the Los Angeles Times , ABC committed to $28 million over two years, and USA Network committed to $25 million for the same length of time with an additional two-year option. Ratings were characterized as "poor" in the inaugural season, with ABC averaging a 2.1 rating and USA Network averaging a 1.2 rating. [79] Television ratings in the United States were "dismal" during the league's second season, with ABC averaging a 1.7 rating and USA Network averaging a 1.1 rating. [79] As a result, ABC's payment was reduced to $3 million while USA saw theirs lowered to $10 million. According to The New York Times, USA Network was "not happy" with this arrangement and did not heavily promote the league as a result. [80]

International teams aired on different domestic networks. Montreal Machine games were aired in English on The Sports Network and in French on RDS. [81] Coverage in Europe was mostly on satellite television. Eurosport showed games on delay and Super Channel aired the 1991 World Bowl. [82] In the United Kingdom, Channel 4 showed half-hour highlights of Monarchs games on Saturday mornings. [82] Larry Eichel of the Philadelphia Inquirer wrote that "The only way a Monarchs fan could watch the team's first-round playoff game from the Meadowlands was to go to Wembley to see it on closed circuit." [82]

1995–2007

The revived league's United Kingdom television coverage was mainly on Sky Sports, with additional coverage also on Channel 4, [83] [84] STV, [83] [84] and Carlton. [83] [84] Eight European continental broadcasters also showed games, [83] [84] including Germany's Vox and DSF. [83] [84]

Although the league no longer had any U.S. teams, it was covered on American television until its closure. Fox became a co-owner of the league in exchange for broadcasting rights, [16] and following the relaunch all regular season games were broadcast on the FX network. [85] Fox ended its joint ownership with the league in 2000, but continued to air some games as a television partner. [86] In 2004, NFL Network began airing select NFL Europe games. [87] This was expanded to cover all NFL Europe games - including the World Bowl - in 2006. [88]

Records

Champions and runners-up

SeasonChampionWinsLossesRunner-upWinsLossesRef.
1991 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London Monarchs 91 Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons 82 [89]
1992 Flag of the United States.svg Sacramento Surge 82 Flag of the United States.svg Orlando Thunder 82 [90]
1995 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy 64 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals 91 [91]
1996 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores 73 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy 64 [92]
1997 Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons 55 Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire 73 [93]
1998 Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire 73 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy 73 [94]
1999 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy (2)64 Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons 73 [95]
2000 Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire (2)73 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores 64 [96]
2001 Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder 64 Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons 82 [97]
2002 Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder (2)64 Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire 73 [98]
2003 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy (3)64 Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire 64 [99]
2004 Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder (3)91 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy 73 [100]
2005 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals 64 Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder 73 [101]
2006 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy (4)73 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals 73 [102]
2007 Flag of Germany.svg Hamburg Sea Devils 73 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy 73 [103]

Win–loss records

TeamGPWinsLossesTiesPct.ChampionshipsSeasonsRef.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam Admirals 13068620.52311995-2007 [51]
Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona Dragons/FC Barcelona Dragons11059510.53611991-92; 1995-2003 [51]
Flag of Germany.svg Berlin Thunder 9042471.47231999-2007 [51]
Flag of the United States.svg Birmingham Fire 201271.62501991-92 [51]
Flag of Germany.svg Cologne Centurions 4020200.50002004-07 [51]
Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Galaxy 15082680.54741991-92; 1995-2007 [51]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London/England Monarchs 6026331.44211991-92; 1995-98 [51]
Flag of Germany.svg Hamburg Sea Devils 3015141.51712005-07 [51]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Montreal Machine 206140.30001991-92 [51]
Flag of the United States.svg New York/New Jersey Knights 201190.55001991-92 [51]
Flag of the United States.svg Ohio Glory 10190.10001992 [51]
Flag of the United States.svg Orlando Thunder 201370.65001991-92 [51]
Flag of the United States.svg Raleigh–Durham Skyhawks 100100.00001991 [51]
Flag of Germany.svg Rhein Fire 13068620.52321995-2007 [51]
Flag of the United States.svg Sacramento Surge 201190.55011991-92 [51]
Flag of the United States.svg San Antonio Riders 201190.55001991-92 [51]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Scottish Claymores 10043570.43011995-2004 [51]

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 Eskenazi, Gerald (July 20, 1989). "Global N.F.L. Game Plan: New League, New Lands". The New York Times . Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  2. 1 2 "Passport expires: NFL Europa folds after 16 years". ESPN.com . June 29, 2007. Archived from the original on October 16, 2018. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Maher, Tod (1992). "Origins of the WLAF" (PDF). The Coffin Corner. Pro Football Researchers Association. 14 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 18, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  4. 1 2 3 Ford, Mark L.; Foglio, Massimo (2005). "The First 'NFL Europe'" (PDF). The Coffin Corner. Pro Football Researchers Association. 27 (6). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 8, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  5. "World League To Get TV Money". The Seattle Times . February 6, 1990. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  6. 1 2 "NFL Europe League Chronology". NFL.com . Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  7. Bricker, Charles (October 12, 1990). "Fired Schramm: NFL Narrowed Its View Of The World". Sun-Sentinel . Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  8. "WLAF Will Succeed With Tight Rein on Dollar, League President Believes". The Los Angeles Times . February 13, 1991. Archived from the original on May 28, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  9. Thomas, George (May 5, 1991). "W.L.A.F. Seasoning in the Sun". The New York Times . Archived from the original on May 28, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  10. 1 2 Reilly, Rick (June 17, 1991). "One To Remember". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  11. Eskenazi, Gerald (March 24, 1991). "Live From Barcelona: W.L.A.F.'s Kickoff on TV". The New York Times . Archived from the original on May 28, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  12. "Scoreboard". The Item . May 28, 1991. pp. 4B. Archived from the original on June 14, 2022. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  13. Smith, Timothy W. (August 25, 1991). "Initials For W.L.A.F. May Soon Be R.I.P." The New York Times . Archived from the original on May 28, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  14. 1 2 3 Eskenazi, Gerald (March 21, 1992). "It's Baaack! World League Set to Begin Second Season". The New York Times . Archived from the original on April 11, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  15. Cress, Doug (April 4, 1995). "The New World League: Retooled, and Ready to Start Saturday". The New York Times . Archived from the original on August 11, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  16. 1 2 O'Hagan, Simon (March 26, 1995). "Monarchs seek to rule the world". The Independent . Archived from the original on May 27, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  17. Halling, Nick (December 13, 1996). "London Monarchs to play World League matches at Stamford Bridge". The Independent. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  18. Weaver, Paul (October 24, 2007). "British Dolphin pursues long journey to top". The Guardian . Archived from the original on August 11, 2019. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  19. Wade, Stephen (April 10, 2002). "NFL Europe Begins 10th Season". Midland Daily News . Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  20. "Bicknell joins Claymores". BBC Sport. October 28, 2003. Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  21. "Barcelona disbands NFL Europe franchise". United Press International. October 28, 2003. Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  22. 1 2 3 "Axe falls on Scottish Claymores as league drop team 11,000 crowds not enough". The Herald . October 21, 2004. Archived from the original on September 29, 2022. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
  23. Tzortzis, Andreas. "Germany Embraces the 'Other' Football". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  24. "Welcome to NFL Europa". NFL Europe. November 10, 2006. Archived from the original on November 15, 2006. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  25. 1 2 3 Seifert, Kevin (June 23, 2017). "Ranking QBs who benefited from NFL Europe". ESPN.com . Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  26. 1 2 3 Pasquarelli, Len (June 29, 2007). "NFL Europa failed to produce players, profits". ESPN.com . Archived from the original on May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  27. Bouchette, Ed (May 16, 2005). "Will NFL Europe survive? It's a developing situation". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette . Archived from the original on August 8, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  28. 1 2 Sandomir, Richard (June 30, 2007). "N.F.L. Pulls the Plug on Its League in Europe". The New York Times . Archived from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  29. Markovits, Andrei S.; Rensmann, Lars (2013). Gaming the World: How Sports Are Reshaping Global Politics and Culture. Princeton University Press. p. 97-98. ISBN   9780691162034. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  30. Gold, Jon (June 23, 2017). "10 years after NFL Europe's demise, alumni remember league fondly". ESPN.com . Archived from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  31. Keeler, Sean (June 23, 2016). "'You didn't play to get rich': what killed NFL Europe?". The Guardian . Archived from the original on July 24, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  32. McClymont, Michael. "6 takeaways from Goodell's state of the league press conference". theScore.com. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  33. Barrabi, Thomas (October 12, 2018). "NFL 'nearer than ever' to permanent London team, exec says". Fox Business. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  34. Margolis, Jason (February 1, 2019). "Many international fans of American football are 'born' on Super Bowl Sunday". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  35. Breer, Albert. "Game Plan: London is ready for NFL team; 2022 a target". Sports Illustrated . Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  36. "NFL requesting proposals for future regular-season games in Germany". NFL. June 9, 2021. Archived from the original on August 10, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  37. Battista, Judy (May 4, 2022). "Tom Brady will take international stage in NFL's regular-season debut in Germany". NFL.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  38. "Frankfurt Galaxy vor Auferstehung". Hessischer Rundfunk (in German). Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  39. "Chronik Frankfurt Universe". Frankfurt Universe (in German). Archived from the original on March 18, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  40. "Neues Hamburger Footballteam spielt im Stadion Hoheluft". Hamburger Abendblatt (in German). February 17, 2021. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  41. Leinweber, Lorenz (March 9, 2021). "European League of Football agrees to cooperation with the NFL". Sports Illustrated . Archived from the original on September 23, 2022. Retrieved September 23, 2022.
  42. D'Andrea, Christian (February 9, 2022). "Why the NFL playing games in Germany makes too much sense for the league". USA Today . Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  43. 1 2 "NFL Europe League kicks off Saturday". Hattiesburg American . Associated Press. April 3, 1998. p. 18. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  44. "NFL Europe". NFL Europe. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  45. "Dragons Make WLAF Playoffs". Los Angeles Times . May 28, 1991. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  46. 1 2 "A rookie's guide to the World League -- the NFL's Spring League". WorldLeague.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 1997. Retrieved August 14, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  47. 1 2 "NFL Europe League Explanations". NFL Europe. Archived from the original on November 22, 1999. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  48. Gonsalves, Rick (2014). Placekicking in the NFL: A History and Analysis. McFarland & Company. p. 277. ISBN   978-0-7864-4879-1. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  49. "All Tied Up". NFL Europe. April 1, 2006. Archived from the original on November 15, 2006. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  50. Andrews, Edmund L. (June 27, 1999). "Selling the Other Football To the Europeans". The New York Times . Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  51. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 "NFL Europe/World League of American Football". The Football Database. Archived from the original on July 11, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  52. DeLessio, Joe (January 22, 2014). "What to Call Sports Teams That Play in Northern New Jersey: An Awkward History". New York . Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  53. Oller, Rob (September 9, 2014). "Football: Hard to believe, but Glory days are 20 years gone". The Columbus Dispatch . Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  54. "50 things to know as N.C. State's Carter-Finley Stadium turns 50". News and Record . September 21, 2016. Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  55. Gold, Jon (June 23, 2017). "10 years after NFL Europe's demise, alumni remember league fondly". ESPN.com . Archived from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  56. Balf, Celia (October 23, 2015). "Kurt Warner, Jake Delhomme found their way in Europe before NFL success". Yahoo! Sports . Archived from the original on September 29, 2022. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
  57. Reilly, Rick (June 17, 1991). "One to Remember". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  58. La Roche, Julie (September 18, 2015). "The 46 best football players on Wall Street". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  59. "Galaxy's Galloway honored". NFL Europe. April 12, 2005. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  60. 1 2 "Honors announced". NFL Europe. Archived from the original on November 24, 2006. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  61. "Fire's Brantley earns WLAF Honor". Montgomery Advertiser . June 1, 1991. p. 2B. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  62. "Sports digest". The Cincinnati Enquirer . May 30, 1991. p. C-2. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  63. "Surge nudge Dragons in semis". Dayton Daily News . June 1, 1992. p. 3C. Archived from the original on September 29, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  64. Woods, Mark (May 29, 1992). "World League picks Thunder coach as best". Florida Today . p. C. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  65. Thomas, Jim (May 31, 1992). "Keeping Up With Jones". St. Louis Post-Dispatch . Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  66. "Sports". Pharos Tribune . August 20, 1995. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  67. "Yello Strom World Bowl XIV preview". OurSports Central. May 22, 2006. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  68. "Around the NFL". Washington Post . Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  69. "1997 All-World League team". World League. June 20, 1997. Archived from the original on July 9, 1997. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  70. Maynard, John (June 12, 1988). "NFL Europe MVPs". The Tennessean . p. 31. Archived from the original on September 29, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  71. "Galaxy-Coach Dick Curl ist "Trainer des Jahres"" (in German). June 25, 1999. Archived from the original on September 26, 2019. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  72. "Claymores scoop awards". NFL Europe. June 22, 2002. Archived from the original on November 24, 2006. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  73. "Stars of 2001 rewarded". NFL Europe. June 28, 2001. Archived from the original on November 23, 2006.
  74. "Stars of 2002 rewarded". June 20, 2002. Archived from the original on November 24, 2006. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  75. "NFLE Honors 2003's Top Players". OurSports Central. June 12, 2003. Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  76. "All League team revealed". NFL Europe. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2005.
  77. "Former TSU Football State Mike Jones NFL Europe Coach of the Year". Tennessee State University Tigers. June 1, 2006. Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  78. "Honors handed out". NFL Europe. Archived from the original on June 26, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  79. 1 2 Dufresne, Chris (May 21, 1991). "Europe Takes to WLAF, but Will It Catch On Here?". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  80. Smith, Timothy W. (May 7, 1992). "World League vs. N.F.L., In a Board Room, That Is". The New York Times . Archived from the original on May 27, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  81. Deacon, James (April 15, 1991). "Football in spring". Maclean's . Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  82. 1 2 3 Eichel, Larry (June 8, 1991). "In Europe, WLAF's Game Was More Than Football". The Philadelphia Inquirer . Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  83. 1 2 3 4 5 Halling, Nick (June 19, 1995). "WLAF to build on a fitting finale". The Independent . Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
  84. 1 2 3 4 5 Halling, Nick (April 13, 1996). "Three-pronged attack in quest for credibility". The Independent . Archived from the original on May 28, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  85. Kepner, Tyler (June 22, 1997). "In Another World, the WLAF's No Longer Young or Restless". Washington Post . Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  86. Marvel, Alex (April 21, 2001). "Too Much Football". Sun-Sentinel . Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  87. "NFL Network To Air 22 NFL Europe Games". Green Bay Packers . March 18, 2004. Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  88. "All 31 NFL Europe League Games To Air On NFL Network In 2006". Green Bay Packers . March 5, 2006. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  89. "1991 WLAF Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  90. "1992 WLAF Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  91. "1995 WLAF Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  92. "1996 WLAF Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  93. "1997 WLAF Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  94. "1998 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  95. "1999 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  96. "2000 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  97. "2001 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  98. "2002 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  99. "2003 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  100. "2004 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  101. "2005 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  102. "2006 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  103. "2007 NFL Europe Season". The Football Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Football League</span> Professional American football league

The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league that consists of 32 teams, divided equally between the American Football Conference (AFC) and the National Football Conference (NFC). The NFL is one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada and the highest professional level of American football in the world. Each NFL season begins with a three-week preseason in August, followed by the 18-week regular season which runs from early September to early January, with each team playing 17 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament that culminates in the Super Bowl, which is contested in February and is played between the AFC and NFC conference champions. The league is headquartered in New York City.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scottish Claymores</span> American football team in Scotland

The Scottish Claymores were an American football team based in Scotland. The franchise played in the World League of American Football between 1995 and 2004, initially playing all home games at Murrayfield Stadium, Edinburgh and latterly sharing home games with Hampden Park, Glasgow. In ten seasons of NFL Europe play, the Claymores reached the World Bowl on two occasions, with victory in World Bowl '96 but defeat in World Bowl 2000. Their name derives from that of the Claymore, a double-edged sword historically used in Scottish clan warfare. One notable player was Gavin Hastings, a Scottish rugby international who was used as a place kicker in 1996.

The London Monarchs were a professional American football team in NFL Europe and its predecessor league, the World League of American Football (WLAF). The Monarchs played their final season in 1998 as the England Monarchs. In 1999, they were replaced by the new Berlin Thunder.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frankfurt Galaxy (NFL Europe)</span> Sports club

The Frankfurt Galaxy were a professional American football team that originally played in the World League of American Football and later in the resurrected NFL Europe. The team was based in Frankfurt, Germany and played in the Commerzbank-Arena, formerly called Waldstadion. The Galaxy was the only team in the league to have remained in operation and in the same city throughout the league's existence.

The World Bowl was the annual American football championship game of the World League of American Football/NFL Europe. The World Bowl was played each year from 1991 to 2007.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Montreal Machine</span> World League of American Football team

The Montreal Machine were the sole Canadian team in the World League of American Football (WLAF), a springtime developmental professional league set up by the National Football League (NFL) that played in 1991 and 1992. There were also three European teams and six North America-based teams. Like all WLAF teams, the Machine played American rules football, 11 players per side on a 120-yard field, rather than Canadian rules football of 12 players per side on 150-yard field.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Birmingham Fire</span> World League of American Football team

The Birmingham Fire were a professional American football team based in Birmingham, Alabama. They were a member of the North American West division of the World League of American Football (WLAF) and played their home games at Legion Field. The club was a charter member of the WLAF, and was under the ownership of Gavin Maloof. Led by head coach Chan Gailey, the Fire saw moderate success as they compiled an overall record of twelve wins, nine losses and one tie (12–9–1) and made the playoffs in both seasons they competed. The franchise folded in September 1992 when the NFL placed the league on an indefinite hiatus.

Stanley Morris Gelbaugh is a former American football quarterback in the National Football League for the Buffalo Bills, Phoenix Cardinals and Seattle Seahawks. He attained his greatest success in the World League of American Football with the London Monarchs, where he was the league's Offensive Most Valuable Player in its inaugural season. He played college football at the University of Maryland.

The 1991 Barcelona Dragons season was the inaugural season for the franchise in the newly created World League of American Football (WLAF). The team was led by head coach Jack Bicknell, and played its home games at Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. They finished the regular season in second place of the European Division with a record of eight wins and two losses. In the postseason, the Dragons beat the Birmingham Fire in the semifinals before losing to the London Monarchs in World Bowl '91.

Lawrence W. Kennan is an American football coach and former player. Kennan was most recently the head football coach for the University of the Incarnate Word from 2012 to 2017. He was also the head coach at Lamar University from 1979 to 1981 and for the London Monarchs of the World League of American Football (WLAF) in 1991. Kennan served as the executive director of the NFL Coaches Association from 1998 until 2011.

The 1998 Rhein Fire season was the fourth season for the franchise in the NFL Europe League (NFLEL). The team was led by head coach Galen Hall in his fourth year, and played its home games at Rheinstadion in Düsseldorf, Germany. They finished the regular season in second place with a record of seven wins and three losses. Rhein won the first championship in team history by defeating the Frankfurt Galaxy 34–10 in World Bowl '98.

The 1997 London Monarchs season was the fifth season for the franchise in the World League of American Football (WLAF). The team was led by head coach Lionel Taylor in his second year, and played its home games at Stamford Bridge in London, England. They finished the regular season in sixth place with a record of four wins and six losses.

The 1995 London Monarchs season was the third season for the franchise in the World League of American Football (WLAF). The team was led by head coach Bobby Hammond in his first year, and played its home games at White Hart Lane in London, England. They finished the regular season in fourth place with a record of four wins and six losses.

The 1991 WLAF season was the inaugural season of the World League of American Football and was the first transatlantic sports league. The regular season began on March 23, and concluded on May 27. The postseason ran from June 1 until June 9, when the London Monarchs defeated the Barcelona Dragons 21–0 in World Bowl '91 at Wembley Stadium in London, England.

The Frankfurter Löwen were an American football team from Frankfurt, Germany.

Rollin William Putzier was an American football player. He played defensive tackle in the National Football League, and was selected by the Green Bay Packers in the fourth round of the 1988 NFL Draft. He was also a member of the Pittsburgh Steelers and San Francisco 49ers, winning Super Bowl XXIV with the 49ers, and played in the World League of American Football with the Montreal Machine and London Monarchs.

The sport of American football is played in the United Kingdom in domestic and international levels. Domestic games in England. Scotland and Wales are operated by British American Football Association who run the BAFA National Leagues for Adult Contact football and British Universities American Football League for the University contact game. Games in Northern Ireland are structured by American Football Ireland who are based in the Republic of Ireland. The UK has played host to games in association with the Americans' National Football League (NFL), including four regular-season NFL games, as of 2021.

The 1995 World League of American Football season was the third season of the professional American football league organized by the NFL. It was the league's first season with six teams based only in Europe.

The 1997 World League of American Football season was the fifth campaign of the WLAF professional American football league, and the third under its six-team Europe-only format. World Bowl '97 was won by the Barcelona Dragons, whose quarterback was Jon Kitna, then on the roster of the Seattle Seahawks in the NFL.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potential London NFL franchise</span> Hypothetical American football team based in London

A potential London NFL franchise is a hypothetical National Football League (NFL) American football team based in London, England, formed as a new expansion team or by relocating one of the existing 32 NFL teams currently based in the United States. Should the league establish a team in London, it would become the first of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada to establish a franchise outside either of those two countries.