Rugby football

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Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union, but generally refers to rugby union due to its popularity throughout the globe. [1] [2] [3]

Team sport sport in which a group of players work together

A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, volleyball, rugby, water polo, handball, lacrosse, cricket, baseball, wrestling and the various forms of football and hockey.

Rugby league Team sport

Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players. Its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators.

Rugby union Team sport, code of rugby football

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end.

Contents

Legend claims that rugby football was started about 1845 in Rugby School, Rugby, Warwickshire, England, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby eventually split into two sports in 1895 when twenty-one amateur clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU)/Northern Union (later to be named rugby league in 1922) in the George Hotel, Huddersfield, Northern England over broken-time payments to players who took time off work to play the sport, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay players. It was 100 years later in 1995, following the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa that rugby union would turn fully professional. [4] [5] Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby (rugby union) and the Rugby League International Federation (rugby league). Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. [6] [7] Although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football.

Rugby School independent school in the United Kingdom

Rugby School is a day and mostly boarding co-educational independent school in Rugby, Warwickshire, England. Founded in 1567 as a free grammar school for local boys, it is one of the oldest independent schools in Britain. Up to 1667, the school remained in comparative obscurity. Its re-establishment by Thomas Arnold during his time as Headmaster, from 1828 to 1841, was seen as the forerunner of the Victorian public school. It is one of the original seven Great Nine Public Schools defined by the Clarendon Commission of 1864. Rugby School was also the birthplace of Rugby football. In 1845, a committee of Rugby schoolboys wrote the "Laws of Football as Played At Rugby School", the first published set of laws for any code of football.

Rugby, Warwickshire market town in Warwickshire, England, UK

Rugby is a market town in Warwickshire, England, close to the River Avon. The town has a population of 70,628 (2011 census) making it the second largest town in the county. The town is the main settlement within the larger Borough of Rugby which has a population of 100,500.

Amateur sports Sport played by non professionals

Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration. The distinction is made between amateur sporting participants and professional sporting participants, who are paid for the time they spend competing and training. In the majority of sports which feature professional players, the professionals will participate at a higher standard of play than amateur competitors, as they can train full-time without the stress of having another job. The majority of worldwide sporting participants are amateurs.

Forms

Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only. Soon the rules of rugby league were modified, resulting in two distinctly different forms of rugby. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an openly professional sport. [8]

Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations or teams can command large incomes. As a result, more sportspeople can afford to make athleticism their primary career, devoting the training time necessary to increase skills, physical condition, and experience to modern levels of achievement. This proficiency has also helped boost the popularity of sports.

The Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby 7s. In this form of the game, each team has 7 players on the field at one time playing 7 minute halves. The rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. [9]

History

Ancient Ball Games

Ancient Greek episkyros player on an Attic lekythos Ancient Greek Football Player.jpg
Ancient Greek episkyros player on an Attic lekythos

The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" ( Episkyros ) [10] [11] or "φαινίνδα" (phaininda), [12] which is mentioned by a Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388–311 BC) and later referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria (c.150-c.215 AD). These games appear to have resembled rugby football. [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] The Roman politician Cicero (106–42 BC) describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis. [18] [19] Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. [20]

Ancient Greece Civilization belonging to an early period of Greek history

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

<i>Harpastum</i> ball game played in the Roman Empire

Harpastum, also known as harpustum, was a form of ball game played in the Roman Empire. The Romans also referred to it as the small ball game. The ball used was small and hard, probably about the size and solidity of a softball. The word harpastum is the latinisation of the Greek ἁρπαστόν (harpaston), the neuter of ἁρπαστός (harpastos), "carried away", from the verb ἁρπάζω (harpazo), "to seize, to snatch".

Establishment of modern rugby

In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union (RFU). In 1892, after charges of professionalism (compensation of team members) were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union, usually called the Northern Union (NU), was formed. [21] The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs, players, and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". [22]

Rugby Football Union rugby union governing body of England, Guernsey and the Isle of Man

The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the governing body for rugby union in England. It was founded in 1871, and was the sport's international governing body prior to the formation of what is now known as World Rugby (WR) in 1886. It promotes and runs the sport, organises international matches for the England national team, and educates and trains players and officials.

Rugby Football League governing body for professional rugby league football in England

The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England. The name Rugby Football League previously also referred to the main league competition run by the organisation. This has since been supplanted by Super League, the Championship and League 1.

DateEvent
1100–1800Many different types of football are played throughout Britain.
1830Running with the ball became common in 1830s at Rugby School and Rugby School football became popular throughout the UK in the 1850s, and 1860s.
1845First written code of rules adopted at Rugby School. [23]
1857The first ever match in Scotland was in December 1857, Edinburgh University vs Edinburgh Academicals
1861The Montevideo Cricket Club is founded in Montevideo, Uruguay. The first club to play rugby outside the British Islands.
1863 The Football Association (FA) is formed, formalising the schism between association football and rugby football.
1864The first rugby clubs are formed, followed by hundreds more in Cumberland, Lancashire and Yorkshire in the 1870s, and 1880s.
1865The British Army plays a game of rugby against civilians in Montreal, introducing rugby to the country. This movement would later evolve into Canadian football.
1871The Rugby Football Union is founded, following a meeting of 25 clubs at the Pall Mall restaurant.
1871 First recognised international rugby match, played between England and Scotland.
1876 Matthew Bloxam's letter is published in The Meteor. It claims William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School, picked up the ball and invented rugby. Although a Rugby Football Union inquiry in 1895 found no actual proof, it decided to perpetuate the myth.[ citation needed ]
1877The number of players is reduced from 20 to 15 a side.
1880English Rugby rules required for a tackled player, when the ball was "fairly held", to put the ball down immediately for scrummage.

Walter Camp proposed at the US College Football 1880 rules convention that the contested scrummage be replaced with a "line of scrimmage" where the team with the ball started with uncontested possession. This change effectively started the evolution of the modern game of American football away from its rugby origins.

1883 First Home Nations Championship between England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
1886Concerned at the growing dominance of the largely working-class northern clubs, the Rugby Football Union introduces strict amateur rules: no one was allowed to seek or receive payment or other material reward for taking part in the game.
1888 New Zealand Native football team tours Britain, Australia and New Zealand in 1888 and 1889.
1890Modern points scoring is uniformly accepted by the Home Nations for the 1890–91 season.
1892Charges of professionalism are laid against rugby football clubs in Bradford and Leeds, after they compensated players for missing work. This was despite the fact that the Rugby Football Union (RFU) was allowing other players to be paid, such as the 1888 British Isles team that toured Australasia, and the account of Harry Hamill of his payments to represent New South Wales (NSW) against England in 1904.
1893Yorkshire clubs propose allowing players to be paid six shillings ‘broken-time’ payments when they miss work due to matches. RFU votes down proposal. Widespread suspensions of northern clubs and players begin.
1895 The Schism in rugby football results in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU). Many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged, threat of expulsion from the RFU if clubs cannot prove their amateurism, and the banning of "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Twenty-two clubs met at the George Hotel, Huddersfield and formed the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the Northern Union.
1897To make the game more exciting, the Northern Union abolishes the line-out and reduces value of all goals to two points. Line outs were replaced with punting the ball back into play from the touch-line. Tries worth three points.
1897The Challenge Cup is established and proves a success from the start. Batley became the first winners, beating Saint Helens 10–3.
1898Professionalism is introduced in the Northern Union. The professionalism is strictly part-time, with players obliged to have other "proper" jobs.
1900Rugby union features at the 1900 Olympics. It finishes in the 1924 Olympics.
1901The experiment in the Northern Union with the punt-out ends after only four years. In future, play will be restarted with a scrum after the ball goes out of play
1904First rugby league international match. England lose to Other Nationalities 3–9, at Wigan.
1905Wales narrowly beat The Original All Blacks, in what was dubbed as "The Game of the Century".
1906England play South Africa (known as the Springboks) in rugby union for the first time. James Peters is withdrawn from the England squad after the South Africans objected to playing against a black player.
1906James Peters becomes the first black person to play rugby union for England, against Scotland.
1906In the Northern Union the number of players is reduced from fifteen to thirteen a side, in order to allow more room for creative play. The early form of play-the-ball is introduced as the game's way of restarting play after a tackle.
1907 A New Zealand professional rugby team tours Britain. Albert Henry Baskerville, a Post Office clerk in New Zealand, organises a touring side branded the ‘All Golds’ in Sydney due to the players receiving a share of any profits from the tour. They play under rugby union rules in Sydney. On their way to Britain, Australia's greatest player, Dally Messenger, joins them on tour. They win the game's first test series 2–1, but Baskerville dies of pneumonia on the way home at the age of 25.
1907Rugby league spreads to Australia and New Zealand. The New South Wales Rugby Football League is founded at Bateman's Hotel in Sydney. The New South Wales Rugby League sets up an eight-team competition after a row with the New South Wales Rugby Union over compensation for injured players. The first Premiership is won by South Sydney. Rugby league goes on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland.
1908 The first Australian Kangaroo tourists visit Britain. Hunslet become the first club to win all four trophies available to them; the Championship, the Challenge Cup, the Yorkshire Cup and the Yorkshire League. Hunslet were led by Albert Goldthorpe, a dominant figure in the early years of the code.
1910The Rugby Union Home Nations Championship becomes the Five Nations Championship when France joins.
1910 The first Northern Union British Lions tour Australia and New Zealand, winning the test matches in Sydney, Brisbane and Auckland.
1912 South African rugby union tour of the British Isles and France. The tourists achieved a "Grand Slam" of victories over all five major European teams, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and France.
1914 British tourists defeat Australia 14–6 to win Ashes in final test, finishing with only ten men in what becomes known as ‘Rorke’s Drift’ Test match. Proposals are made and preliminary steps taken in Australia to amalgamate the rules of rugby league with Australian rules football – Australia's dominant football code outside New South Wales and Queensland – to form a universal football code for the country, [24] but efforts to that end subside as World War I escalates, [25] and are never seriously revived.
1922Northern Union changes its name to the Rugby Football League, the name used for the sport in Australia.
1925 All Blacks Rugby Union tour of Britain, France, and Canada. The New Zealanders remained undefeated throughout the tour, earning the title "The Invincibles".
1929First rugby league Challenge Cup Final is played at Wembley. Wigan defeat Dewsbury 13–2 in front of 41,500.
1930Rugby union's European Cup starts, outside the Five Nations. It is interrupted by WWII.
1930Unprecedented fourth rugby league test match played between Britain and Australia at Rochdale after third test is drawn 0–0. Britain win the test 3–0 to take the Ashes.
1932First rugby league match under floodlights.
1933On New Year's Eve, England and Australia play in Paris — the first game of rugby league in France. The French had been excluded from the rugby union Five Nations competition amid allegations of professionalism, so the country was receptive to the new game.
1934Rugby league is established in France by Jean Galia, a former rugby union international and champion boxer. By 1939, the French league has 225 clubs.
1941The French Vichy government bans rugby league, because of its links with the Allies and a desire to ban all professional sports. The code's funds and property are all confiscated or passed to rugby union clubs. Rugby union is allowed to carry on unscathed and regains much of the ground it had lost to rugby league. To this day, the rugby league clubs' assets have never been returned to them.[ citation needed ]
1943A Northern Command army rugby league side defeats a Northern Command rugby union side 18–11 at Headingley playing rugby union rules. The following year a Combined Services rugby league side beats a Combined Services rugby union side 15–10. These are the only league vs union matches played until 1996.
1944With the fall of the Vichy Government, the French ban on rugby league is lifted.
1945 Brian Bevan makes his rugby league debut for Warrington. Over the next 16 seasons he scored 740 tries for the club in 620 games. His career total was 796, more than 200 ahead of his nearest rival.
1946The Lance Todd Trophy first presented to Challenge Cup final Man of the match. Wakefield's Billy Stott is first winner. Lance Todd, killed in a car accident in 1942, was a 1907 New Zealand tourist who managed Salford from 1928–40.
1946The most famous rugby league tour of all,[ citation needed ] as the Lions sail to Australia on HMS Indomitable, stoking the boilers to keep fit. After a five-day train journey across Australia, Gus Risman’s team retain the Ashes, drawing one and winning two Tests.
1949The French Rugby League is banned from using ‘rugby’ in its name. Changes its name to Jeu à Treize (Game of Thirteen).
1951The South American Rugby Championship commences.
1951The South African Rugby Union tour the British Isles and France. South Africa achieved a second five-nation Grand Slam.
1951Just a decade after being wound up, France win their first rugby league series in Australia. They repeat the feat by winning again in 1955.
1951Rugby league's Cec Thompson becomes the first black player to represent Great Britain in any sport.
1952Rugby union's European Cup restarts.
1954102,569 spectators watch the 1953–54 rugby league Challenge Cup final at Bradford, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code.
1954First Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, staged in France. Great Britain beat France 16–12 in final at Parc des Princes, Paris.
1956Springboks' rugby union tour of New Zealand. South Africa suffer their first ever test series loss against New Zealand.
1957Australia wins the Rugby League World Cup.
1958Rugby league's Cec Thompson becomes the first black manager of any sport in Britain.
1958Great Britain defeat Australia 25–18 in the second rugby league test match with only eight fit players on the pitch. Alan Prescott plays for 77 minutes with a broken arm.
1960Great Britain wins the Rugby League World Cup. The tournament is decided on a league system.
1964Substitutes allowed in rugby league for the first time, but only for players injured before half-time.
1966The Rugby League International Board introduces a rule that a team in possession is allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum is to be formed. The Southern hemisphere adopts the rule the following year, but it becomes six-tackle rugby in 1972, and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967Professional rugby league adopts Sunday as its main match day, in a bid to reverse declining attendances.
1968Substitutes allowed in rugby union for the first time, but only for injured players.
1969Springbok rugby union tour to Britain and Ireland. The tour is marked by protests against apartheid; South Africa would not tour the Home Nations again until after the end of apartheid.
1969Rugby league finally gains recognition as a sport in British universities and colleges.
1970Great Britain wins rugby league's Ashes in Australia, after winning the final two test matches.
1970Rugby league's World Cup attracts poor crowds in England. Australia win.
1971New Zealand wins a rugby league series in Britain for the first time since the original 1907–08 tour.
1971Lions rugby union tour of Australia and New Zealand. This is the only Lions team to have won a test series in New Zealand.
1971Springbok rugby union tour of Australia is marked by protests.
1972Timekeepers and sirens were introduced into rugby league for first time.
1972Great Britain regains the Rugby League World Cup in France.
1973Rugby union's Barbarians defeat the All Blacks at Cardiff Arms Park.
1973The British Amateur Rugby League Association sets itself up to run the sport at grassroots level after complaining of neglect by the RFL. Formal re-unification takes 30 years.
1974Rugby union's Lions tour of South Africa. The notorious '99' call.
1975Wales and England field separate teams in the Rugby League World Cup, played over several months in both hemispheres. Australia takes the trophy by finishing one point ahead of England in the final league table.
1976New Zealand rugby union tour of South Africa. Twenty-eight nations boycott the 1976 Summer Olympics in protest against the International Olympic Committee's refusal to ban New Zealand from the games for defying the IOC's ban on sporting contact with South Africa.
1978New Zealand rugby union tour of Britain and Ireland – New Zealand completes Grand Slam of victories over England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales for the first time.
1980Australia establishes rugby league's State of Origin series, where Queensland and New South Wales born players face each other. From 1982 onwards, it is played as a three match series and is recognised as the fiercest, toughest rugby in the world.[ citation needed ]
1981The ‘Sin Bin’ is introduced into rugby league, in Australia.
1981Springbok rugby union tour of New Zealand.
1981South Africa is banned by the International Rugby Board from international competition until such time as apartheid ended.
1982Rugby union's Pacific Tri-Nations between Tonga, Fiji and Samoa.
1982Australian rugby league tourists win all tour games for first time and become known as 'The Invincibles'.
1983A rugby league try is increased to four points. The character of the game changes further with the introduction of the turn-over possession on the sixth tackle, drastically reducing the number of scrums. The Sin Bin is introduced for offences that do not merit a sending off.
1983The Rugby League international transfer ban is lifted.
1984Australia rugby union tour of Britain and Ireland — Australia completes the Grand Slam of victories over England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales for the first time.
1987 New Zealand Rugby Union defeats France 29–9 in the first Rugby Union World Cup, held in New Zealand and Australia.
1987A "free gangway" between the two codes of rugby at amateur level is introduced, but individual cases of discrimination continues.
1987The RFU introduces the Courage Leagues into Rugby Union — a league pyramid with roughly 1000 clubs playing in 108 leagues each with promotion and relegation.
1988Rugby league's Wigan start their run of eight Challenge Cup final victories. The modern version of the Team of All the Talents, featuring players like Ellery Hanley, Andy Gregory, Jason Robinson and Shaun Edwards dominate for a decade, winning three World Cup titles in the process.
1989Widnes beat Canberra 30–18 in first official World Club Challenge.
1990Russia takes up rugby league. Russia goes on to appear in the 2000 World Cup and to enter club sides in the Challenge Cup.
1990 Blood-bin introduced into rugby league.
1990The ban on French Rugby League using ‘rugby’ in its name is lifted. It changes its name back to Rugby à Treize.
1991Australia defeat England 12–6 at Twickenham, London, in the second Rugby Union World Cup, held in the British Isles and France.
1992The Springboks are readmitted to international rugby union.
199273,631 at Wembley see Australia defeat Great Britain 10–6 in the Rugby League World Cup final.
1994 David Hinchliffe MP introduces the Sports (Discrimination) Bill, to ban discrimination of amateur players of rugby league and other sports.
1994The three British Armed Services recognises rugby league as a sport. Rugby league would be on the same footing as other sports in the Services.
1995The International Rugby Board declares Rugby Union an 'open' professional game. It removes all restrictions on payments or benefits to those connected with the game.
1995South Africa defeats New Zealand 15–12 (after extra time) at Ellis Park, Johannesburg in the third Rugby Union World Cup, held in South Africa.
1995Rugby League centenary is celebrated by reviving the World Cup in Britain. Australia beat England 16–8 in the final at Wembley. Fiji, Tonga, South Africa and Western Samoa join the established nations in a successful tournament, whilst Ireland, Scotland, the US, Russia, the Cook Islands, Moldova and Morocco all compete in an Emerging Nations Tournament.
1995The Heineken Cup is formed as a competition for 12 Rugby Union European clubs.
1995As part of the struggle for television rights in Australia, the RFL in Britain is offered £87 million by News Corporation to set up rugby league's Super League. The game agrees to switch to a summer season, with Paris St Germain joining leading British clubs in a 14 team competition.
1996The RFL introduces video referees into rugby league's Super League.
1996Rugby union's Tri Nations Series begins between Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
1996 Bath Rugby and Wigan, England's top union and league sides respectively, made history by playing against each other at both codes of rugby. The first match was at Maine Road, Manchester under league rules, Wigan beating Bath 82–6; then two weeks later the return match was held at Twickenham under union rules, Bath 44 beating Wigan 19.
1997In Australia, the Super League war came to an end, with News International and the Australian Rugby League agreeing to merge their competitions to create the National Rugby League.
1998 Rugby sevens at the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games commences.
1999 IRB Sevens World Series commences.
1999Australia defeat France 35–12 at the Millennium Stadium, Cardiff in the fourth rugby union World Cup, held in Wales with matches also being played in England, Scotland, Ireland and France.
2000The IRB introduces the ‘Sin Bin’ into international rugby union, after being trialled on the domestic stage within the southern hemisphere's Super 12 competition.
2000The IRB introduces the "Television Match Official" (TMO) into international rugby union, after being trialled on the domestic stage within the southern hemisphere's Super 12 competition.
2000Rugby union's Courage League is replaced by the Zurich Premiership.
2000Rugby union's Five Nations becomes the Six Nations Championship, when Italy joins.
2000New Zealand narrowly defeats Australia at Stadium Australia (Sydney) in rugby union, in front of 109,874 spectators, a world-record crowd for either code.
2001Lions rugby union tour of Australia. The Wallabies defeat the Lions in a series for the first time ever.
2003Rugby union's Churchill Cup commences with Canada, the US, and England Saxons (England "A") as permanent participants and one invited team (later three).
2003England defeat Australia 20–17 (after extra time) at Stadium Australia, Sydney in the fifth Rugby Union World Cup, held in Australia.
2003The Rugby League European Federation (RLEF) is created to promote the sport across Europe.
2006French team Catalans Dragons are granted a rugby league Super League licence.
2007South Africa defeat England 15–6 at Stade de France, in the sixth rugby union World Cup, held in France with matches also being played in Scotland and Wales.
2008Rugby league holds its first World Cup since 2000, with New Zealand defeating Australia in Brisbane by a score of 34–20 in the final to take their first Rugby League World Cup.
2011New Zealand defeat France 8–7 at Eden Park, Auckland, in the seventh rugby union World Cup, held in New Zealand.
201114 teams qualify for the 2013 Rugby League World Cup: Australia, England, New Zealand, Samoa, Wales, Fiji, France, Papua New Guinea, Ireland, Scotland, Tonga, Cook Islands, Italy and United States of America.
2012The Tri-Nations series is expanded to include Argentina, and is renamed The Rugby Championship.
2015New Zealand defeat Australia 34–17 at Twickenham Stadium, England, in the eighth rugby union World Cup, held in the United Kingdom. In doing so, New Zealand becomes the first team to win consecutive titles.
2016Inaugural season of PRO Rugby in the United States. The competition folded after just one season.
2016 Rugby sevens at the Olympic Games commences.
2017 Toronto Wolfpack become the first fully professional rugby team in Canada, joining the British/French professional rugby league system in the third tier League 1.
2018Inaugural season of Major League Rugby, a rugby union competition fielding teams in the United States and Canada.

Global status of rugby codes

Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, and is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Ireland, Wales, England, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, Scotland, Italy and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Fiji, Georgia, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, Kenya, Namibia, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Samoa, Spain, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby (WR), whose headquarters are located in Dublin, Ireland. It is the national sport in New Zealand, Wales, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Georgia and Madagascar, and is the most popular form of rugby globally. [26] The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards. [27] There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. [28]

In Canada and the United States, rugby developed into gridiron football. During the late 1800s (and even the early 1900s), the two forms of the game were very similar (to the point where the United States was able to win the gold medal for rugby union at the 1924 Summer Olympics), but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball immediately upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle (and the allowance of up to 40 seconds to do so), the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment (particularly the football helmet and shoulder pads), a smaller and pointier ball that is favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a generally smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric (in some variants of the American game a field can be as short as 50 yards between end zones), and a distinctive field (shaped like a gridiron, from which the code's nickname is derived) with lines marked in five-yard intervals.

Rugby league is also both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Russia, Lebanon, Serbia, Europe and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia, England and New Zealand. In Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. [29] [30] Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe also play in the Pacific Cup and European Cup respectively.

Rules

A rugby lineout being conducted. A group from either team lifts a player to fight and catch the ball for their team. (OSUWRC 2014) Rugby Lineout.jpg
A rugby lineout being conducted. A group from either team lifts a player to fight and catch the ball for their team. (OSUWRC 2014)
Rugby union: A scrum between the Crusaders and the Brumbies (May 2006) Scrum-1.JPG
Rugby union: A scrum between the Crusaders and the Brumbies (May 2006)

Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its union counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced and more try-oriented game. Another interesting fact about rugby is that, unlike football, the players do not wear any sort of protection or armour.

The main differences between the two games, besides league having teams of 13 players and union of 15, involve the tackle and its aftermath:

Set pieces of the union code include the "scrum", which occurs after a minor infringement of the rules (most often a knock-on, when a player knocks the ball forward), where packs of opposing players push against each other for possession, and the "line-out", in which parallel lines of players from each team, arranged perpendicular to the touch-line, attempt to catch the ball thrown from touch. A rule has been added to line-outs which allows the jumper to be pulled down once a players' feet are on the ground.

In the league code, the scrum still exists, but with greatly reduced importance as it involves fewer players and is rarely contested. Set pieces are generally started from the play-the-ball situation. Many of the rugby league positions have similar names and requirements to rugby union positions, but there are no flankers in rugby league.

Culture

Home countries

In England, rugby union is widely regarded as an "establishment" sport, played mostly by members of the upper and middle classes. For example, many pupils at public schools and grammar schools play rugby union, although the game (which had a long history of being played at state schools until the 1980s) is becoming increasingly popular in comprehensive schools. [31] Despite this stereotype, the game, particularly in the West Country is popular amongst all classes. In contrast, rugby league has traditionally been seen as a working-class pursuit. Another exception to rugby union's upper-class stereotype is in Wales, where it has been traditionally associated with small village teams made up of coal miners and other industrial workers who played on their days off. [32] In Ireland, both rugby union and rugby league are unifying forces across the national and sectarian divide, with the Ireland international teams representing both political entities.

In Australia, support for both codes is concentrated in New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory. The same perceived class barrier as exists between the two games in England also occurs in these states, fostered by rugby union's prominence and support at private schools. [33]

Exceptions to the above include New Zealand (although rugby league is still considered to be a lower class game by many or a game for 'westies' referring to lower class western suburbs of Auckland and more recently, southern Auckland where the game is also popular), Wales, France (except Paris), Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Somerset, Scottish Borders, County Limerick (see Munster) and the Pacific Islands, where rugby union is popular in working class communities. Nevertheless, rugby league is perceived as the game of the working-class people in northern England [34] and in the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland. [33]

In the United Kingdom, rugby union fans sometimes used the term "rugger" as an alternative name for the sport, (see Oxford '-er'), although this archaic expression has not had currency since the 1950s or earlier. [35] New Zealanders refer to rugby union simply as either "rugby" or "union", or even simply "football", and to rugby league as "rugby league" or "league". [36] In the U.S., people who play rugby are sometimes called "ruggers", a term little used elsewhere except facetiously.

Internationally

In France, rugby is widely played and has a strong tradition in the Basque, Occitan and Catalan areas along the border regions between Spain and France. The game is very popular in South Africa, having been introduced by English-speaking settlers in the 19th century. British colonists also brought the game with them to Australia and New Zealand, where the game is widely played. It has spread thence to much of Polynesia, having particularly strong followings in Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga. Rugby union continues to grow in the Americas and parts of Asia as well.

Injuries

About a quarter of rugby players are injured in each season.

Rugby ball

A Gilbert rugby football as used in rugby union Rugbyball2.jpg
A Gilbert rugby football as used in rugby union

A rugby ball, originally called a quanco, is a diamond shape ball used for easier passing. Richard Lindon and Bernardo Solano started making balls for Rugby school out of hand stitched, four-panel, leather casings and pigs’ bladders. The rugby ball's distinctive shape is supposedly due to the pig's bladder, although early balls were more plumb-shape than oval. The balls varied in size in the beginning depending upon how large the pig's bladder was.

In rugby union, World Rugby regulates the size and shape of the ball under Law 2 (also known as Law E.R.B); an official rugby union ball is oval and made of four panels, has a length in-line of 280–300 millimetres, a circumference (end to end) of 740–770 millimetres, and a circumference (in width) of 580–620 millimetres. It is made of leather or suitable synthetic material and may be treated to make it water resistant and easier to grip. The rugby ball may not weigh more than 460 grams or less than 410 and has an air pressure of 65.71–68.75 kilopascals, or 0.67–0.70 kilograms per square centimetre, or 9.5–10.0 lbs per square inch. [37] Spare balls are allowed under the condition that players or teams do not seek an advantage by changing the ball. Smaller sized balls may also be used in games between younger players. Much larger versions of traditional balls are also available for purchase, but these are mainly for their novelty attraction.

World Cups

The Rugby World Cup, which was first held in New Zealand and Australia in 1987, occurs every four years. It is an international tournament organized by World Rugby. The event is played in the union format and features the top 20 teams from around the world. The current world champions are New Zealand, who won the 2015 Rugby World Cup, which was played in England.

The Rugby League World Cup was the first World Cup of either of the Rugby codes and was first held in France in 1954, and as of 2013 occurs on a 4-year cycle. It is an international tournament that is organized by the Rugby League International Federation. The event is played in the league format and features the top 14 teams from around the world. The current world champions are Australia, who won the World Cup in 2013, played in England, Wales, France, and Ireland.

Rugby shirt

Rugby shirts were formerly made of cotton but are now made of a cotton and polyester mix. This material has the advantage of not absorbing as much water or mud as cotton alone.[ citation needed ] Owing to the more aggressive nature of the game, rugby clothing, in general, is designed to be much more robust and hardwearing than that worn for association football.

The rugby jerseys are slightly different depending on the type of rugby game played. The shirts worn by rugby league footballers commonly have a large "V" around the neck. The players in rugby union wear jerseys with a more traditional design, sometimes completely white (Cahors Rugby in France). The number of the player and his or her surname are placed on the upper back of the jersey (often name above number, with the number being significantly larger and more central), and the logo of the team on the upper left chest.[ citation needed ]

Rugby betting

With the popularity of rugby over the years, many betting establishments have made it possible for viewers of the game to place wagers on games. The various types of wagers that can be placed on games vary, however, the main types of bets that can be placed are as follows:

Like most team sports, both forms of rugby are vulnerable to match-fixing, particularly bets involving easily manipulated outcomes, such as conceding penalties and first point scorer. A recent example is a deliberate infringement by Ryan Tandy in order for the first points scored to be a penalty goal in a 2010 NRL match; the attempt backfired when instead of taking a shot at goal, a try was scored.

Related Research Articles

Touch is a variant of rugby league that is organised by the Federation of International Touch (FIT).

Rugby sevens ballgame-team sport

Rugby sevens, and originally known as seven-a-side rugby, is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players playing seven minute halves, instead of the usual 15 players playing 40 minute halves. Rugby sevens is administered by World Rugby, the body responsible for rugby union worldwide. The game is popular at all levels, with amateur and club tournaments generally held in the summer months. Sevens is one of the most well distributed forms of rugby, and is popular in parts of Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, and especially in the South Pacific.

History of rugby union

The history of rugby union follows from various football games long before the 19th century, but it was not until the middle of that century that the rules were formulated and codified. The code of football later known as rugby union can be traced to three events: the first set of written rules in 1845, the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871. The code was originally known simply as "rugby football". It was not until a schism in 1895, over the payment of players, which resulted in the formation of the separate code of rugby league, that the name "rugby union" was used to differentiate the original rugby code. For most of its history, rugby was a strictly amateur football code, and the sport's administrators frequently imposed bans and restrictions on players who they viewed as professional. It was not until 1995 that rugby union was declared an "open" game, and thus professionalism was sanctioned by the code's governing body, World Rugby—then known as the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB).

The history of rugby league as a separate form of rugby football goes back to 1895 in Huddersfield, West Riding of Yorkshire when the Northern Rugby Football Union broke away from England's established Rugby Football Union to administer its own separate competition. Similar schisms occurred later in Australia and New Zealand in 1907. Gradually the rugby played in these breakaway competitions evolved into a distinctly separate sport that took its name from the professional leagues that administered it. Rugby league in England went on to set attendance and player payment records and rugby league in Australia became the most watched sport on television. The game also developed a significant place in the culture of France, New Zealand and several other Pacific Island nations, such as Papua New Guinea, where it has become the national sport.

Tag rugby

Tag rugby, or flag rugby, is a non-contact team game in which each player wears a belt that has two velcro tags attached to it, or shorts with velcro patches. The mode of play is based on rugby league with many similarities to touch football, although tag rugby is often deemed as a closer simulation of the full contact codes of rugby than touch. Attacking players attempt to dodge, evade and pass a rugby ball while defenders attempt to prevent them scoring by "tagging" – pulling a velcro attached tag from the ball carrier, rather than a full contact tackle. Tag rugby is used in development and training by both rugby league and rugby union communities.

Touch rugby games derived from rugby football in which players touch, rather than tackle, their opponents

Touch rugby refers to games derived from rugby football in which players do not tackle each other but instead touch their opponents using their hands on any part of the body, clothing, or the ball.

Football (word) the word "football"

The English word football may mean any one of several team sports, depending on the national or regional origin and location of the person using the word. So where English is a first language the unqualified use of the word football is used to refer to the most popular code of football in that region. The sports most frequently referred to as simply football are Association football, American football, Australian rules football, Canadian football, Gaelic football, rugby league football and rugby union football.

Rugby league in England

Rugby league is played across England but is most popular in Northern England, especially Yorkshire and Lancashire where the game originated. These areas are the heartland of rugby league. The sport is also popular in Cumbria where the amateur game is particularly powerful.

Rugby union in England

Rugby union in England is one of the leading professional and recreational team sports. In 1871 the Rugby Football Union, the governing body for rugby union in England, was formed by 21 rugby clubs, and the first international match, which involved England, was played in Scotland. The English national team compete annually in the Six Nations Championship, and are former world champions after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup. The top domestic men's club competition is Premiership Rugby, and English clubs also compete in international competitions such as the European Rugby Champions Cup. The top domestic women's competition is the Premier 15s.

Rugby union in Ireland Third most popular form of football in Ireland, organised on an all-island basis

Rugby union in Ireland is a popular team sport. Rugby union is organised on an all-Ireland basis with one national team, governing body and league for both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Ireland is the third-oldest rugby nation after England and Scotland respectively, and the game was organised there fractionally before in Wales.

Comparison of American football and rugby union

A comparison of American football and rugby union is possible because of the games' shared origins, despite their dissimilarities.

The team sports rugby league and rugby union have shared origins and thus many similarities.

The 1906–07 Northern Rugby Football Union season was the 12th season of rugby league football.

Football Group of related team sports

Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called football in certain places include association football ; gridiron football ; Australian rules football; rugby football ; and Gaelic football. These different variations of football are known as football codes.

A comparison of Canadian football and rugby union is possible because of the games' shared origins, despite their dissimilarities.

Rugby union has a long history in Australia, with the first club being formed in 1863 at Sydney University. Today it holds tier one status with World Rugby and has over 82,000 players nationwide.

Comparison of Gaelic football and rugby union

A comparison of Gaelic football and rugby union is possible because of certain similarities between the codes, as well as the numerous dissimilarities.

Comparison of association football and rugby union

Comparison of association football (football/soccer) and rugby union (rugby/rugger) is possible because of the games' similarities and shared origins.

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