Floor hockey

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Floor hockey game being played outdoors on asphalt Championship floor hockey game 150303-N-GT589-148.jpg
Floor hockey game being played outdoors on asphalt

Floor hockey is a broad term for several indoor floor game codes which involve two teams using a stick and type of ball or disk. Disks are either open or closed but both designs are usually referred to as "pucks". These games are played either on foot or with wheeled skates. Variants typically reflect the style of ice hockey, field hockey, bandy or some other combination of sport. Games are commonly known by various names including cosom hockey, ball hockey, floorball, or simply floor hockey.

Contents

Two floor hockey variants involve the use of wheeled skates and are categorized as roller sports under the title of roller hockey. Quad hockey uses quad skates, commonly known as roller skates, and appears similar to bandy, while inline hockey uses inline skates and is of the ice hockey variation.

All styles and codes are played on dry, flat floor surfaces such as a gymnasium or basketball court. As in other hockey codes, players on each team attempt to shoot a ball, disk or puck into a goal using sticks, some with a curved end and others a straight, bladeless stick.

Floor hockey games differ from street hockey in that the games are more structured and have a codified set of rules. The variants which do not involve wheeled skates and use a closed puck are sometimes used as a form of dryland training to help teach and train children to play ice hockey [1] while the floorball variant is sometimes used as a dryland training program for bandy.

History

Floor hockey was originally a physical fitness sport in many public schools developed for physical education class [2] but has since developed several variants played in a variety of ways and is no longer restricted to educational institutions.

Canada

Floor hockey codes derived from ice hockey were first officially played in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1875,[ citation needed ] but the game's official creation is credited to Canada's Sports Hall of Fame inductee, Samuel Perry Jacks, better known as "Sam Jacks". [3] Jacks is the individual who codified floor hockey's first set of rules in 1936. [4] However, his version did not involve either a closed disk (puck) or a ball, but an open disk (disk with a hole in the center). At the time, Jacks was working as assistant physical director at the West End YMCA in Toronto. His achievement was later recognized by the Youth Branch of the United Nations. [5]

In 1947, Sam Jacks became the head coach of the Canadian Floor Hockey Team which competed in the AAU Junior Olympic Games (Amateur Athletic Union) in the USA where the Canadian team finished in third place. [5] It is unclear whether the style of play was the one of his own making or some other format.[ citation needed ]

In 1991 the Canadian Ball Hockey Association (CBHA) was formed to provide more formal leagues of ball-based floor hockey. [6] The CBHA runs leagues for men, women, and juniors, and organizes National Championships for each division. [7]

United States of America

In 1947, Canada's Sam Jacks was the head coach of the Canadian Floor Hockey Team which travelled from Canada to compete in the AAU Junior Olympic Games in the USA. The Canadians finished in third place. [5] It is unclear if the style of play was the one he codified in 1936 or another variant.[ citation needed ]

In 1962, one of the first variants of organized indoor hockey games were created in Battle Creek, Michigan in the United States by Tom Harter who used plastic sticks and pucks. [8] It is unclear whether other floor hockey codes using a ball or a felt puck were in existence in the USA at the time or if this marked a new emerging variant in the country.[ citation needed ]

In 1974, Barbara Walters & Ethel Kennedy played "Sam Jacks" floor hockey (incorrectly labelled "Floor Ringette") at Margaret Chapman School. A photograph [9] was taken of one of the school's students, Maria, stick handling by Ethel Kennedy during the game. The game involved handicapped children and was organized by the Joseph P. Kennedy Foundation. This was during a period where this particular variant was being changed and adapted from its initial form in order to make it playable for the Special Olympics.[ citation needed ]

In 2003, the National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association Hockey Committee released a baseline set of rules for a specific intramural floor hockey variant for college campuses across the United States.[ citation needed ]

Special Olympics

One version of floor hockey was introduced as a sport in the Winter Special Olympics in 1932.[ citation needed ]

In 1970, the Special Olympics World Winter Games added team floor hockey as an event, with the distinction of it being the only team sport under its purview. [10]

In 1974, Barbara Walters & Ethel Kennedy played "Sam Jacks" floor hockey (incorrectly labelled "Floor Ringette") at Margaret Chapman School. A photograph [11] was taken of one of the school's students, Maria, stick handling by Ethel Kennedy during the game. The game involved handicapped children and was organized by the Joseph P. Kennedy Foundation. This was during a period where this particular variant was being changed and adapted from its initial form in order to make it playable for the Special Olympics.

Equipment

This is a standard hockey ball that is used to play street hockey, dek hockey, and ball hockey. Hockey Balls By Color And Temperature.jpg
This is a standard hockey ball that is used to play street hockey, dek hockey, and ball hockey.

Floor hockey equipment differs from code to code. The types of checking and protective equipment allowed also vary. It is also important to note that when it comes to equipment, many floor hockey games today use some type of plastic, the first of which wasn't invented until 1907 by Leo Baekeland.

Object of play

Style of ball used in floorball Floorball ball white small.jpg
Style of ball used in floorball

Various objects can be used for play depending on the code, but they fall into three main types: a ball, a closed disk called a puck, or an open disk with a hole in the middle. These objects are variously constructed of either plastic or a felt-like material.

Sticks

Example of a blade used on a floorball stick Floorball stick blade.jpg
Example of a blade used on a floorball stick

Sticks used for play depend on the game codes. Some codes require standard ice hockey, field hockey or bandy sticks, while others use lightweight plastic sticks.

The Special Olympics version of floor hockey uses blade-less wooden sticks.

Types of sticks

The type of floor hockey game that is played and the object of play that is used often determines the type of stick. The material used to make floor hockey sticks varies and can include plastic or some type of composite. Shafts are either rectangular or rounded like in the case of a broomstick.

Ball and puck

Games which use a ball such as quad hockey will typically use a stick ending in a type of hook though this is not always the case as can be seen in ball hockey and road hockey. Games which use a type of puck (closed disk) such as cosom hockey and inline hockey, will typically use a stick ending in a blade with sharp angle at the end of the shaft with a blade which generally lies flat along the floor.

In the case of floorball the end of the stick involves a design that is a mix between a blade and a hook.

Exceptions

Three exceptions in regards to sticks can found in floor hockey. These games use either an open disk or a ring.

The first is in the case of Sam Jacks's floor hockey, the Canadian variant developed during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The second one can be found in the Special Olympics which was developed in the 1960s. The third can be found in gym ringette which was developed in the 1990s, but gym ringette itself is not in fact a direct variant of floor hockey and was more heavily influenced by the ice sport of ringette.

In all the first two examples the puck used is in fact an open disk, and is a type of felt disk with a hole in the middle. As a result a straight stick is used as a handle and does not include any type of blade or hook. The end however may include a type of drag-tip. Shafts are either rectangular or round like a broomstick handle.

In the third example, gym ringette uses a plastic shaft with a plastic drag-tip. Gym ringette does not use any type of puck. Instead, gym ringette uses a ring made of a type of rubber foam. The shaft is rectangular in shape.

Variants

All floor hockey variants can be separated into four general categories based on four main variables: ball games, puck games (closed disk), disk games (open disk), and a separate category for wheeled skates called 'Roller Games'. The first three categories are floor hockey variants played on foot while the latter involves the use of wheeled skates. All four categories can have their own sub-divisions to help categorize the existing floor hockey variants even further.

Ball games (on foot)

Ball hockey

Ball hockey event Ball Hockey WC 2.jpg
Ball hockey event

Ball hockey is an indoor game using a lightweight ball. Outdoor variants exist such as street hockey and dek hockey.

Floorball

Women playing floorball Telge-Alvsjo, 2018-09-08, bild23.jpg
Women playing floorball

One variation which is especially popular in Europe, is floorball. Floorball uses a lightweight plastic ball and sticks made of plastic and carbon fiber. Limited checking is permitted.

Puck games (on foot)

This section refers to floor hockey games using a closed disk often referred to as a "puck".

Cosom hockey

Another variation, cosom hockey, uses plastic sticks and pucks.

Disk games (on foot)

This section refers to floor hockey games using an open disk which is in some cases referred to as a puck and sometimes has been referred to as a ring.

Sam Jacks floor hockey

TournoiGouretCapRouge1986-6.jpg
TournoiGouretCapRouge1986-4.jpg
Play action during a floor hockey game (codified by Sam Jacks of Canada), part of a tournament for Cub Scouts held in Cap-Rouge, Québec, Canada, spring 1986

"Sam Jacks" floor hockey [12] is an early Canadian design of floor hockey whose rules were created and codified by Canada's Sam Jacks in 1936. [13] It is sometimes mistaken for ringette or gym ringette. The game uses straight, bladeless sticks and a disk made of felt with a hole in the middle. Several public schools in Canada used the game in physical education and gym classes, but the game is far less commonly played today.

Jacks would later create the ice team skating sport of ringette in Canada in 1963. Today ringette only loosely resembles floor hockey, with ringette having been influenced variously by rules in from basketball, ice hockey and broomball when its first rules were designed. Though ringette's first experimental ring was a felt floor hockey puck (sometimes referred to as a "ring") it was quickly replaced by deck tennis rings due to the felt puck accumulating snow and sticking to the ice. [14]

Special Olympics

Photo from the 2014 Special Olympics Floor Hockey competition Pratt & Whitney - Special Olympics (12893111945).jpg
Photo from the 2014 Special Olympics Floor Hockey competition

The Special Olympics variant of floor hockey uses a wide disc with a hole in the middle and a blade-less stick. Floor hockey pucks are donut shaped felt pucks with a center hole of 10 cm (4 inches), a diameter of 20 cm (8 inches), a thickness of 2.5 cm (1inch) and a weight of 140 to 225 grams (5 to 8 ounces). [15] Protective equipment is required. It is believed to have been derived from a much earlier floor hockey variant from early 20th century Canada whose rules were codified by Sam Jacks.

Roller games (wheeled skates)

There are two variants of floor hockey which use wheeled skates: quad hockey which is also known by other names like rink hockey, a sport with a resemblance more reminiscent of bandy and field hockey, and in-line hockey which is a wheeled variant of ice hockey.

Quad hockey

Quad hockey player Argentin player during 2007 rink hockey world championship.jpg
Quad hockey player

Quad hockey is a wheeled floor hockey variant also known by various names including roller hockey and rink hockey.

In-line hockey

In-line hockey player Real inlinehockey pahalampi vs GBGCity.jpg
In-line hockey player

In-line hockey is a wheeled floor hockey variant derived from the ice sport of ice hockey.

Gym Ringette

The Canadian ice sport of ringette was initially conceptualized as a court sport similar to an early 20th century version floor hockey codified by Sam Jacks Atlantic Attack Ringette Team.jpg
The Canadian ice sport of ringette was initially conceptualized as a court sport similar to an early 20th century version floor hockey codified by Sam Jacks

Gym ringette is the off-ice variant of the winter team skating sport of ringette and today is only distantly related to floor hockey. While the sport of ringette was initially influenced by the rules of basketball, ice hockey, broomball, and a variety of floor hockey games played during the early part of the 20th century, particularly the floor hockey style codified by Sam Jacks, gym ringette was developed in Canada near the end of the 20th century and was designed as an off-ice variant of the ice game of ringette rather than floor hockey.

Rules

Although there are different codes of floor hockey rules, there are some basic rules which are typically followed regardless of code, with the exception of gym ringette.

Start of play

Floor hockey games start with a face-off, in which a player from each team has an equal chance to gain possession. The face-off is also used to resume play after goals, and to start each period.

Scoring

A goal is scored when the entire puck or ball crosses the plane of the goal line, unless it is intentionally kicked in by the attacking team.

The team with the most goals at the end of the game is declared the winner. If the game is tied, the games usually proceed into golden goal period(s) in order to determine a winner. Overtime rules vary, but typically include extra time and/or penalty shootout.

Penalties

Penalties for illegal actions are enforced. A player committing a major infraction is required to sit out of the game for two minutes, resulting a power play, but a minor infraction may result in a free hit. Penalties are typically given for the following actions:

Due to the limited padding worn by players, body checking is typically disallowed in floor hockey games, [16] although shoulder-to-shoulder checking is allowed.

Common misconceptions

The term "floor hockey" has at times been incorrectly called ringette and vice versa. Ringette is not a floor sport, but an ice skating sport. Another common mistake is to confuse gym ringette with floor hockey. [17] Though one of the two floor hockey variants which use a disc with a hole in the center was codified by the Canadian Sam Jacks in the 1930s, gym ringette should not be confused with floor hockey variants due to the fact gym ringette was designed in Canada in the late 20th century as the off-ice variant of the ice skating sport of ringette, a sport which was also created by Sam Jacks in Canada in the 1960s.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bandy</span> Ballgame on ice played using skates and sticks

Bandy is a winter sport and ball sport played by two teams wearing ice skates on a large ice surface while using sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hockey</span> Sports played with hockey sticks

Hockey is a term used to denote various types of both summer and winter team sports which originated on either an outdoor field, sheet of ice, or dry floor such as in a gymnasium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ice hockey</span> Team sport played on ice using sticks, skates, and a puck

Ice hockey is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an ice skating rink with lines and markings specific to the sport. It belongs to a family of sports called hockey. In ice hockey, two opposing teams use ice hockey sticks to control, advance and shoot a closed, vulcanized, rubber disc called a "puck" into the other team's goal. Each goal is worth one point. The team which scores the most goals is declared the winner. In a formal game, each team has six skaters on the ice at a time, barring any penalties, one of whom is the goaltender. Ice hockey is a full contact sport.

Roller hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using wheeled skates. It can be played with traditional roller skates or with inline skates and use either a ball or puck. Combined, roller hockey is played in nearly 60 countries worldwide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hockey puck</span> Sports equipment for ice hockey

A hockey puck is either an open or closed disk used in a variety of sports and games. There are designs made for use on an ice surface, such as in ice hockey, and others for the different variants of floor hockey which includes the wheeled skate variant of inline hockey. They are all designed to serve the same function a ball does in ball games.

A hockey stick is a piece of sports equipment used by the players in all the forms of hockey to move the ball or puck either to push, pull, hit, strike, flick, steer, launch or stop the ball/puck during play with the objective being to move the ball/puck around the playing area using the stick, and then trying to score.

Samuel Perry Jacks more commonly known as, "Sam Jacks", was a Canadian soldier in World War II, Canadian inventor, military and civic recreation director, sports coach, creator of the Canadian sport of ringette for girls and the Canadian who created and codified the first set of rules for floor hockey in 1936. He was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1915 and became a Canadian citizen after his parents immigrated to Canada in 1920. Jacks died from cancer on May 14, 1975, at the age of 60.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shinny</span> Informal type of hockey played on ice

Shinny is an informal type of hockey played on ice. It is also used as another term for street hockey. There are no formal rules or specific positions, and often, there are no goaltenders. The goal areas at each end may be marked by nets, or simply by objects, such as stones or blocks of snow. Body checking and lifting or "roofing/reefing/raising the puck" are often forbidden because the players are not wearing protective equipment. Shinny is a game that all levels of hockey enthusiasts can play because it requires no rink, requires no skills except ability to hold a stick and at the very least to try to touch the puck or ball when it goes by. Shinny may be completely non-competitive and recreational.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Broomball</span> Winter team sport

Broomball is a both a recreational and organized competitive winter team sport played on ice or snow and is played either indoors or outdoors, depending on climate and location. It is a ball sport and is most popularly played in Canada and the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Street hockey</span>

Street hockey is a collection of team sport variants played outdoors either on foot or with wheeled skates, using a either a ball or puck designed for play on flat, dry surfaces. The object of every game is to score more goals than the opposing team by shooting the ball or puck into the opposing team's net. All games are derivatives of either the sport of ice hockey, floor hockey, bandy and/or field hockey.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roller in-line hockey</span> Sport discipline

Roller inline hockey, or inline hockey is a variant of hockey played on a hard, smooth surface, with players using inline skates to move and hockey sticks to shoot a hard, plastic puck into their opponent's goal to score points. The sport is a very fast-paced and free-flowing game and is considered a contact sport, but body checking is prohibited. There are five players including the goalkeeper from each team on the rink at a time, while teams normally consist of 16 players. There are professional leagues, one of which is the National Roller Hockey League (NRHL). While it is not a contact sport, there are exceptions, i.e. the NRHL involves fighting.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Table hockey</span> Game for two players, derived from ice hockey

A table hockey game, also called rod hockey game, stick hockey, bubble hockey, and board hockey, is a game for two players, derived from ice hockey. The game consists of a representation of a hockey rink; the players score goals by hitting a small puck into the opposing "net" with cutout figures that represent hockey players. The figures are manipulated by rods below the "ice": each one slides forward and back along its own narrow slot when the player pushes or pulls on the rod, or rotates to shoot or stickhandle the puck when the player spins the rod. Though similar in concept to air hockey, table hockey games are more of a simulation of the sport of ice hockey while air hockey is more abstract.

Power Hockey also known as Powerchair Hockey is a competitive, fast-paced hockey game based on the use of a power wheelchair. The foundation of the sport derives from ice hockey and floor hockey, but with adapted rules to enable people with disabilities, who use a power wheelchair, to play and be active in a competitive team setting. The sport is also referred to as Electric Wheelchair Hockey or Electric Wheelchair Floorball in various parts of the world.

Spongee or sponge hockey is a cult sport played almost exclusively in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, by thousands of players in dozens of leagues. Spongee is played strictly outdoors during the winter season. It gets its name from the puck that is used: instead of the hard vulcanized rubber puck that is used in regular ice hockey, a soft sponge puck is used. The sport was at one time called "Tweeter" because of the sound the early pucks made.

Foot hockey is a sport related to hockey in which the only equipment is a ball, most commonly a tennis ball, that is kicked about the playing surface by the players in an attempt to score a goal on the opposing goaltender. It has been described as a "combination of hockey, soccer and handball" and "a form of soccer with a tennis ball". Foot hockey is played indoors or outdoors; footwear is optional indoors, but must be worn by either all or none of the players. It may be unisex or coed. Participation in foot hockey produced fewer catastrophic injuries than other winter sports in studies from 1986 to 1995.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ringette</span> Team sport played on ice

Ringette is a non-contact winter team sport using ice hockey skates, straight sticks with drag-tips and a blue, rubber, pneumatic ring designed for use on ice surfaces. The sport is played on ice hockey rinks using both the ice hockey markings and some markings specific to ringette; the objective is to score more goals than the opposing team. Ringette is among a small number of organized team sports created exclusively for women.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ball hockey</span>

Ball hockey is a team sport and an off-ice variant of the sport of ice hockey. The sport is also a variant of one of several floor hockey game codes but more specifically a variant of street hockey.

Ice hockey equipment

In ice hockey, players use specialized equipment both to facilitate the play of the game and for protection as this is a sport where injuries are common, therefore, all players are encouraged to protect their bodies from bruises and severe fractures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rinkball</span> Team sport played on ice, using sticks, ice skates, and a ball

Rinkball is a winter team sport played on ice with ice skates and is most popular in Finland, where it is known as kaukalopallo. This ball sport originated in Sweden in the 1960s and from there landed in Finland in the 1970s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Melbourne Glaciarium</span> Ice skating facility

The Melbourne Glaciarium opened in 1906, the second indoor ice skating facility built in Australia after the Adelaide Glaciarium. The Glaci hosted the first game of ice hockey played in Australia and was the home of the first ice hockey association in Australia. At the time the Melbourne Glaciarium was opened, it was the 3rd largest indoor ice rink in the world. The rink closed in 1957 and was soon demolished.

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  2. Encyclopædia Britannica, Academic Edition, s.v. “Ice Hockey”
  3. "Canada's Sports Hall of Fame | Stories". Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-25.
  4. https://www.facebook.com/groups/115334911822004/posts/693664440655712/ [ user-generated source ]
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  7. "Canadian Ball Hockey Association : Powered by GOALLINE". cbha.com. Retrieved 2020-07-14.
  8. Foltz, Wendy, ed. (January 17, 1963). "New Indoor Puck Game Devised for Local Youths". Battle Creek Enquirer and News. Vol. 63. Battle Creek, Michigan: Federated Publications. p. 17. Retrieved September 3, 2022 via Newspapers.com.
  9. "Barbara Walters & Ethel Kennedy Playing Floor Ringette 1974 | HockeyGods".
  10. "Floor Hockey: Sport History". Special Olympics – Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012.
  11. "Barbara Walters & Ethel Kennedy Playing Floor Ringette 1974 | HockeyGods".
  12. "Floor Hockey / Ringette | Ontario Jewish Archives". search.ontariojewisharchives.org.
  13. "Canada's Sports Hall of Fame, SAM JACKS, Inducted in 2007". sportshall.ca. Canada's Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  14. Mayer, Norm (1989). "The origins of ringette". The Sudbury Star .
  15. "Special Olympics, FLOOR HOCKEY COACHING GUIDE, Floor Hockey Rules, Protocol & Etiquette" (PDF). media.specialolympics.org.
  16. “NIRSA Floor Hockey Basics,” Last modified 2010, The National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association,
  17. "Barbara Walters & Ethel Kennedy Playing Floor Ringette 1974 | HockeyGods".