Test cricket

Last updated

ICC Men's Test Team Rankings
RankTeamMatchesPointsRating
1Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 232,736119
2Flag of India.svg  India 323,717116
3Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 313,561115
4Flag of England.svg  England 414,151101
5Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 262,622101
6Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 302,78793
7Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 302,48583
8WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 332,48075
9Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 221,15753
10Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 1134231
Reference: ICC Test Rankings, 2 March 2022
"Matches" is no. matches + no. series played in the 12–24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.
A Test match between South Africa and England in January 2005. The two men wearing black trousers are the umpires. Test cricket is played in traditional white clothes and usually with a red ball - a pink ball in full day/night Tests England vs South Africa.jpg
A Test match between South Africa and England in January 2005. The two men wearing black trousers are the umpires. Test cricket is played in traditional white clothes and usually with a red ball – a pink ball in full day/night Tests

Test cricket is a format of cricket with the longest match duration and is considered the game's highest standard. [1] [2] Test matches are played between national representative teams that have been granted Test status, as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council (ICC). They are called Tests because the long, gruelling nature of matches makes them mentally and physically testing. [3] Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, which may last up to five days (or more in the past – matches with no time limit were called Timeless Tests). It is generally considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. [4] [5] [2]

Contents

The first officially recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). [6] In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches. [7] The first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015. [8]

Early history

Sides designated as "England" began to play in the late 18th century, but these teams were not truly representative. Early international cricket was disrupted by the French Revolution and the American Civil War. The earliest international cricket match was between the United States and Canada, on 24 and 26 September 1844 (bad weather prevented play on the 25th). [9] This has never been officially considered a "Test match". Tours of national English sides abroad took place, particularly to the US, Australia and New Zealand. The Australian Aboriginal team became the first organised overseas cricketers to tour England in 1868.

Two rival English tours of Australia were proposed in the early months of 1877, with James Lillywhite campaigning for a professional tour and Fred Grace for an amateur one. Grace's tour fell through and it was Lillywhite's team that toured New Zealand and Australia in 1876–77. Two matches against a combined Australian XI were later classified as the first official Test matches. The first match was won by Australia, by 45 runs and the second by England. After reciprocal tours established a pattern of international cricket, The Ashes was established as a competition during the Australian tour of England in 1882. A surprise victory for Australia inspired a mock obituary of English cricket to be published in the Sporting Times the following day: the phrase "The body shall be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia" prompted the subsequent creation of the Ashes urn. The series of 1884–85 was the first to be held over five matches: England player Alfred Shaw, writing in 1901, considered the side to be "the best ever to have left England".

South Africa became the third team to play Test cricket in 1888–89, when they hosted a tour by an under-strength England side.

Test status

Test matches are the highest level of cricket, played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council. As of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most recently promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. [10]

Teams with Test status

Test status is conferred upon a country or group of countries by the ICC. There are currently twelve men's teams that have been granted this status: international teams that do not have Test status can play first-class cricket in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, under conditions which are similar to Tests.

The teams with Test status (with the date of each team's Test debut) are:

  1. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia (15 March 1877)
  2. Flag of England.svg  England (15 March 1877)
  3. Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa (12 March 1889)
  4. WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies (23 June 1928)
  5. Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand (10 January 1930)
  6. Flag of India.svg  India (25 June 1932)
  7. Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan (16 October 1952)
  8. Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka (17 February 1982)
  9. Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe (18 October 1992)
  10. Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh (10 November 2000)
  11. Cricket Ireland flag.svg  Ireland (11 May 2018)
  12. Flag of Afghanistan (2013-2021).svg  Afghanistan (14 June 2018)

Nine of these teams represent independent sovereign nations: the England cricket team represents the constituent countries of England and Wales, the West Indies is a combined team from fifteen Caribbean nations and territories, and Ireland represents both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Following the D'Oliveira affair in 1969, South Africa was suspended from all forms of cricket from 1970 until the end of the apartheid regime in 1991.

Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended in 2006 because of very poor performances, but its Test status was reinstated in August 2011. [11]

The ICC has made several proposals to reform the system of granting Test status, including having two tiers with promotion and relegation, [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] and/or a play-off between the winners of the ICC Intercontinental Cup and the team with the lowest Test ranking. [19] These proposals have not been successful as of 2021.

Statistics

For statistical purposes, Tests are considered to be a subset of first-class cricket. Performances in first-class matches count towards only the first-class statistical record, but performances in Test matches count towards both the Test statistics and the first-class statistics.

Statisticians have developed criteria to determine which matches count as Tests if they were played before the formal definition of Test status.

The first list of matches considered to be "Tests" was drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s. Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 (in Australia and South Africa) and 1929–30 (in the West Indies and New Zealand) are deemed to have Test status.

In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI: these matches, originally scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket due to their government's apartheid policies. Although initially given Test status and included as Test matches in some record books, including Wisden Cricketers' Almanack , this was later withdrawn, and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations (note that the geographically and demographically small countries of the West Indies have, since 1928, fielded a coalition side).

Despite this principle, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place that October between Australia and a World XI was an official Test match: some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, have ignored the ICC's ruling and exclude this match from their records.

The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72, and the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979, have never been regarded as official Test matches as of 2021.

Conduct of the game

Playing time

A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the break between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea. However, the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately; if there has been a loss of playing time, for example because of bad weather, the session times may be adjusted to make up the lost time; if the batting side is nine wickets down at the scheduled tea break, then the interval may be delayed until either 30 minutes has elapsed or the team is all out; [20] the final session may be extended by up to 30 minutes if 90 or more overs have not been bowled in that day's play (subject to any reduction for adverse weather); [21] the final session may be extended by 30 minutes (except on the 5th day) if the umpires believe the result can be decided within that time. [22]

Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days. However, in the early days of Test cricket, matches were played for three or four days. Four-day Test matches were last played in 1973, between New Zealand and Pakistan. [23] Until the 1980s, it was usual to include a 'rest day,' often a Sunday. There have also been 'Timeless Tests', which have no predetermined maximum time. In 2005, Australia played a match scheduled for six days against a World XI, which the ICC sanctioned as an official Test match, though the match reached a conclusion on the fourth day. In October 2017, the ICC approved a request for a four-day Test match, between South Africa and Zimbabwe, which started on 26 December 2017 and ended on the second day, 27 December. [24] The ICC trialed the four-day Test format until the 2019 Cricket World Cup. [25] In December 2019, Cricket Australia were considering playing four-day Tests, subject to consensus with other Test nations. [26] Later the same month, the ICC considered the possibility of making four-day Test matches mandatory for the ICC World Test Championship from 2023. [27]

There have been attempts by the ICC, the sport's governing body, to introduce day-night Test matches. [28] In 2012, the International Cricket Council passed playing conditions that allowed for the staging of day-night Test matches. [7] The first day-night Test took place during New Zealand's tour to Australia in November 2015. [8]

Play

Test cricket is played in innings (the word denotes both the singular and the plural). In each innings, one team bats and the other bowls (or fields). Ordinarily four innings are played in a Test match, and each team bats twice and bowls twice. Before the start of play on the first day, the two team captains and the match referee toss a coin; the captain who wins the toss decides whether his team will bat or bowl first.

In the following scenarios, the team that bats first is referred to as Team A and their opponents as Team B.

Usually the teams will alternate at the completion of each innings. Thus, Team A will bat (and Team B will bowl) until its innings ends, and then Team B will bat and Team A will bowl. When Team B's innings ends, Team A begin their second innings, and this is followed by Team B's second innings. The winning team is the one that scores more runs in their two innings.

A team's innings ends in one of the following ways: [29]

If, at the completion of Team B's first innings, Team A leads by at least 200 runs, the captain of Team A may (but is not required to) order Team B to have their second innings next. This is called enforcing the follow-on. [30] In this case, the usual order of the third and fourth innings is reversed: Team A will bat in the fourth innings. It is rare for a team forced to follow-on to win the match. In Test cricket it has only happened three times, although over 285 follow-ons have been enforced: Australia was the losing team on each occasion, twice to England, in 1894 and in 1981, and once to India in 2001. [31]

If the whole of the first day's play of a Test match has been lost because of bad weather or other reasons like bad light, then Team A may enforce the follow-on if Team B's first innings total is 150 or more fewer than Team A's. During the 2nd Test between England and New Zealand at Headingley in 2013, England batted first after the first day was lost because of rain. [32] New Zealand, batting second, scored 180 runs fewer than England, meaning England could have enforced the follow-on, though chose not to. This is similar to four-day first-class cricket, where the follow-on can be enforced if the difference is 150 runs or more. If the Test is 2 days or fewer then the "follow-on" value is 100 runs.

After 80 overs, the captain of the bowling side may take a new ball, although this is not required. [33] The captain will usually take the new ball: being harder and smoother than an old ball, a new ball generally favours faster bowlers who can make it bounce more variably. The roughened, softer surface of an old ball can be more conducive to spin bowlers, or those using reverse swing. The captain may delay the decision to take the new ball if he wishes to continue with his spinners (because the pitch favours spin). After a new ball has been taken, should an innings last a further 80 overs, then the captain will have the option to take another new ball.

A Test match will produce a result by means of one of six scenarios:

Competitions

Tours

Test cricket is almost always played as a series of matches between two countries, with all matches in the series taking place in the same country (the host). Often there is a perpetual trophy that is awarded to the winner, the most famous of which is the Ashes contested between England and Australia. There have been two exceptions to the bilateral nature of Test cricket: the 1912 Triangular Tournament, a three-way competition between England, Australia and South Africa (hosted by England), and the Asian Test Championship, an event held in 1998–99 and 2001–02.

The number of matches in Test series has varied from one to seven. [40] Up until the early 1990s, [41] Test series between international teams were organised between the two national cricket organisations with umpires provided by the home team. With the entry of more countries into Test cricket, and a wish by the ICC to maintain public interest in Tests in the face of the popularity of One Day International cricket, a rotation system was introduced that sees all ten Test teams playing each other over a six-year cycle, and an official ranking system (with a trophy held by the highest-ranked team). In this system, umpires are provided by the ICC. An elite panel of eleven umpires was maintained since 2002, and the panel is supplemented by an additional International Panel that includes three umpires named by each Test-playing country. The elite umpires officiate almost all Test matches, though usually not Tests involving their home country.

Perpetual trophies

Several pairs of Test teams have established perpetual trophies which are competed for whenever teams play each other in Test series.

Name of trophyTeam 1Team 2First contestedLatest contested
The Ashes Flag of England.svg  England Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1882–83 2021–22
Anthony de Mello Trophy [A] Flag of India.svg  India Flag of England.svg  England 1951–52 [42] 2020–21
Frank Worrell Trophy WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1960–61 2015–16
Wisden Trophy [B] WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies Flag of England.svg  England 1963 2020
Trans-Tasman Trophy Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1985–86 2019–20
Border–Gavaskar Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of India.svg  India 1996–97 2020–21
Southern Cross Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 1999–2000 [43] 2003–04
Sir Vivian Richards Trophy WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2000–01 [44] 2021
Clive Lloyd Trophy WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 2001 [45] 2017–18
Basil D'Oliveira Trophy Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Flag of England.svg  England 2004–05 2019–20
Pataudi Trophy [A] Flag of India.svg  India Flag of England.svg  England 2007 2018
Warne–Muralitharan Trophy Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 2007–08 2018–19
The Freedom Trophy Flag of India.svg  India Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2015–16 2019–20
Sobers–Tissera Trophy WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 2015–16 2021–22
Ganguly–Durjoy Trophy Flag of India.svg  India Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 2016–17 [46] 2019–20
Benaud–Qadir Trophy Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 2021-22 [47] 2021-22
Richards–Botham Trophy [B] WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies Flag of England.svg  England 2021-22 2021-22
A The Anthony De Mello Trophy is awarded for India–England test series played in India, whilst the Pataudi Trophy is for series played in England.
B The Wisden Trophy was retired in 2020 and replaced by the Richards-Botham Trophy in 2021-22.

Number of Perpetual Trophies contested by team

TrophyTeam
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 7
Flag of England.svg  England 5
Flag of India.svg  India
WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 3
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 2
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 1
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1

International Test rankings

The twelve Test-playing nations are currently ranked as follows:

ICC Men's Test Team Rankings
RankTeamMatchesPointsRating
1Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 232,736119
2Flag of India.svg  India 323,717116
3Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 313,561115
4Flag of England.svg  England 414,151101
5Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 262,622101
6Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 302,78793
7Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 302,48583
8WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 332,48075
9Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 221,15753
10Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 1134231
Reference: ICC Test Rankings, 2 March 2022
"Matches" is no. matches + no. series played in the 12–24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.

World Test Championship

After years of delays since proposals began in 2009, a league competition for Test cricket was held in 2019–2021. Arranged as a bilateral series in various countries with one team as host and another team as visitor. The length of each series varies between 2 and 5 matches. Ireland, Zimbabwe and Afghanistan are not taking part in this competition, but instead play a program of Test matches with each other and other teams during the same period.

Final results

YearFinal StatisticsTournament Statistics
VenueWinnerResultRunner-upPlayer of the MatchMost RunsHighest ScoreMost HundredsMost WicketsMost five-wickets-in-an-innings
2021 Flag of England.svg Rose Bowl, Southampton Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand New Zealand won by 8 wickets [48] Flag of India.svg  India Kyle Jamieson Marnus Labuschagne, 1675 [49] David Warner, 335* [50] Marnus Labuschagne, 5 [51] Ravichandran Ashwin, 71 [52] Kyle Jamieson, 5 [53]

Popularity

It has been suggested that Test cricket may be losing popularity, particularly in the face of the advent of short form cricket. [54] Day/night Test matches have been suggested as one way to address this problem. [55] However, the lack of popularity has been disputed, with a Marylebone Cricket Club poll showing that 86% of all cricket fans support Test cricket, more than any other format. [56]

See also

Related Research Articles

1992 Cricket World Cup Cricket World Cup

The 1992 Cricket World Cup was the fifth staging of the Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC). It was held in Australia and New Zealand from 22 February to 25 March 1992, and finished with Pakistan beating England by 22 runs in the final to become the World Cup champions for the first time. 1992 World Cup is remembered for the controversial "Rain Rule" which also ended South Africa's best chance of winning the world cup.

New Zealand national cricket team Team representing New Zealand in mens international cricket

The New Zealand national cricket team represents New Zealand in men's international cricket. Named the Black Caps, they played their first Test in 1930 against England in Christchurch, becoming the fifth country to play Test cricket. From 1930 New Zealand had to wait until 1956, more than 26 years, for its first Test victory, against the West Indies at Eden Park in Auckland. They played their first ODI in the 1972–73 season against Pakistan in Christchurch.

Pakistan national cricket team National sports team

The Pakistan national cricket team, often referred to as the Shaheens, Green Shirts, Men in Green, and Cornered Tigers is administered by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB). The team is a Full Member of the International Cricket Council, and participates in Test, One Day International (ODI) and Twenty20 International cricket matches.

Twenty20 Form of limited overs cricket, 20-over format

Twenty20 (T20) is a shortened game format of cricket. At the professional level, it was introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) in 2003 for the inter-county competition. In a Twenty20 game, the two teams have a single innings each, which is restricted to a maximum of 20 overs. Together with first-class and List A cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three current forms of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council (ICC) as being at the highest international or domestic level.

Inzamam-ul-Haq Pakistani cricketer

Inzamam-ul-Haq, also known as Inzi, is a Pakistani professional cricket coach and former Pakistan cricketer.

Desmond Haynes Barbadian former cricketer

Desmond Leo Haynes is a former Barbadian cricketer and cricket coach who played for the West Indies cricket team between 1978 and 1994.

Womens Test cricket Longest form of cricket

Women's Test cricket is the longest format of women's cricket and is the female equivalent to men's Test cricket. Matches comprise four-innings and are held over a maximum of four days between two of the leading cricketing nations. The rules governing the format differ little from those for the men's game, with differences generally being technicalities surrounding umpiring and field size.

Kumar Dharmasena Sri Lankan cricketer and umpire

Deshabandu Handunnettige Deepthi Priyantha Kumara Dharmasena, popularly as Kumar Dharmasena, is a Sri Lankan cricket umpire and former international cricketer, who played Tests and ODIs for Sri Lanka. He is the first and only person to represent an ICC World Cup Final both as a player and an umpire. He was a right-handed batsman and a right-arm off break bowler.

Kraigg Clairmonte Brathwaite is a Barbadian cricketer who captains the West Indies in Test Cricket. He bats right-handed and occasionally bowls right arm off break. On 6 November 2011, he became only the second West Indian to score two Test fifties before his 19th birthday when he made 63 (212) against India in Delhi. He has also effectively stood as stand-in-captain in place of Jason Holder in seven test matches before becoming the permanent captain of the test team taking over from Holder. He idolises Shivnarine Chanderpaul and his batting style.

2016 ICC World Twenty20 Cricket tournament

The 2016 ICC World Twenty20 was the sixth edition of the ICC World Twenty20, the world championship of Twenty20 International cricket. It was held in India from 8 March to 3 April 2016, and was the first edition to be hosted by India.

2013 ICC Champions Trophy Cricket tournament

The 2013 ICC Champions Trophy was the seventh ICC Champions Trophy, a One Day International cricket tournament held in England and Wales between 6 and 23 June 2013. Three cities hosted the tournament's matches: London, Birmingham and Cardiff.

References

  1. Bond, David (29 July 2013). "Test cricket: Does the oldest form of the game have a future?". BBC Sport. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  2. 1 2 "Adam Gilchrist's Cowdrey Lecture, 2009". ESPN CricInfo. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
  3. Rundell, Michael (2006). Dictionary of Cricket. London: A&C Black Publishers Ltd. p. 336. ISBN   978-0-7136-7915-1 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  4. Lifeless pitches should not be accepted, The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  5. "Knight's return to proving ground", Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  6. "Australia v England 1st Test 1876/1877". ESPNcricinfo.
  7. 1 2 "ICC paves way for Day-Night Tests". Wisden India. 29 October 2012. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  8. 1 2 "First day-night Test for Adelaide Oval". ESPNCricinfo. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  9. United States of America v Canada 1844ESPNcricinfo.
  10. "Ireland & Afghanistan awarded Test status by International Cricket Council". BBC News. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  11. Zimbabwe Cricket Side Resume International Test Play After Six-Year BreakVoice of America.
  12. "NZC 'big supporter' of two-tier Test system". ESPNcricinfo. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  13. "Afghanistan ready to play Tests – ACB chief executive". ESPNcricinfo. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  14. "BCB vice-president against two-tier Test system". ESPNcricinfo. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  15. "BCCI against four-day Tests, two-tier system". ESPNcricinfo. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  16. "ICC planning two Test divisions amid major overhaul". ESPNcricinfo. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  17. "Two-tier proposal shelved at ICC meeting". ESPNcricinfo. 7 September 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  18. "Baseball-style conference structure proposed for Tests". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  19. "Ireland and Scotland to get Test chance as ICC approves play-off". BBC Sport. BBC. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  20. "The Laws of Cricket – Law 15.8". Lords.org. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  21. "ICC Standard Test match Playing Conditions ("Playing Conditions") cl 16.1.1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  22. "Playing Conditions cl 16.2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  23. "Cremer senses opportunity in shorter contest". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  24. "Test, ODI leagues approved by ICC Board". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  25. "South Africa to play Zimbabwe in inaugural four-day Test". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  26. "Australian cricket board to 'seriously consider' four-day Test matches". The National. 28 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  27. "ICC to consider mandatory four-day Tests". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  28. "Lord's could host first day night Test in May 2010". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  29. "LAW 13 – INNINGS". Lords.org. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  30. "Law 14 – The follow-on". MCC. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  31. "HowSTAT! Winning after Following-On". Howstat.com. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  32. "2nd Test: England v New Zealand at Leeds, May 24–28, 2013 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  33. "Law 4 – The ball". MCC. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  34. "On This Day: 19 August". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  35. "1st Test: West Indies v England at Kingston, Jan 29 – Feb 2, 1998 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  36. "2nd Test: West Indies v England at North Sound, Feb 13–17, 2009 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  37. "Law 16 – The result". MCC. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  38. "England awarded abandoned Oval Test 'win'". The Guardian. London. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  39. "Test abandoned after ball dispute". BBC News. 20 August 2006. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  40. "Australia v England, Seventh Test, 1970–71". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  41. Rajesh, S. (16 April 2011). "Neutral umpires". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  42. "India-England series played for Anthony De Mello trophy: BCCI". The Hindu. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  43. "Southern Cross Trophy, 1999/00" . Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  44. "Statistics / Statsguru / Test matches / Team records" . Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  45. "Test trophy to be named after Clive Lloyd". 28 July 2001. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  46. "India vs Bangladesh 2016 Test series to be named Ganguly-Durjoy Trophy". 26 May 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  47. "Pakistan and Australia to play for Benaud-Qadir Trophy". Pakistan Cricket Board. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  48. "Full Scorecard of India vs New Zealand Final 2019-2021 - Score Report | ESPNcricinfo.com". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  49. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019-2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats | ESPNcricinfo.com". Cricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  50. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019-2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats | ESPNcricinfo.com". Cricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  51. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019-2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats | ESPNcricinfo.com". Cricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  52. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019-2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats | ESPNcricinfo.com". Cricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  53. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019-2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats | ESPNcricinfo.com". Cricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  54. "Chris Waters – Reports of the death of Test cricket have been greatly exaggerated". Yorkshire Post. 9 February 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2021. According to Shashank Manohar, chairman of the International Cricket Council, Test cricket itself "is dying, to be honest". Details of the funeral arrangements will be announced in due course. "Nowadays, people don’t have five days (of) time to watch a Test match,” said Manohar. "From ten to five, everybody has their own job to do, so it is very difficult for them to watch this game. T20s get over in three-and-a-half hours, like watching a movie. Therefore, it is picking up very fast."{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  55. Ganguly, Sudipto (26 February 2020). "Australian McGrath backs day-night tests to revive popularity". Reuters. Retrieved 27 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  56. "Test Cricket Popularity as Strong as Ever Says MCC World Cricket Committee Following MCC Survey". lords.org. 9 March 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2021. Over 13,000 responders from more than 100 countries took part in the survey, with the majority of responders supporting England, India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Sri Lanka. Overwhelmingly, Test cricket came out as the format that interests fans the most, regardless of country supported or age. An average of 86% of the responders placed Test cricket as their preferred format to watch, follow and support over One-Day Internationals, T20 Internationals and domestic T20 matches.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Bibliography