Test cricket

Last updated

Test Cricket
England vs South Africa.jpg
A Test match between South Africa and England in January 2007. The two men wearing black trousers are the umpires. Test cricket is played in traditional white clothes and usually with a red ball – a pink ball in full 1 day/night Tests
Highest governing body ICC
Characteristics
Team membersFull members
Mixed-sex No
TypeCricket format
GlossaryBat and stumps
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide

Test cricket is a form of first-class cricket played at the international level between teams representing full member countries of the International Cricket Council (ICC). A match consists of four innings (two per team) in which players have to play until they get all batsmen out; the match ends when all batsmen of the opposing team are out. It is scheduled to last for up to five days with 6 hours of play each day. A minimum of 90 overs are scheduled to be bowled per day making it the sport with the longest playing time. In the past, some Test matches had no time limit and were called Timeless Tests. The term "test match" was originally coined in 1861–62 but in a different context. [1]

Contents

Test cricket did not become an officially recognised format until the 1890s, but many international matches since 1877 have been retrospectively awarded Test status. The first such match took place at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) in March 1877 between teams which were then known as a Combined Australian XI and James Lillywhite's XI, the latter a team of visiting English professionals. Matches between Australia and England were first called "test matches" in 1892. The first definitive list of retrospective Tests was written by South Australian journalist Clarence P. Moody two years later and, by the end of the century, had gained acceptance.

There are now twelve full ICC member countries playing Test cricket. Day/night Tests were permitted by the ICC in 2012 and the first day/night match was between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval in November 2015.

The ICC World Test Championship is the international championship of Test cricket. It is a league competition run by the ICC, with its inaugural season starting in 2019. [2] [3] In line with the ICC's goal of having one pinnacle tournament for each of the three formats of international cricket, it is the premier championship for Test cricket. [4]

Early history

Growth of international cricket

Teams designated as "England" or "All England" began to play in the 18th century, but these teams were not truly representative. Early international cricket was disrupted by the French Revolution and the American Civil War. The earliest international cricket match was between the United States and Canada, on 24 and 26 September 1844 (bad weather prevented play on the 25th). [5] Overseas tours by national English teams began in 1859 with visits to North America, Australia and New Zealand. The 1868 Australian Aboriginals were the first organised overseas team to tour England.

The earliest published photo of the Ashes urn, from The Illustrated London News, 1921 Ashes Urn 1921.jpg
The earliest published photo of the Ashes urn, from The Illustrated London News , 1921

Two rival English tours of Australia were proposed in the early months of 1877, with James Lillywhite campaigning for a professional tour and Fred Grace for an amateur one. Grace's tour fell through and it was Lillywhite's team that toured New Zealand and Australia in 1876–77. Two matches against a combined Australian XI were later classified as the first official Test matches. The first match was won by Australia, by 45 runs and the second by England. After reciprocal tours established a pattern of international cricket, The Ashes was established as a competition during the Australian tour of England in 1882. A surprise victory for Australia inspired a mock obituary of English cricket to be published in the Sporting Times the following day: the phrase "The body shall be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia" prompted the subsequent creation of the Ashes urn.

The series of 1884–85 was the first to be held over five matches: England player Alfred Shaw, writing in 1901, considered the side to be "the best ever to have left England". South Africa became the third team to play Test cricket in 1888–89, when they hosted a tour by an under-strength England side. Australia, England and South Africa were the only countries playing Test cricket before World War I.

Terminology

The term "test match" was coined during the English tour of Australia in 1861–62 but in a different context. It meant that the English team was testing itself against each of the Australian colonies. [1] Following Lillywhite's tour, Australian teams reciprocated, beginning with Dave Gregory's team in 1878. By the beginning of 1892, eight English teams had visited Australia and seven Australian teams had visited England. In its issue of 25 February 1892, Cricket: A Weekly Record of the Game revived the term "test match" and freely applied it to the three international matches which had just been played in Australia by Lord Sheffield's XI, starting with the match at the MCG which was billed as Lord Sheffield's Team v Combined Australia. The report began: "There was no little appropriateness in fixing the first of the three great test matches for January 1". [6]

Clarence P. Moody

The first list of matches considered to be "Tests" was conceived and published by South Australian journalist Clarence P. Moody in his 1894 book, Australian Cricket and Cricketers, 1856 to 1893–94. Moody's proposal was well received by Charles W. Alcock, editor of Cricket in England and his list of 39 matches was reproduced in the 28 December 1894 issue as part of an article entitled "The First Test Match". The list begins with the MCG match played 15–17 March 1877 and ends with the recent match at the Association Ground, Sydney played 14–20 December 1894. [7] All 39 were retrospectively recognised as Test matches, as was the unlisted 1890 Old Trafford match that was abandoned without a ball being bowled. No South African matches were included in Moody's list but three against England were also given retrospective Test status. [8] Moody became a newspaper editor and founded the Adelaide Sunday Mail in 1912. [9]

Test status

Test matches are the highest level of cricket, played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council. As of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most recently promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. [10]

Teams with Test status

Test status is conferred upon a country or group of countries by the ICC. There are currently twelve men's teams that have been granted this status: international teams that do not have Test status can play first-class cricket in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, under conditions which are similar to Tests.

The teams with Test status (with the date of each team's Test debut) are:

  1. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia (15 March 1877)
  2. Flag of England.svg  England (15 March 1877)
  3. Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa (12 March 1889)
  4. WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies (23 June 1928)
  5. Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand (10 January 1930)
  6. Flag of India.svg  India (25 June 1932)
  7. Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan (16 October 1952)
  8. Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka (17 February 1982)
  9. Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe (18 October 1992)
  10. Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh (10 November 2000)
  11. Cricket Ireland flag.svg  Ireland (11 May 2018)
  12. Flag of Afghanistan (2013-2021).svg  Afghanistan (14 June 2018)

Nine of these teams represent independent sovereign nations: the England cricket team represents the constituent countries of England and Wales, the West Indies is a combined team from fifteen Caribbean nations and territories, and Ireland represents both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Following the D'Oliveira affair in 1969, South Africa was suspended from all forms of cricket from 1970 until the end of the apartheid regime in 1991.

Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended in 2006 because of very poor performances, but its Test status was reinstated in August 2011. [11]

The ICC has made several proposals to reform the system of granting Test status, including having two tiers with promotion and relegation, [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] and/or a play-off between the winners of the ICC Intercontinental Cup and the team with the lowest Test ranking. [19] These proposals have not been successful as of 2021.

Statistics

For statistical purposes, Tests are considered to be a subset of first-class cricket. Performances in first-class matches count towards only the first-class statistical record, but performances in Test matches count towards both the Test statistics and the first-class statistics.

Statisticians have developed criteria to determine which matches count as Tests if they were played before the formal definition of Test status. There have been exceptional circumstances including the simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 (in Australia and South Africa) and 1929–30 (in the West Indies and New Zealand), all of whose international matches are deemed to have Test status.

In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI: these matches, originally scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket due to their government's apartheid policies. Although initially given Test status and included as Test matches in some record books, including Wisden Cricketers' Almanack , this was later withdrawn, and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations (the geographically and demographically small countries of the West Indies have, since 1928, fielded a coalition side).

Despite this principle, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place that October between Australia and a World XI was an official Test match: some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, have ignored the ICC's ruling and exclude this match from their records.

The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72, and the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979, have never been regarded as official Test matches as of 2021.

Conduct of the game

Playing time

A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the break between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea. However, the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately; if there has been a loss of playing time, for example because of bad weather, the session times may be adjusted to make up the lost time; if the batting side is nine wickets down at the scheduled tea break, then the interval may be delayed until either 30 minutes has elapsed or the team is all out; [20] the final session may be extended by up to 30 minutes if 90 or more overs have not been bowled in that day's play (subject to any reduction for adverse weather); [21] the final session may be extended by 30 minutes (except on the 5th day) if the umpires believe the result can be decided within that time. [22]

Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days. However, in the early days of Test cricket, matches were played for three or four days. England hosted Ireland at Lord's on 1st June 2023 for a four-day test. [23]

Four-day Test matches were last played in 1973, between New Zealand and Pakistan. [24] Until the 1980s, it was usual to include a 'rest day,' often a Sunday. There have also been 'Timeless Tests', which have no predetermined maximum time. In 2005, Australia played a match scheduled for six days against a World XI, which the ICC sanctioned as an official Test match, though the match reached a conclusion on the fourth day. In October 2017, the ICC approved a request for a four-day Test match, between South Africa and Zimbabwe, which started on 26 December 2017 and ended on the second day, 27 December. [25] The ICC trialed the four-day Test format until the 2019 Cricket World Cup. [26] In December 2019, Cricket Australia were considering playing four-day Tests, subject to consensus with other Test nations. [27] Later the same month, the ICC considered the possibility of making four-day Test matches mandatory for the ICC World Test Championship from 2023. [28]

There have been attempts by the ICC, the sport's governing body, to introduce day-night Test matches. [29] In 2012, the International Cricket Council passed playing conditions that allowed for the staging of day-night Test matches. [30] The first day-night Test took place during New Zealand's tour to Australia in November 2015. [31]

Play

Test cricket is played in innings (the word denotes both the singular and the plural). In each innings, one team bats and the other bowls (or fields). Ordinarily four innings are played in a Test match, and each team bats twice and bowls twice. Before the start of play on the first day, the two team captains and the match referee toss a coin; the captain who wins the toss decides whether his team will bat or bowl first.

In the following scenarios, the team that bats first is referred to as Team A and their opponents as Team B.

Usually the teams will alternate at the completion of each innings. Thus, Team A will bat (and Team B will bowl) until its innings ends, and then Team B will bat and Team A will bowl. When Team B's innings ends, Team A begin their second innings, and this is followed by Team B's second innings. The winning team is the one that scores more runs in their two innings.

A team's innings ends in one of the following ways: [32]

If, at the completion of Team B's first innings, Team A leads by at least 200 runs, the captain of Team A may (but is not required to) order Team B to have their second innings next. This is called enforcing the follow-on. [33] In this case, the usual order of the third and fourth innings is reversed: Team A will bat in the fourth innings. It is rare for a team forced to follow-on to win the match. In Test cricket it has only happened four times, although over 285 follow-ons have been enforced. Australia was the losing team on three occasions, having lost twice to England, in 1894 and in 1981, and once to India in 2001.[ citation needed ] Most recently, on February 24, 2023, England lost to New Zealand by one run after enforcing the follow-on. [34]

If the whole of the first day's play of a Test match has been lost because of bad weather or other reasons like bad light, then Team A may enforce the follow-on if Team B's first innings total is 150 or more fewer than Team A's. During the 2nd Test between England and New Zealand at Headingley in 2013, England batted first after the first day was lost because of rain. [35] New Zealand, batting second, scored 180 runs fewer than England, meaning England could have enforced the follow-on, though chose not to. This is similar to four-day first-class cricket, where the follow-on can be enforced if the difference is 150 runs or more. If the Test is two days or fewer then the "follow-on" value is 100 runs.

After 80 overs, the captain of the bowling side may take a new ball, although this is not required. [36] The captain will usually take the new ball: being harder and smoother than an old ball, a new ball generally favours faster bowlers who can make it bounce more variably. The roughened, softer surface of an old ball can be more conducive to spin bowlers, or those using reverse swing. The captain may delay the decision to take the new ball if he wishes to continue with his spinners (because the pitch favours spin). After a new ball has been taken, should an innings last a further 80 overs, then the captain will have the option to take another new ball.

A Test match will produce a result by means of one of six scenarios:

Clothing and equipment

Test cricketers playing in their whites. Pollock to Hussey.jpg
Test cricketers playing in their whites.

Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit. Unlike in Limited overs cricket, this remains the case in Test cricket, as mandated by the ICC Clothing and Equipment Regulations. [43]

Competitions

Tours

Test cricket is almost always played as a series of matches between two countries, with all matches in the series taking place in the same country (the host). Often there is a perpetual trophy that is awarded to the winner, the most famous of which is the Ashes contested between England and Australia. There have been two exceptions to the bilateral nature of Test cricket: the 1912 Triangular Tournament, a three-way competition between England, Australia and South Africa (hosted by England), and the Asian Test Championship, an event held in 1998–99 and 2001–02.

The number of matches in Test series has varied from one to seven. [44] Up until the early 1990s, [45] Test series between international teams were organised between the two national cricket organisations with umpires provided by the home team. With the entry of more countries into Test cricket, and a wish by the ICC to maintain public interest in Tests in the face of the popularity of One Day International cricket, a rotation system was introduced that sees all ten Test teams playing each other over a six-year cycle, and an official ranking system (with a trophy held by the highest-ranked team). In this system, umpires are provided by the ICC. An elite panel of eleven umpires was maintained since 2002, and the panel is supplemented by an additional International Panel that includes three umpires named by each Test-playing country. The elite umpires officiate almost all Test matches, though usually not Tests involving their home country.

Perpetual trophies

Several pairs of Test teams have established perpetual trophies which are competed for whenever teams play each other in Test series. The current ones are:

Name of trophyTeam 1Team 2First contestedLatest contested
The Ashes Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of England.svg  England 1882–83 2023
Anthony de Mello Trophy [A] Flag of England.svg  England Flag of India.svg  India 1951–52 [46] 2023–24
Pataudi Trophy [A] Flag of England.svg  England Flag of India.svg  India 2007 2021
Frank Worrell Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 1960–61 2023-24
Richards–Botham Trophy [B] Flag of England.svg  England WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 2021–22 2021–22
Trans-Tasman Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1985–86 2019–20
Border–Gavaskar Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of India.svg  India 1996–97 2020–21
Southern Cross Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 1999–2000 [47] 2003–04
Sir Vivian Richards Trophy Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 2000–01 [48] 2021
Clive Lloyd Trophy WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 2001 [49] 2017–18
Basil D'Oliveira Trophy Flag of England.svg  England Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2004–05 2022
Warne–Muralitharan Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 2007–08 2022
The Freedom Trophy Flag of India.svg  India Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2015–16 2021–22
Sobers–Tissera Trophy Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 2015–16 2021–22
Benaud–Qadir Trophy Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 2021–22 [50] 2023–24
Tangiwai Shield Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2023-24 2023-24
A The Anthony de Mello Trophy is awarded for the India–England test series played in India, whilst the Pataudi Trophy is for the series played in England.
B The Richards-Botham Trophy, first played for in 2021–22, replaced the Wisden Trophy, which was discontinued after 2020.

Number of Perpetual Trophies contested by team

teamTrophy
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 7
Flag of England.svg  England 5
WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies
Flag of India.svg  India 4
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 2
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1

International Test rankings

The twelve Test-playing nations are currently ranked as follows:

ICC Men's Test Team Rankings
RankTeamMatchesPointsRating
1Flag of India.svg  India 384,636122
2Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 404,798120
3Flag of England.svg  England 495,443111
4Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 272,67199
5Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 323,14098
6Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 292,57689
7WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 312,50581
8Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 282,21279
9Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 221,13151
10Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 722332
11Cricket Ireland flag.svg  Ireland 65810
12Flag of Afghanistan (2013-2021).svg  Afghanistan 500
Reference: ICC Test Rankings, 11 March 2024
"Matches" is no. matches + no. series played in the 12–24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.

World Test Championship

After years of delays since proposals began in 2009, a league competition for Test cricket was held in 2019–2021. Arranged as a bilateral series in various countries with one team as host and another team as visitor. The length of each series varies between 2 and 5 matches. Ireland, Zimbabwe and Afghanistan are not taking part in this competition, but instead play a program of Test matches with each other and other teams during the same period.

Final results

YearFinal statisticsIndividual tournament statistics
VenueWinnerResultRunner-upPlayer of the matchMost runsHighest scoreMost centuriesMost wicketsMost five-wicket hauls
2021 Flag of England.svg Rose Bowl, Southampton Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand New Zealand won by 8 wickets [51] Flag of India.svg  India Kyle Jamieson Marnus Labuschagne, 1675 [52] David Warner, 335* [53] Marnus Labuschagne, 5 [54] Ravichandran Ashwin, 71 [55] Kyle Jamieson, 5 [56]
2023 Flag of England.svg The Oval, LondonFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Australia won by 209 runsFlag of India.svg  India Travis Head [57] Joe Root, 1915 [57] Tom Latham, 252 [57] Joe Root, 8 [57] Nathan Lyon, 88 [57] Nathan Lyon, 5 [57]

Popularity

Supporters of Test cricket, including Adam Gilchrist, argue that it is "the ultimate test of a player's and team's ability". [58] However, it has been suggested that Test cricket may be losing popularity, particularly in the face of competition from short form cricket. [59] Day/night Test matches have been suggested as one way to address this problem. [60] The suggested fall in popularity has been disputed, with a Marylebone Cricket Club poll showing that 86% of all cricket fans support Test cricket, more than any other format. [61]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1992 Cricket World Cup</span> Cricket World Cup

The 1992 Cricket World Cup was the fifth Cricket World Cup, the premier One Day International cricket tournament for men's national teams, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC). It was held in Australia and New Zealand from 22 February to 25 March 1992, and finished with Pakistan beating England by 22 runs in the final to become the World Cup champions for the first time. The tournament is remembered for the controversial "rain rule".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">One Day International</span> Form of limited overs cricket, 50 overs format

A One Day International (ODI) is a form of 50 overs limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, currently 50, with the game lasting up to 7 hours. The Cricket World Cup, generally held every four years, is played in this format. One Day International matches are also called Limited Overs Internationals (LOI), although this generic term may also refer to Twenty20 International matches. They are major matches and considered the highest standard of List A, limited-overs competition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New Zealand national cricket team</span> Mens international cricket team

The New Zealand national cricket team represents New Zealand in men's international cricket. Nicknamed the Black Caps, they played their first Test in 1930 against England in Christchurch, becoming the fifth country to play Test cricket. From 1930 New Zealand had to wait until 1956, more than 26 years, for its first Test victory, against the West Indies at Eden Park in Auckland. They played their first ODI in the 1972–73 season against Pakistan in Christchurch. New Zealand are the inaugural champions of WTC which they won in 2021 and they have also won ICC CT in 2000. They have played in the CWC final twice and the T20 WC final once.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pakistan national cricket team</span> National sports team

The Pakistan national cricket team, has represented Pakistan in international cricket since 1952. It is controlled by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB), the governing body for cricket in Pakistan, which is a Full Member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). Pakistan compete in cricket tours and tournaments sanctioned by the PCB and other regional or international cricket bodies in Test, One Day International (ODI), and Twenty20 International (T20) formats. Pakistan are current ICC Champions Trophy holders.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Twenty20</span> Form of limited overs cricket, 20-over format

Twenty20 (T20) is a shortened game format of cricket. At the professional level, it was introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) in 2003 for the inter-county competition. In a Twenty20 game, the two teams have a single innings each, which is restricted to a maximum of twenty overs. Together with first-class and List A cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three current forms of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council (ICC) as being at the highest international or domestic level.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Women's Test cricket</span> Longest form of cricket

Women's Test cricket is the longest format of women's cricket and is the female equivalent to men's Test cricket. Matches comprise four-innings and are held over a maximum of four days between two of the leading cricketing nations. The rules governing the format differ little from those for the men's game, with differences generally being technicalities surrounding umpiring and field size.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kumar Dharmasena</span> Sri Lankan cricket umpire

Deshabandu Handunnettige Deepthi Priyantha Kumar Dharmasena is a Sri Lankan cricket umpire and former international cricketer. He is a member of the Elite Panel of ICC Umpires and the first person to participate in an ICC Cricket World Cup final both as a player and an umpire. A right-handed batsman and a right-arm off break bowler, Dharmasena was a member of the Sri Lankan side that won the 1996 Cricket World Cup.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Twenty20 International</span> Form of cricket

A Twenty20 International (T20I) is a form of cricket, played between international members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), where each team faces a maximum of twenty overs. These matches hold top-class status and are the highest T20 standard. The game is played under the rules of Twenty20 cricket. Starting from the format's inception in 2005, T20I status only applied to Full Members and some Associate Member teams. However, in April 2018, the ICC announced that it would grant T20I status to all its 105 members from 1 January 2019.

Michael Andrew Gough is an English cricket umpire and former cricketer. He was a right-handed batsman and a right-arm off-break bowler. As an international umpire, Gough is a member of the Elite Panel of ICC Umpires, representing the England and Wales Cricket Board.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Steve Smith (cricketer)</span> Australian international cricketer

Steven Peter Devereux Smith is an Australian international cricketer and former captain of the Australian national team in all three formats of the game. He is widely regarded as one of the best Test batsmen since Don Bradman, as well as one of the best in all formats in the history of the sport. Smith was a member of the Australian teams that won the 2015 and 2023 Cricket World Cup, the 2021 ICC T20 World Cup, and the 2023 ICC World Test Championship final.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marais Erasmus</span> South African cricket umpire

Marais Erasmus is a South African former first-class cricketer who is currently serving as an international cricket umpire. He is a member of the Elite Panel of ICC Umpires and stands in matches in all three formats of international cricket – Test matches, One Day Internationals (ODIs), and Twenty20 Internationals (T20Is).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cricket</span> Bat-and-ball game

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which is a 22-yard (20-metre) pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. Two players from the batting team stand in front of either wicket, with one player from the fielding team bowling the ball towards the striker's wicket from the opposite end of the pitch. The striker's goal is to hit the bowled ball and then switch places with the nonstriker, with the batting team scoring one run for each exchange. Runs are also scored when the ball reaches or crosses the boundary of the field or when the ball is bowled illegally.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Decision Review System</span> Technology-based system used in the sport of cricket

The Decision Review System (DRS), formerly known as the Umpire Decision Review System(UDRS), is a technology-based system used in cricket to assist the match officials in their decision-making. On-field umpires may choose to consult with the third umpire (known as an Umpire Review), and players may request that the third umpire consider a decision of the on-field umpires (known as a Player Review).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2013 ICC Champions Trophy</span> Cricket tournament

The 2013 ICC Champions Trophy was the seventh ICC Champions Trophy, a One Day International cricket tournament held in England and Wales between 6 and 23 June 2013.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2021 ICC World Test Championship final</span> Cricket match

The final of the 2019–2021 ICC World Test Championship, the inaugural ICC World Test Championship, was played from 18 to 23 June 2021 at the Rose Bowl, Southampton, England, between India and New Zealand. It was initially scheduled for five days, but time lost during the game to rain interruptions meant that the planned reserve day was used. New Zealand won the match by eight wickets to be crowned as the winners of the inaugural ICC World Test Championship. New Zealand won the ICC Test Championship mace for the first time, and were also awarded the cash prize of US$1.6 million, while India won US$800,000.

References

  1. 1 2 Bowen, Rowland (1970). Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. p. 99. ISBN   978-04-13278-60-9.
  2. "Schedule for inaugural World Test Championship announced". International Cricket Council.
  3. Ramsey, Andrew (20 June 2018). "Aussies to host Afghans as part of new schedule". cricket.com.au .
  4. "Test Championship to replace Champions Trophy". Cricinfo. 29 June 2013.
  5. United States of America v Canada 1844 Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine . ESPNcricinfo.
  6. "Tenth Match – Lord Sheffield's Team v Combined Australia" Archived 8 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine Cricket, issue 291, 25 February 1892, p. 27.
  7. "The First Test Match" Archived 8 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine Cricket, issue 379, 28 December 1894, pp. 463–464.
  8. "List of Test Matches" . CricketArchive. Archived from the original on 9 September 2022. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
  9. "Game on: a rich sporting history" Archived 8 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine . Hilferty, Tim: The Advertiser. 5 May 2012.
  10. "Ireland & Afghanistan awarded Test status by International Cricket Council". BBC News. 22 June 2017. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  11. Zimbabwe Cricket Side Resume International Test Play After Six-Year Break Archived 31 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Voice of America.
  12. "NZC 'big supporter' of two-tier Test system, says CEO". ESPNcricinfo. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  13. Della Penna, Peter (4 September 2016). "Afghanistan ready to play Tests – ACB chief executive". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  14. Isam, Mohammad (27 June 2016). "BCB vice-president against two-tier Test system". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  15. Della Penna, Peter (31 August 2016). "Four-day Tests, two-tier system not the answer – Thakur". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  16. Dobell, George (1 June 2016). "ICC planning two Test divisions amid major overhaul". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  17. Gollapudi, Nagraj (7 September 2016). "Two-tier proposal shelved at ICC meeting". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  18. Brettig, Daniel. "Baseball-style conference structure proposed for Tests". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  19. "Ireland and Scotland to get Test chance as ICC approves play-off". BBC Sport. BBC. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  20. "The Laws of Cricket – Law 15.8". Lords.org. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  21. "ICC Standard Test match Playing Conditions ("Playing Conditions") cl 16.1.1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  22. "Playing Conditions cl 16.2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  23. "Ireland tour of England". www.espncricinfo.com. ESPNcricinfo. 1 June 2023. Archived from the original on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  24. "Cremer senses opportunity in shorter contest". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 29 May 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  25. "Test, ODI leagues approved by ICC Board". ESPN Cricinfo. 13 October 2017. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  26. "South Africa to play Zimbabwe in inaugural four-day Test". ESPN Cricinfo. 13 October 2017. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  27. "Australian cricket board to 'seriously consider' four-day Test matches". The National. 28 December 2019. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  28. "ICC to consider mandatory four-day Tests". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  29. "Lord's could host first day night Test in May 2010". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  30. "ICC paves way for Day-Night Tests". Wisden India. 29 October 2012. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  31. "First day-night Test for Adelaide Oval". ESPNcricinfo. 29 June 2015. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  32. "LAW 13 – INNINGS". Lords.org. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  33. "Law 14 – The follow-on". MCC. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  34. "Matches where Follow-On Available | Lost by Side Enforcing Follow-On". Howstat.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  35. "2nd Test: England v New Zealand at Leeds, May 24–28, 2013 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  36. "Law 4 – The ball". MCC. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  37. "On This Day: 19 August". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  38. "1st Test: West Indies v England at Kingston, Jan 29 – Feb 2, 1998 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  39. "2nd Test: West Indies v England at North Sound, Feb 13–17, 2009 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  40. "Law 16 – The result". MCC. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  41. "England awarded abandoned Oval Test 'win'". The Guardian. London. 1 February 2009. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  42. "Test abandoned after ball dispute". BBC News. 20 August 2006. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  43. https://images.icc-cricket.com/image/upload/prd/vou5znt1fvbkl0ucvqll.pdf
  44. "Australia v England, Seventh Test, 1970–71". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  45. Rajesh, S. (16 April 2011). "Neutral umpires". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 27 December 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  46. "India-England series played for Anthony De Mello trophy: BCCI". The Hindu. 6 November 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  47. "Southern Cross Trophy, 1999/00". Archived from the original on 16 July 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  48. "Statistics / Statsguru / Test matches / Team records". Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  49. "Test trophy to be named after Clive Lloyd". 28 July 2001. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  50. "Pakistan and Australia to play for Benaud-Qadir Trophy". Pakistan Cricket Board. 10 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  51. "Full Scorecard of India vs New Zealand Final 2019–2021 – Score Report". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 3 October 2022. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  52. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019–2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  53. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019–2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  54. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019–2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  55. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019–2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  56. "ICC World Test Championship, 2019–2021 Cricket Team Records & Stats". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Records in ICC World Test Championship, 2021–2023". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
  58. "Adam Gilchrist's Cowdrey Lecture, 2009". ESPNcricinfo. 24 June 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
  59. "Chris Waters – Reports of the death of Test cricket have been greatly exaggerated". Yorkshire Post. 9 February 2019. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021. According to Shashank Manohar, chairman of the International Cricket Council, Test cricket itself "is dying, to be honest". Details of the funeral arrangements will be announced in due course. "Nowadays, people don't have five days (of) time to watch a Test match," said Manohar. "From ten to five, everybody has their own job to do, so it is very difficult for them to watch this game. T20s get over in three-and-a-half hours, like watching a movie. Therefore, it is picking up very fast."
  60. Ganguly, Sudipto (26 February 2020). "Australian McGrath backs day-night tests to revive popularity". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  61. "Test Cricket Popularity as Strong as Ever Says MCC World Cricket Committee Following MCC Survey". lords.org. 9 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 September 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021. Over 13,000 responders from more than 100 countries took part in the survey, with the majority of responders supporting England, India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Sri Lanka. Overwhelmingly, Test cricket came out as the format that interests fans the most, regardless of country supported or age. An average of 86% of the responders placed Test cricket as their preferred format to watch, follow and support over One-Day Internationals, T20 Internationals and domestic T20 matches.

Bibliography