Twenty20 International

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A Twenty20 International between England and Sri Lanka in June 2006 in Southampton Cricket Ground. England vs Sri Lanka.jpg
A Twenty20 International between England and Sri Lanka in June 2006 in Southampton Cricket Ground.

A Twenty20 International (T20I) is a form of cricket, played between two of the international members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), in which each team faces a maximum of twenty overs. The matches have top-class status and are the highest T20 standard. The game is played under the rules of Twenty20 cricket. Starting from the format's inception in 2005, T20I status only applied to Full Members and some Associate Member teams. However, in April 2018, the ICC announced that it would grant T20I status to all its 105 members from 1 January 2019.

Contents

The shortened format was initially introduced to bolster crowds for the domestic game, and was not intended to be played internationally, but the first Twenty20 International took place on 17 February 2005 when Australia defeated New Zealand, and the first tournament was played two years later, with the introduction of the ICC T20 World Cup. In 2016, for the first time in a calendar year, more Twenty20 International matches (100) were played than ODI matches (99). [1] As of November 2021, 90 nations feature in ICC T20I team rankings. [2]

Twenty20 International format also sees one mandatory powerplay taken in the first six overs. This shorter format of the game makes reaching the traditional milestones of scoring a century or taking five wickets in an innings more difficult, and few players have achieved these. The highest individual score in a Twenty20 International is 172, made by Australia's Aaron Finch against Zimbabwe in 2018, while Nigeria's Peter Aho has the best bowling figures of 6/5 against Sierra Leone in October 2021.

Origins

Cricket itself was probably first played in England in the Late Middle Ages, but it did not rise to prominence until the eighteenth century. A set of laws were drawn up in 1744, and the game achieved a level of relative standardisation by the late nineteenth century. [3] One-day cricket was trialled in 1962, and the first domestic tournament played the following year, [4] and in 1971, England and Australia contested the first One Day International. The match consisted of one innings for each side, with 40 eight-ball overs. [5]

In the 1990s, a number of countries were exploring the possibility of a shorter game still: in New Zealand, Martin Crowe developed Cricket Max, in which each team bats for 10 eight-ball overs, [6] while in Australia they considered an eight-a-side contest they dubbed "Super 8s". At the same time, the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) conducted consumer research, and proposed the idea of a 20 overs-per-side contest, which would last for about three hours. [7] The first match was played in 2003 between Hampshire and Sussex.[ citation needed ]

History

The first Twenty20 International match between two men's sides was played on 17 February 2005, involving Australia and New Zealand. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack reported that "neither side took the game especially seriously", [8] and it was noted by ESPNcricinfo that but for a large score for Ricky Ponting, "the concept would have shuddered". [9] However, Ponting himself said "if it does become an international game then I'm sure the novelty won't be there all the time". [10]

Two further matches were played that year; England beat Australia in June, and South Africa were defeated by New Zealand in October. [11] Early the following year, a contest between New Zealand and the West Indies finished as the first tied match, and a tiebreak was played for the first time in men's international cricket: the two sides took part in a bowl-out to determine a winner; New Zealand won 3–0. [12]

The game had initially been developed to boost the interest in domestic cricket, and to aid this the international teams were only allowed to host three T20Is each year. The cricket manager for the ICC, David Richardson, also commented that "Part of the success of Twenty20 cricket is making sure it can coexist with Test cricket and one-dayers." [13] Despite this, the first international tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa; the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. [13] That tournament was won by India, who defeated their close rivals Pakistan in the final. Writing for The Guardian , Dilip Premachandran suggested that the competition's success meant that "the format is here to stay". [14] The next tournament was scheduled for 2009, and it was decided that they would take place biannually (more frequently than the 50 over Cricket World Cup, which occurs once every four years). [15] In the opening match of the 2007 World Twenty20, Chris Gayle scored the first century in a T20I, the achievement being reached in the twentieth match of the format. [16]

The 500th T20I match was contested between Ireland and the United Arab Emirates at the Sheikh Zayed Stadium, Abu Dhabi on 16 February 2016. [17]

ICC decided to use Umpire Decision Review System (DRS) in Twenty20 Internationals from the end of September 2017, [18] [19] with its first use in the India-Australia T20I series in October 2017. [20]

Current international rankings

Current ICC members by membership status:

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Full members (12)

Associate members with ODI status (8)

Associate members (85)

Former members (4)

Non-members International Cricket Council members (by status) 2017.svg
Current ICC members by membership status:
  Full members (12)
  Associate members with ODI status (8)
  Associate members (85)
  Former members (4)
  Non-members
ICC Men's T20I Team Rankings
RankTeamMatchesPointsRating
1Flag of India.svg  India 6116,326268
2Flag of England.svg  England 4913,029266
3Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 5514,168258
4Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 4110,510256
5Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 4812,135253
6Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 4711,784251
7WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies 5112,039236
8Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 5011,732235
9Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 5111,328222
10Flag of Afghanistan (2004-2021).svg  Afghanistan 306,512217
11Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 468,976195
12Cricket Ireland flag.svg  Ireland 5410,282190
13Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 295,298183
14Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 325,846183
15Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 244,373182
16Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 305,387180
17Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 325,668177
18Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 213,499167
19Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 243,495146
20Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 192,464130
21Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 202,555128
22Flag of Jersey.svg  Jersey 232,924127
23Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 131,643126
24Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 364,359121
25Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 182,153120
26Flag of the United States.svg  United States 161,908119
27Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 212,416115
28Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 282,979106
29Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 262,699104
30Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 181,796100
31Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 191,87499
32Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 191,81896
33Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 872591
34Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 342,99688
35Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda 121,05388
36Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 211,70581
37Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 211,51872
38Flag of Guernsey.svg  Guernsey 171,19470
39Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man 1067868
40Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 201,34967
41Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands 852966
42Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 261,68665
43Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 231,48264
44Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 1277164
45Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 1164559
46Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1164459
47Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 241,35957
48Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 1789753
49Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1789152
50Flag of France.svg  France 947052
51Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 943548
52Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 1253445
53Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1669043
54Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 1666141
55Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands 624541
56Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 281,13741
57Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg  Switzerland 1139641
58Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 726538
59Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 331,17936
60Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 723634
61Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 2377434
62Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 1033133
63Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan 823930
64Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 617730
65Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 1128326
66Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 1126024
67Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1635822
68Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 1635722
69Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 613222
70Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 612521
71Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 1523616
72Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1718411
73Flag of Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 6549
74Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 342969
75Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 15815
76Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 8425
77Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar 21683
78Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 9273
79Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1000
80Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini 1200
81Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 600
82Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 600
83Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 1200
84Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 700
References: ICC T20I rankings, ESPNcricinfo, As of 16 November 2022
"Matches" is the number of matches played in the 12–24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.

Teams with T20I status

Permanent T20I status

Prior to 2019, permanent T20I status was limited to the Test-playing nations (the full members of the ICC), which included 12 teams after the promotion of Afghanistan and Ireland to full member status in 2017. In April 2018, the ICC announced that it would grant T20I status to all of its 105 members from 1 January 2019. [21] [22] [23] Nations that have played T20I cricket are listed below, with the date of their first T20I after gaining permanent T20I status shown in brackets (some of these nations had previously played T20Is with temporary status):

  1. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia (17 February 2005)
  2. Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand (17 February 2005)
  3. Flag of England.svg  England (13 June 2005)
  4. Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa (21 October 2005)
  5. WestIndiesCricketFlagPre1999.svg  West Indies (16 February 2006)
  6. Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka (15 June 2006)
  7. Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan (28 August 2006)
  8. Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh (28 November 2006)
  9. Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe (28 November 2006)
  10. Flag of India.svg  India (1 December 2006)
  11. Flag of Afghanistan (2004-2021).svg  Afghanistan (5 February 2018)
  12. Cricket Ireland flag.svg  Ireland (12 June 2018)
  13. Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain (20 January 2019)
  14. Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait (20 January 2019)
  15. Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives (20 January 2019)
  16. Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia (20 January 2019)
  17. Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar (21 January 2019)
  18. Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal (31 January 2019)
  19. Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates (31 January 2019)
  20. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands (13 February 2019)
  21. Flag of Oman.svg  Oman (13 February 2019)
  22. Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland (13 February 2019)
  23. Flag of the United States.svg  United States (15 March 2019)
  24. Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea (22 March 2019)
  25. Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines (22 March 2019)
  26. Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu (22 March 2019)
  27. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta (29 March 2019)
  28. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain (29 March 2019)
  29. Flag of Belize.svg  Belize (25 April 2019)
  30. Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica (25 April 2019)
  31. Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico (25 April 2019)
  32. Flag of Panama.svg  Panama (25 April 2019)
  33. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium (11 May 2019)
  34. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany (11 May 2019)
  35. Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana (20 May 2019)
  36. Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana (20 May 2019)
  37. Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya (20 May 2019)
  38. Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia (20 May 2019)
  39. Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria (20 May 2019)
  40. Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda (20 May 2019)
  41. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy (25 May 2019)
  42. Flag of Guernsey.svg  Guernsey (31 May 2019)
  43. Flag of Jersey.svg  Jersey (31 May 2019)
  44. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway (15 June 2019)
  45. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark (16 June 2019)
  46. Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia (24 June 2019)
  47. Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand (24 June 2019)
  48. Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa (8 July 2019)
  49. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland (13 July 2019)
  50. Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore (22 July 2019)
  51. Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda (18 August 2019)
  52. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada (18 August 2019)
  53. Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands (18 August 2019)
  54. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria (29 August 2019)
  55. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg (29 August 2019)
  56. Flag of Romania.svg  Romania (29 August 2019)
  57. Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey (29 August 2019)
  58. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic (30 August 2019)
  59. Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina (3 October 2019)
  60. Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil (3 October 2019)
  61. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile (3 October 2019)
  62. Flag of Peru.svg  Peru (3 October 2019)
  63. Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong (5 October 2019)
  64. Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria (14 October 2019)
  65. Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia (14 October 2019)
  66. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece (15 October 2019)
  67. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal (25 October 2019)
  68. Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar (26 October 2019)
  69. Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi (6 November 2019)
  70. Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique (6 November 2019)
  71. Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan (5 December 2019)
  72. Flag of Iran.svg  Iran (23 February 2020)
  73. Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man (21 August 2020)
  74. Flag of France.svg  France (5 August 2021)
  75. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden (14 August 2021)
  76. Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda (18 August 2021)
  77. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary (2 September 2021)
  78. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus (5 October 2021)
  79. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia (5 October 2021)
  80. Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini (16 October 2021)
  81. Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho (16 October 2021)
  82. Flag of Seychelles.svg  Seychelles (16 October 2021)
  83. Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone (19 October 2021)
  84. Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg  Switzerland (22 October 2021)
  85. Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania (2 November 2021)
  86. Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon (3 November 2021)
  87. Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas (7 November 2021)
  88. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel (28 June 2022)
  89. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia (13 July 2022)
  90. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia (25 July 2022)
  91. Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands (9 September 2022)
  92. Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji (9 September 2022)
  93. Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia (9 October 2022)
  94. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (9 October 2022)
  95. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea (15 October 2022)
  96. Flag of Mali.svg  Mali (17 November 2022)
  97. Flag of Saint Helena.svg  Saint Helena (17 November 2022)

Temporary T20I status

Between 2005 and 2018, the ICC granted temporary ODI and T20I status to a selection of other teams (known as Associate members). Teams earned this temporary status for a period of four years based on their performance in the quadrennial ICC World Cricket League – or, more specifically, based on the top six finishing positions at the ICC World Cup Qualifier, which is the final event of the World Cricket League. [24] Teams could also earn this status by qualifying for the ICC T20 World Cup.

Twelve nations held this temporary T20I status before being promoted to T20I status or relegated after underperforming at the World Cup Qualifier or World Twenty20 Qualifier:

The ICC has also given special T20I status to the ICC World XI team for:

Cricket at international multi-sport events

Ajantha Mendis was the first player to take six wickets in a T20I Mendis bowling.jpg
Ajantha Mendis was the first player to take six wickets in a T20I

Cricket was played as part of the 1900 Summer Olympics, when England and France contested a two-day match. [27] In 1998, cricket was played as part of the Commonwealth Games, on this occasion in the 50-over format. There was some talk about Twenty20 cricket being part of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, which were held in Delhi, but at the time the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), were not in favour of the short format of the game, and it was not included. [28]

Cricket was played in 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China [29] and 2014 Asian Games in Incheon, South Korea. [30] India skipped both times. [31] There was further calls for subsequent Commonwealth Games and Olympic Games. The Commonwealth Games Federation asked the ICC to participate in the 2014 and 2018 Commonwealth Games, but the ICC turned down the invitation. [32] In 2010, the International Olympic Committee recognised the International Cricket Council as a governing body that complied to the requirements of the Olympic charter which in turn meant that cricket could apply to be included in the Olympic Games, [33] but in 2013 the ICC announced that it had no intentions to make such an application, primarily due to opposition from the BCCI. ESPNcricinfo suggested that the opposition might be based on the possible loss of income.[ citation needed ] In April 2016, ICC chief executive David Richardson said that Twenty20 cricket can have a chance of getting in for the 2024 Summer Games, but there must be collective support shown by the ICC's membership base, in particular from BCCI, in order for there to be a chance of inclusion. [34]

Statistics

Rohit Sharma is the only player to score 4 T20I Tons Rohit Sharma November 2016 (cropped).jpg
Rohit Sharma is the only player to score 4 T20I Tons

The highest team total in a T20I was made by Afghanistan versus Ireland when they scored 278/3. [35] [36] The lowest total was recorded in 2019, when Czech Republic bowled out Turkey for just 21 runs. [37] The highest successful chase was made in February 2018, when Australia scored 245 runs to overhaul New Zealand's target and win the match. [38]

As of 29 November 2022, Virat Kohli has scored the most runs in the format with 4,008 [39] Aaron Finch has made the highest individual score in T20Is, with his innings of 172 against Zimbabwe in 2018. [40] Sri Lankan bowler Lasith Malinga holds the records for the most wickets, having taken 107 wickets in 84 matches, [41] whilst India's Deepak Chahar recorded the best bowling figures when he took 6 wickets for 7 runs against Bangladesh in November 2019. [42]

See also

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