|National Capital Territory of Delhi|
|Settled||c. 2600 BCE|
|Capital of Kuru Kingdom||c. 1200 BCE|
|Capital of Tomara dynasty||c. 1052|
|Capital of Delhi Sultanate||1214|
|Capital of British India||1911|
|Formation of Union Territory||1956|
|Formation of National Capital Territory||1 February 1992|
|• Body||Government of Delhi|
|• Lt. Governor||Anil Baijal, IAS|
|• Chief Minister||Arvind Kejriwal (AAP)|
|• Deputy Chief Minister||Manish Sisodia (AAP)|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (70 seats)|
|• Parliamentary constituencies|
|• Union territory||1,484.0 km2 (573.0 sq mi)|
|• Water||18 km2 (6.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||200–250 m (650–820 ft)|
|• Union territory||16,787,941|
|• Density||11,312/km2 (29,298/sq mi)|
|• Urban||16,349,831 (2nd)|
|• Megacity||11,034,555 (2nd)|
|• Metro (2018)||28,514,000 (1st)|
|• Additional official|
|• Nominal||₹14.80 lakh crore (US$200 billion)|
|• Nominal Per Capita||₹562,529 (US$7,500)|
|• Metro GDP/PPP (2016)||$370 billion|
|Time zone||UTC+5.30 (IST)|
|Area code(s)||+91 11|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-DL|
|HDI (2018)||0.746 (High) · 5th|
|Sex ratio (2011)||868 ♀/1000 ♂|
Delhi ( // ; Hindi pronunciation: [ˈdɪlːiː] Dillī; Punjabi pronunciation: [ˈdɪlːiː] Dillī; Urdu pronunciation: [ˈdɛɦliː] Dêhlī), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. Located on the Yamuna river, Delhi is bordered by the state of Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, while the NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban agglomeration, which includes the satellite cities of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area known as the National Capital Region (NCR), has an estimated population of over 28 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in India and the second-largest in the world. Recent estimates of the metropolitan economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive city of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India (after Mumbai), and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index. Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India (after Goa). Delhi is of great historical significance as an important commercial, transport, and cultural hub, as well as the political centre of India.
During the Vedic period, Delhi was the site of Indraprastha or Indrapat,an Indo-Aryan city which served as a capital of the Kuru Kingdom, the first state-level society in the Indian subcontinent. The city later served as a capital of various other kingdoms and empires, including the Hindu Tomaras and the Muslim Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. For many centuries, Delhi has been a dominant trading and commercial centre in North India, and since the 1990s it has emerged as an important node in the international corporate and financial network.
Although a union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the inaugural 1951 Asian Games, 1982 Asian Games, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.
Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
The ancient name of the site of modern Delhi is Indraprastha, which literally means "Plain of Indra"or "City of Indra" in Sanskrit.
There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved. According to Panjab Notes and Queries, the name of the city at the time of King Prithviraj was dilpat, and that dilpat and dilli are probably derived from the old Hindi word dil meaning "eminence". The former director of the Archaeological Survey of India, Alexander Cunningham, mentioned that dilli later became dihli/dehli. Some suggest the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway"—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:
Traditionally seven cities have been associated with the region of Delhi. The earliest, Indraprastha, is part of a literary description in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata (composed c. 400 BCE to 200 CE but describing an earlier time) which situates a city on a knoll on the banks of the river Yamuna. According to art historian Catherine B. Asher, the topographical description of the Mahabharata matches the area of Purana Qila, a fourteenth-century CE fort of the Delhi sultanate, but the analogy does not go much further. Whereas the Mahabharata speaks of a beautifully decorated city with surrounding fortification, the excavations have yielded "uneven findings of painted gray pottery characteristic of the eleventh century BCE; no signs of a built environment, much less fortifications, have been revealed."
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BCE); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BCE) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of several major cities can be found in Delhi. The first of these were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 1052 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in 1178 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.
The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori in the second battle of Tarain, an invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India.Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. When Ghori died without an heir in 1206 CE, Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, and laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–1236), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India. Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltutmish, succeeded him as the Sultan of Delhi. She was the first and only woman to rule over Delhi prior to the British Raj.
For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period. The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1320). Under the second Khalji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi Sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur in 1398, who massacred 100,000 captive civilian. Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.
In 1526, Babur a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad , which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence.In 1737, Maratha forces led by Baji Rao I sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British. Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.
In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi.
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab.In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British-held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi, was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.
During the partition of India, around five lakh Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while around three lakh Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. as of 2013 [update] ), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.Ethnic Punjabis are believed to account for at least 40% of Delhi's total population and are predominantly Hindi-speaking Punjabi Hindus. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from its predecessor, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi.The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.
In 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries. There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in 2005 and 2008, resulting in a total of 92 deaths.
The 2020 Delhi riots, Delhi's worst communal violence in decades, which was noted for bloodshed, property destruction, and rioting in North East Delhi began on 23 February 2020 and was caused mainly by Hindu mobs attacking Muslims.Of the 53 people killed, two-thirds were Muslims. The dead also included a policeman, an intelligence officer and over a dozen Hindus.
Delhi is located in Northern India, at 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region. In addition to the wetlands formed by the Yamuna river, Delhi continues to retain over 500 ponds (wetlands < 5 ha), that in turn support considerable number of bird species. Delhi's ponds, despite experiencing ecological deterioration due to garbage dumping and concretization, supports the largest number of bird species known to be using ponds anywhere in the world. Existing policy in Delhi prevents the conversion of wetlands and, quite inadvertently, has led to the city's ponds becoming invaluable refugia for birds.. The city is bordered on its northern, western, and southern sides by the state of Haryana and to the east by that of Uttar Pradesh (UP). Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna River was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, northeast, and northwest parts of the city. It reaches a height of
The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).[ citation needed ]
Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes.
Delhi features a dry-winter humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The warm season lasts from 21 March to 15 June with an average daily high temperature above 39 °C (102 °F). The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of 40 °C (104 °F) and low of 28 °C (82 °F). The cold season lasts from 26 November to 9 February with an average daily high temperature below 20 °C (68 °F). The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of 2 °C (36 °F) and high of 14 °C (57 °F). In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity. The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.
Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 2 to 47 °C (35.6 to 116.6 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −2.2 and 48.4 °C (28.0 and 119.1 °F), respectively. The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C (113 °F) in 1931. The average annual rainfall is approximately 886 mm (34.9 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August. The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.
|Record high °C (°F)||32.4|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||25.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||20.5|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||7.6|
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||4.1|
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.6|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||19.3|
|Average rainy days||1.3||1.8||1.6||1.2||2.5||4.6||9.4||9.8||5.5||1.0||0.5||0.9||40.1|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||52||42||35||23||26||39||62||66||58||44||48||54||45|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||220.1||223.2||248.0||276.0||285.2||219.0||179.8||176.7||219.0||260.4||246.0||220.1||2,773.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||7.1||7.9||8.0||9.2||9.2||7.3||5.8||5.7||7.3||8.4||8.2||7.1||7.6|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department (sun 1971–2000)|
|Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)|
|Climate data for Delhi (Indira Gandhi International Airport) 1981–2010, extremes 1956–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.0|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||25.8|
|Average high °C (°F)||20.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||7.3|
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||3.6|
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.2|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||18.4|
|Average rainy days||1.4||1.7||1.4||1.0||2.6||4.0||8.6||8.3||4.6||0.9||0.5||0.7||35.7|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||53||44||34||23||26||40||61||66||56||41||42||52||45|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Delhi was the most pollutedcity in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database. According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year. Air quality index of Delhi is generally moderate (101–200) level between January to September, and then it drastically deteriorates to Very Poor (301–400), Severe (401–500) or Hazardous (500+) levels in three months between October to December, due to various factors including stubble burning, fire crackers burning during Diwali and cold weather. During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states. It has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms. Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women. The dense smog and haze in Delhi during winter results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year. According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.
India's Ministry of Earth Sciences published a research paper in October 2018 attributing almost 41% of PM2.5 air pollution in Delhi to vehicular emissions, 21.5% to dust/fire and 18% to industries.The director of Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) alleged that the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) is lobbying "against the report" because it is "inconvenient" to the automobile industry. Environmentalists have also criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues. In 2014, an environmental panel appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars, but till date no action has been taken to penalise the automobile industry.
Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it; as of 2015 [update] , awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing. Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution—Delhi has the third-highest quantity of trees among Indian cities and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In 1996, the CSE started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on CNG and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives". The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.however,
However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.
The Circles of Sustainability assessment of Delhi gives a marginally more favourable impression of the ecological sustainability of the city only because it is based on a more comprehensive series of measures than only air pollution. Part of the reason that the city remains assessed at basic sustainability is because of the low resource-use and carbon emissions of its poorer neighbourhoods.On 3 January 2020, Delhi got its first smog tower to tackle air pollution.
Currently, the National Capital Territory of Delhi is made up of one division, 11 districts, 33 subdivisions, 59 census towns, and 300 villages. Local civic administration has, since the trifurcation of the former Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) in January 2012, been in the hands of five bodies:
It was in July 2012, shortly after the MCD trifurcation, that the Government of Delhi increased the number of districts in the capital territory from nine to eleven.
In terms of good governance and best administrative practices, Delhi was ranked sixth out of 23 Indian cities in 2017, scoring 4.4 out of 10.
Delhi is home to the Supreme Court of India which is also the apex court of the nation. Delhi is also home to the High Court of Delhi. The High Court of Delhi is the highest court in the Delhi after Supreme Court. The High Court of Delhi just like the apex court and other High Courts in India is the Court of record. Delhi is also home to various District Court according to jurisdictions. Delhi have Currently seven District Courts namely Tis Hazari Court Complex, Karkardooma Court Complex, Patiala House Court Complex, Rohini Court Complex, Dwarka Courts Complex, Saket Court Complex, and Rouse Avenue Court Apart from the District Courts Delhi also have Consumer Courts, CBI Courts, Labour Courts, Revenue Courts, Army tribunals, electricity tribunals, Railway Tribunals, and other various tribunals situated according to appropriate jurisdictions.
For policing purposes Delhi is divided into eleven police districts which are further subdivided into 95 local police station zones. The Delhi currently had 180 police stations.
As a first-level administrative division, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, the council of ministers, and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal corporation handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat, and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power. In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress. However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days. Delhi was then under President's rule until February 2015. On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.
Since 2011 Delhi has had three municipal corporations:
In 2017 the BJP emerged the victors in elections to all three corporations.
Delhi is the largest commercial center in northern India. As of 2016 [update] recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have been around $370 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016–17 was estimated at ₹6,224 billion (US$83 billion), 13% higher than in 2015–16. As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions, respectively. Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001. Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003. In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.
In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000.Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism. Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries. Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.
Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of June 2005 [update] , it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD. The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage. Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater.
In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD. The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD. A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.
The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher. In Delhi power distribution is managed by TPDDL and BSES Yamuna & BSES Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year. The state-owned BSNL and private enterprises such as Airtel, Vi, Jio, and provide telephone and cell phone services to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G, 4G and 4G+.
Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the south-west of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers, making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost ₹96.8 billion (US$1.3 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually. In 2010, IGIA was conferred the 4th best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, by Airports Council International. The airport was rated as the Best airport in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International. Delhi Airport was awarded The Best Airport in Central Asia and Best Airport Staff in Central Asia at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015. Hindon Domestic Airport in Ghaziabad was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi as the second airport for the Delhi-NCR Region on 8 March 2019. A second international airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida. The Taj International Airport project in Jewar has been approved by the Uttar Pradesh government.
The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India.The airport functioned until 2001; however, in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.
Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 km2 in India. It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, NH 2, NH 8, NH 10 and NH 24. The Delhi–Mumbai and Delhi–Kolkata prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral start from the city. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.
Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand. million passengers per day. Kashmiri Gate ISBT, Anand Vihar ISBT and Sarai Kale Khan ISBT are the main bus terminals for outstation buses plying to neighbouring states. Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ruled that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG) to tackle increasing vehicular pollution. The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses. In addition, cluster scheme buses are operated by Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS) with the participation of private concessionaires and DTC. In December 2017, the DTC and cluster buses carried over 4.19
Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. As of 2007 [update] , private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport. Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers. As of 2008 [update] , the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, was 11.2 million (11.2 million). In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents. In 2017, the number of vehicles in Delhi city alone crossed the ten million mark with the transport department of Delhi Government putting the total number of registered vehicles at 10,567,712 until 25 May of the year.
Important Roads in Delhi
Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of Delhi's road infrastructure:
National Highways Passing Through Delhi
Delhi is connected by road to various parts of the country through several National Highways: It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways:
Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The main railway stations are New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Anand Vihar, Delhi Sarai Rohilla and Delhi Cantt. As of August 2018 [update] , the metro consists of eight operational lines with a total length of 296 km (184 mi) and 214 stations, and several other lines are under construction. The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$2.9 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida.
The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's tenth-largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system. The network consists of eleven lines with a total length of 311 kilometres (193 miles) with 214 stations, which are a mix of underground, at-grade and elevated stations. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage the use of the system. In March 2010, DMRC partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi–ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi–ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$2.9 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.
Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organization is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides the construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the managing director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.
|Population Growth of Delhi|
† Huge population rise in 1951 due to large
scale migration after Partition of India in 1947.
According to the 2011 census of India, the population of NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235.The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively. In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth, which made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond the NCT boundaries to incorporate the towns and cities of neighbouring states including Faridabad and Gurgaon of Haryana, and Ghaziabad and Noida of Uttar Pradesh, the total population of which is estimated by the United Nations at over 28 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second-largest, after Tokyo, although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second-largest. The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary, and 21,753,486 for the Extended Urban Area. The 2021 regional plan released by the Government of India renamed the Extended Urban Area from Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA) as defined by the 2001 plan to Central National Capital Region (CNCR). Around 49% of the population of Delhi lives in slums and unauthorized colonies without any civic amenities. The majority of the slums have inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to a DUSIB report, almost 22% of the people do open defecation.
Major social groups of Delhi include Ahir, Brahmins, Jats, Punjabis, Purvanchalis, Vaishyas, Gujjars, Sikhs, Muslims, Uttarakhandis, Bengalis, etc.
Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (3.40%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and Buddhism (0.11%).Other minority religions include Zoroastrianism, Baháʼísm and Judaism.
According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%), Urdu (6.31%) and Bengali (1.50%). 4.11% of the Delhites speak other languages.Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as additional official languages.
According to the Directorate of Education, GNCTD the following languages are taught in schools in Delhi under the three-language formula:
Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India, Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language, Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in 1947 the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1,200 heritage buildingsand 175 monuments as national heritage sites.
In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid—India's largest mosquebuilt in 1656 and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites—the Red Fort, Qutub Minar and Humayun's Tomb—are located in Delhi. Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar—an 18th-century astronomical observatory—and the Purana Qila—a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, the Baháʼí Faith's Lotus Temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City. Lotus Temple is a Baháʼí House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The National Museum and National Gallery of Modern Art are some of the largest museums in the country. Other museums in Delhi include the National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum and National Philatelic Museum.
Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi —an embroidery done with gold thread— and Meenakari —the art of enamelling.
Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti . On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair , which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe—fans embroidered with flowers—are offered to the shrine of the 13th-century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya Temple, both situated in Mehrauli.
Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti , Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan , Durga Puja , Holi , Lohri , Chauth , Krishna Janmastami , Maha Shivratri , Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti . million people.The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop. Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show, is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair, held biennially at the Pragati Maidan, is the second-largest exhibition of books in the world. Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership. India International Trade Fair (IITF), organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 1.5
As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents. : 40–50, 189–196The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab , biryani , tandoori . The city's classic dishes include butter chicken, dal makhani , shahi paneer , aloo chaat , chaat , dahi bhalla , kachori , gol gappe , samosa , chole bhature , chole kulche, gulab jamun , jalebi and lassi .
The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets. : 41 A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara. The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food. : 40–50
Private schools in Delhi—which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 1,529,000 students were enrolled in primary schools, 822,000 in middle schools and 669,000 in secondary schools across Delhi. Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.
Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,seven major universities and nine deemed universities.
The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated to the Bar Council of India. The Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi situated in Hauz Khas is a premier engineering college of India and ranks as one of the top institutes in South Asia.
Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women (formerly Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas University of Technology (formerly Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities. As of 2008 [update] , about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities, and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education.
As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.
Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times , Hindustan Dainik , Punjab Kesari , Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran , Dainik Bhaskar , Dainik Prayukti , Amar Ujala and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times , with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily.Other major English newspapers include The Times of India , The Hindu , Indian Express , Business Standard , The Pioneer , The Statesman , and The Asian Age . Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran .
Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularitysince the inauguration of several new stations in 2006. A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.
Delhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the inaugural 1951 Asian Games, 1982 Asian Games, 1989 Asian Athletic Championships, 2010 Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games and 2011 Cricket World Cup.
Delhi hosted the first Asian Games in 1951 from 4 to 11 March. A total of 489 athletes representing 11 Asian National Olympic Committees participated in 57 events from eight sports and discipline. The Games was the successor of the Far Eastern Games and the revival of the Western Asiatic Games. On 13 February 1949, the Asian Games Federation was formally established in Delhi, with Delhi unanimously announced as the first host city of the Asian Games. National Stadium was the venue for all events.Over 40,000 spectators watched the opening ceremony of the Games in National Stadium.
Delhi hosted the ninth Asian Games for the second time in 1982 from 19 November to 4 December. This was the second time the city has hosted the Asian Games and was also the first Asian Games to be held under the aegis of the Olympic Council of Asia. A total of 3,411 athletes from 33 National Olympic Committees participated in these games, competing in 196 events in 21 sports and 23 disciplines. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which has a capacity of 60,000 people, was built purposely for the event, hosted its opening ceremony.
Delhi hosted the nineteenth Commonwealth Games in 2010, which ran from 3 to 14 October and was the largest sporting event held in India. pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010. The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours. It is estimated that ₹3.5 billion (US$46 million) were spent to produce the ceremony. Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University. The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00
Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi.There are several cricket grounds, or maidans , located across the city. The Arun Jaitley Stadium (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team, which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship. The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Virat Kohli, Gautam Gambhir, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan, Shikhar Dhawan, Ishant Sharma, Manoj Prabhakar and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium, respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Capitals, who play their home matches at the Kotla.
Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012.Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007 and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0. In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune. Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, formerly hosted the Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix. The Indira Gandhi Arena is also in Delhi.
Delhi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.
Current Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi
|Delhi cricket team||Ranji Trophy||Cricket||Arun Jaitley Stadium||1934|
|Delhi football team||Santosh Trophy||Football||Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium||1941|
|Delhi Capitals||Indian Premier League||Cricket||Arun Jaitley Stadium||2008|
|Delhi Waveriders||Hockey India League||Field hockey||Shivaji Stadium||2012|
|Sudeva Delhi FC||I-League||Football||Ambedkar Stadium||2014|
|Dabang Delhi||Pro Kabaddi League||Kabaddi||Thyagaraj Sports Complex||2014|
|Delhi Dreams||Champions Tennis League||Tennis||R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex||2014|
|Indian Aces||International Premier Tennis League||Tennis||Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium||2014|
|Delhi Hurricanes RFC||All India & South Asia Rugby Tournament||Rugby union||B-7 Vasant Kunj 110070 Delhi||2004|
|Delhi Defenders||Elite Football League of India||American football||–||2012|
|Delhi Wizards||World Series Hockey||Field hockey||Dhyan Chand National Stadium||2011|
|Delhi Capitals||UBA Pro Basketball League||Basketball||–||2015|
Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi
|Delhi Giants||Indian Cricket League||Cricket||N/A||2007||2009|
|Delhi Dynamos FC||Indian Super League||Football||Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium||2014||2019|
Haryana is a state in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It is ranked 20th in terms of area, with less than 1.4% of India's land area. The state capital is Chandigarh and the most populous city is Faridabad, which is a part of the National Capital Region. The city of Gurgaon is among India's largest financial and technology hubs. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages, and 6,222 villages panchayats.
Transport in India consists of transport by land, water and air. Public transport is the primary mode of road transport for most Indian citizens, and India's public transport systems are among the most heavily used in the world.
Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Telangana and the de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies 650 km2 (250 sq mi) on the Deccan Plateau along the banks of the Musi River, in the northern part of South India. With an average altitude of 542 m (1,778 ft), much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including the Hussain Sagar lake, predating the city's founding, in the north of the city centre. According to the 2011 Census of India, Hyderabad is the fourth-most populous city in India with a population of 6.9 million residents within the city limits, and has a population of 9.7 million residents in the metropolitan region, making it the sixth-most populous metropolitan area in India. With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad has the fifth-largest urban economy in India.
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River, the city is approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh. It is the primary business, commercial, and financial hub of Eastern India and the main port of communication for North-East India. According to the 2011 Indian census, Kolkata is the seventh-most populous city in India, with a population of 4.5 million residents within the city limits, and a population of over 14.1 million residents in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area. It is the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. In 2021, Kolkata metropolitan area crossed 15 million registered voters. The Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. Kolkata is regarded as the Cultural Capital of India.
New Delhi is the capital of India and an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Parliament House, and the Supreme Court of India.
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. As of 2011, the city had a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City, due to the dominant colour scheme of its buildings. It is located 268 km from the national capital New Delhi. On 6 July 2019, UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Jaipur the "Pink City of India" among its World Heritage Sites. Jaipur was founded in 1727 by the Kacchawa Rajput ruler Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named. It was one of the earliest planned cities of modern India, designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. During the British Colonial period, the city served as the capital of Jaipur State. After independence in 1947, Jaipur was made the capital of the newly formed state of Rajasthan.
Meerut is a city in the western part of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an ancient city, with settlements dating back to the Indus Valley civilisation having been found in and around the area. The city lies 70 km (43 mi) northeast of the national capital New Delhi, within the National Capital Region and 430 km (270 mi) west of the state capital Lucknow.
Ludhiana is the largest city of the Indian state of Punjab and 28th largest urban agglomeration in India. The city has an area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi) and an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census. The city stands on the old bank of Sutlej River, that is now 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) to the south of its present course. It is an industrial center of northern India, often referred to as Indian Manchester by BBC. Ludhiana is among the list of smart cities that will be developed by government of India and has been ranked as the easiest city in India for business according to the World Bank.
Nashik is an ancient city and the largest city in the northern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Situated on the banks of river Godavari, Nashik is the fourth largest city in Maharashtra, after Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur. Nashik is well known for being one of the Hindu pilgrimage sites of the Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years. Nashik is located about 190 km north of state capital Mumbai. The city is called the "Wine Capital of India" as more than half of India's vineyards and wineries are located here. Around 90% of all wine produced in India comes from the Nashik Valley.
Faridabad is the most populous city in the Indian state of Haryana and a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi. It is one of the major satellite cities of Delhi and is located 284 kilometres south of the state capital Chandigarh. The river Yamuna forms the eastern district boundary with Uttar Pradesh. The Government of India included it in the second list of Smart Cities Mission on 24 May 2016. Faridabad has been described as the eighth fastest growing city in the world and the third in India by the City Mayors Foundation survey. As per the 2001 Delhi Regional Plan, Faridabad is part of the Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA).
Dilli Haat is a paid-entrance open-air market, food plaza, and craft bazaar located in Delhi. The area is run by Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation (DTTDC), and unlike the traditional weekly market, the village Haat, Dilli Haat is permanent. It is located in the commercial centres of South Delhi, opposite INA market. The 6 acres of land on which this complex is situated was salvaged as part of a reclamation project and transformed into a plaza. Extensive foundation work, small thatched roof cottages and kiosks give the plaza a village atmosphere. The culture and the environment of dilli Haat is very good. People from outside come and visit Dilli Haat. It is a good place to visit with family and friends. Some shops are permanent but other sellers are rotated, usually for fifteen days. Products offered may include rosewood and sandalwood carvings, embellished camel hide footwear, sophisticated fabric and drapery, gems, beads, brassware, metal crafts, and silk & wool fabrics. A number of shows promoting handicrafts and handlooms are held at the exhibition hall in the complex. To sell wares, there is an application process; spaces are allocated according to which state the seller is from. In all, Dilli Haat, INA Market has 62 stalls allotted on a rotational basis to craftsmen for a payment of INR 100 per day for a maximum period of 15 days.
Delhi has significant reliance on its transport infrastructure. The city seeks to develop a highly efficient public transport system with the introduction of the Delhi Metro, which is undergoing a rapid modernization and expansion as of 2006. There are 16.6 million registered vehicles in the city as of 30 June 2014, which is the highest in the world among all cities, most of which do not follow any pollution emission norm, while the Delhi metropolitan region has 11.2 million vehicles. Delhi and NCR lose nearly 42 crore man-hours every month while commuting between home and office through public transport, due to the traffic congestion. Therefore, serious efforts, including a number of transport infrastructure projects, are under way to encourage usage of public transport in the city.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the third largest of all the states of India. According to a report published by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India the nominal GDP of the state for the year 2020-21 is ₹ 17.05 lakh crore. The largest Indian state, Maharashtra based on nominal GDP, has an urban population of 5,08,18,259, while Uttar Pradesh has an urban population of 4,44,95,063. According to the 2011 census report, 22.76% of Uttar Pradesh's population lives in urban areas. The state has 7 cities with populations exceeding 10 lakh each. After partition in 2000, the new Uttar Pradesh state produces about 92% of the economic output of the old Uttar Pradesh state. Currently, the poverty rate stands at 26.4%, just above the national average.
Miyapur, located 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi) northwest of Hyderabad, is part of Greater Hyderabad and administered by GHMC and developed by HMDA. Transportation is managed by UMTA.
The Orange Line or Delhi Airport Express Line is a Delhi Metro line from New Delhi Metro Station to Dwarka Sector 21, linking Indira Gandhi International Airport. The line was opened on 23 February 2011 after missing four previously set deadlines. It was built at a cost of ₹ 57 billion, of which Reliance Infra paid ₹ 28.85 billion (U$580m), Reliance Infra will also pay fees on a Revenue-share model
Urban rail transit in India plays an important role in intracity transportation in the major cities which are highly populated. It comprises of rapid transit, suburban rail, monorail and tram systems. According to a report published in 2021, a total of 2,636 million people travel annually in metro systems across India's thirteen major cities, placing the country as one of the busiest urban rapid transit hub in the world in terms of ridership. The combined length of metro systems in India makes it the fifth longest in the world with 731.5 km (454.5 mi) in operation.
The Delhi Metro is a mass rapid transit (MRT) system serving Delhi and its satellite cities of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida, Bahadurgarh and Ballabhgarh, in the National Capital Region of India. It is by far the largest and busiest metro rail system in India, and the second oldest after the Kolkata Metro. The network consists of 10 colour-coded lines serving 254 stations with a total length of 348.12 kilometres (216.31 mi). The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. Delhi Metro operates over 2,700 trips daily, starting at around 05:00 and ending at 23:30.
Palam is a Village, Major Suburb and Residential Colony in South West Delhi. The Indira Gandhi International Airport, formerly known as Palam Airport, the main airport of National Capital Region is situated here. It is one of 70 Vidhan Sabha constituencies of the Delhi National Capital Territory in northern India.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than 8 million and a metropolitan population of around 11 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, at a height of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major cities of India.
The economy of Delhi is the 13th largest among states and union territories of India. The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2020-21 was estimated at ₹15.98 lakh crore (US$210 billion) recording an annual growth of 8.1%. Growth rate in 2014-15 was 9.2%.In 2020-21, the tertiary sector contributed 85% of Delhi's GSDP followed by the secondary and primary sectors at 12% and 3% respectively. The services sector recorded an annual growth of 7.3%.
... The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read "Dehli" not "Delhi ...
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... The name which remained the most popular is "Dilli" with variation in its pronunciation as Dilli, Dehli, or Delhi ...Cite journal requires
Delhi is of great historical significance as an important commercial, transport, and cultural hub, as well as the political centre of India.
For many centuries Old Delhi has been a dominant trading and commercial centre in northern India. Since the 1990s New Delhi has emerged as an important node in the international corporate and financial network.
The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985
raja delhi BC.
... "Dilli hanoz dur ast" ("Delhi is still far off") – has passed into the currency of a proverb ...Cite journal requires
... Abhi Dilli dur hai ...Cite journal requires
... As the saying in Hindustani goes: "Dilli dilwalon ki (Delhi belongs to those with a heart)". So shed your inhibitions and try out your hand ...Cite journal requires
The second story of the minaret, built during the reign of Iltutmish” (r. 1211-36), features a similar form of ribbing to the shaft as is seen at the Jar Kurgan minaret, but the lower section features alternating flanges and ribs, while the third storey is entirely flanged, with a stellate plan. The Qutb Minar is clearly more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid traditions of minaret construction, although all the surviving large minarets from Central Asia can be seen to share certain general characteristics, namely, a tall tapering shaft and bands of decoration.
“This market was set up for those who had been displaced; refugees who had migrated from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) ...” said Sanjiv Mehra, president of Khan Market Traders’ Association and owner of Allied Toy Store.It was aptly named after popular NWFP leader Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan or Dr Khan Sahib, the elder brother of Pashtun Independence activist Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan or Frontier Gandhi.
The Indian government named the market after Abdul Jabbar Khan, the brother of Pakistan’s Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a close friend of “Mahatma” Gandhi and known as the “Frontier Gandhi”. Khan was honoured because of his role in ensuring safe passage for millions of Hindus fleeing sectarian violence after independence and the bloody 1947 partition of the sub-continent into India and Pakistan, said Sanjeev Mehra, president of the Khan Market Traders’ Association.
As the mob attacks came once, then twice and then a third time in this north-east Delhi neighbourhood, desperate stallholders repeatedly ran to Gokalpuri and Dayalpur police stations crying out for help. But each time they found the gates locked from the inside. For three days, no help came. ... Since the riots broke out in Delhi at the end of February, the worst religious conflict to engulf the capital in decades, questions have persisted about the role that the Delhi police played in enabling the violence, which was predominately Hindu mobs attacking Muslims. Of the 51 people who died, at least three-quarters were Muslim, and many Muslims are still missing.
This past week, as neighborhoods in India's capital burned and religiously driven bloodletting consumed more than 40 lives, most of them Muslim, India's government was quick to say that the violence was spontaneous... Many Muslims are now leaving, hoisting their unburned things on their heads and trudging away from streets that still smell of smoke.
Two-thirds of the more than 50 people who were killed and have been identified were Muslim.
At least 53 people were killed or suffered deadly injuries in violence that persisted for two days. The majority of those killed were Muslims, many shot, hacked or burned to death. A police officer and an intelligence officer were also killed. So too were more than a dozen Hindus, most of them shot or assaulted.
Zaitoon, 40, who goes by one name, half-cried as she rummaged through the items. She said mobs entered her lane shouting "Jai Shri Ram," or "Victory to Lord Ram," a slogan favored by Modi's party, and demanded to know which houses were occupied by Muslims. She said she saw a neighbor set on fire in front of her, an account repeated by other witnesses.