|Host city||Edinburgh, Scotland|
|Events||161 events in 10 sports|
|Opening ceremony||24 July|
|Closing ceremony||2 August|
|Officially opened by||Elizabeth II|
|Queen's Baton Final Runner||Allan Wells|
|Main venue||Meadowbank Stadium|
The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic : Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.
Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.
Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh losing approximately £500,000.
Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent Games.
Due to the boycott only 27 teams from across the Commonwealth were represented at the 1986 Games.
|Participating Commonwealth countries and territories|
^ Note: Bermuda withdrew from the games to join the boycott after the opening day of competition.
|Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories|
Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries (largely African, Asian and Caribbean states) boycotted the event because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh 1986 witnessed the lowest turnout since Auckland 1950.Bermuda was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes had appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.
|Commonwealth countries and territories that boycotted the Games|
The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the Royal Mile, through Holyrood Park to Meadowbank Stadium.
Host nation (Scotland)
|4||New Zealand (NZL)||8||16||14||38|
|7||Northern Ireland (NIR)||2||4||9||15|
|8||Isle of Man (IOM)||1||0||0||1|
|11||Hong Kong (HKG)||0||0||3||3|
|Totals (15 nations)||163||163||176||502|
|Light Flyweight||Scott Olson (CAN)||Mark Epton (ENG)|| Johnston Todd (NIR)|
Wilson Docherty (SCO)
|Flyweight||John Lyon (ENG)||Leonard Makhanya (SWZ)|| Kerry Webber (WAL)|
Steve Beaupré (CAN)
|Bantamweight||Sean Murphy (ENG)||Roy Nash (NIR)|| Glen Brooks (SCO)|
John Sollitoe (JER)
|Featherweight||Billy Downey (CAN)||Peter English (ENG)|| Chris Carleton (NIR)|
Johnny Wallace (NZL)
|Lightweight||Asif Dar (CAN)||Neil Haddock (WAL)|| Lyton Mphande (MAW)|
Joey Jacobs (ENG)
|Light Welterweight||Howard Grant (CAN)||David Clencie (AUS)|| Brendan Lowe (NIR)|
Solomon Kondowe (MAW)
|Welterweight||Darren Dyer (ENG)||James McAllister (SCO)|| John Shaw (CAN)|
Damien Denny (NIR)
|Light Middleweight||Dan Sherry (CAN)||Rick Finch (AUS)|| Glynn Thomas (WAL)|
Alec Mullen (SCO)
|Middleweight||Rod Douglas (ENG)||Jeff Harding (AUS)|| Patrick Tinney (NIR)|
George Ferrie (SCO)
|Light Heavyweight||Jim Moran (ENG)||Harry Lawson (SCO)||Brent Kosolofski (CAN)|
|Heavyweight||Jimmy Thunder (NZL)||Doug Young (SCO)|| Dominic D'Amico (CAN)|
Eric Cardouza (ENG)
|Super Heavyweight||Lennox Lewis (CAN)||Aneurin Evans (WAL)||James Oyebola (ENG)|
|Time Trial||Martin Vinnicombe (AUS)||00:01:06||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:01:06||Max Rainsford (AUS)||00:01:07|
|Sprint||Gary Neiwand (AUS)||Alex Ongaro (CAN)||Eddie Alexander (SCO)|
|Individual Pursuit||Dean Woods (AUS)||00:04:44||Colin Sturgess (ENG)||00:04:51||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:04:54|
|Team Pursuit|| Australia |
|00:04:27|| New Zealand |
|00:04:34|| England |
|10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch||Wayne McCarney (AUS)||00:19:41||Dean Woods (AUS)||00:19:41||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:19:41|
|Road Race||Paul Curran (ENG)||04:08:50||Brian Fowler (NZL)||04:08:50||Jeff Leslie (AUS)||04:08:50|
|Team Time Trial|| England |
|02:13:16|| New Zealand |
|02:14:50|| Northern Ireland |
|Single sculls|| England |
|7:28|| Australia |
|7:33|| New Zealand |
|Double sculls|| Canada |
|6:19|| Australia |
|6:21|| England |
|Coxless pair|| England |
|6:40|| New Zealand |
|6:43|| Scotland |
|Coxless four|| Canada |
|6:01|| New Zealand |
|6:01|| England |
|Coxed four|| England |
|6:08|| New Zealand |
|6:10|| Australia |
|Eights|| Australia |
|5:44|| England |
|5:46|| New Zealand |
Andy Hay (cox)
|Lightweight single sculls|| Australia |
|7:16|| Canada |
|7:27|| England |
|Lightweight coxless four|| England |
|6:26|| Australia |
|6:28|| Canada |
|Single sculls|| New Zealand |
|7:43|| Canada |
|7:49|| England |
|Double sculls|| New Zealand |
|7:22|| Canada |
|7:49|| England |
|Coxless pair|| Canada |
|7:35|| England |
|7:42|| Australia |
|Coxed four|| Canada |
|6:50|| Australia |
|6:54|| England |
|Eights|| Australia |
Urszula Anne Kay
|6:44|| England |
|6:46|| Canada |
|Lightweight single sculls|| Australia |
|7:45|| New Zealand |
|7:46|| Canada |
|Lightweight coxless four|| England |
|6:55|| Australia |
|7:00|| Canada |
Marlene van der Horst
|Free Pistol||Greg Yelavich (NZL)||551|| Phil Adams (AUS)|
Ho Kar Fai (HKG)
|Free Pistol – Pairs|| Canada |
|1099|| England |
|1090|| Australia |
|Centre-Fire Pistol||Bob Northover (ENG)||583||Phil Adams (AUS)||582||Rod Hack (AUS)||580|
|Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs|| Australia |
|1165|| England |
|1157|| New Zealand |
|Rapid-Fire Pistol||Pat Murray (AUS)||591||Adrian Breton (GGY)||588||Mark Howkins (CAN)||585|
|Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs|| England |
|1169|| Australia |
|1152|| Canada |
|Air Pistol||Greg Yelavich (NZL)||575||Tom Guinn (CAN)||574||Gilbert U (HKG)||574|
|Air Pistol – Pairs|| England |
|1143|| Australia |
|1143|| New Zealand |
|Small Bore Rifle, Prone||Alan Smith (AUS)||599||Alister Allan (SCO)||598|| Gale Stewart (CAN)|
John Knowles (SCO)
|Small Bore Rifle, Prone – Pairs|| Canada |
|1175|| Australia |
|1171|| Wales |
|Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions||Malcolm Cooper (ENG)||1170||Alister Allan (SCO)||1167||Jean-François Sénécal (CAN)||1150|
|Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions – Pairs|| England |
|2278|| Canada |
|2276|| Scotland |
|Full Bore Rifle||Stan Golinski (AUS)||396||Alain Marion (CAN)||396||John Bloomfield (ENG)||395|
|Full Bore Rifle – Pairs|| Canada |
|583|| Australia |
|583|| Northern Ireland |
|Air Rifle||Guy Lorion (CAN)||588||Sharon Bowes (CAN)||583||Malcolm Cooper (ENG)||582|
|Air Rifle – Pairs|| Canada |
|1167|| Australia |
|1151|| England |
|Trap||Ian Peel (ENG)||195||Peter Boden (ENG)||192||Roland Phillips (WAL)||192|
|Trap – Pairs|| England |
|185|| Northern Ireland |
|183|| Australia |
|Skeet||Nigel Kelly (IOM)||196|| Joe Neville (ENG)|
Brian Gabriel (CAN)
|Skeet – Pairs|| England |
|195|| Canada |
|193|| New Zealand |
|Flyweight – Overall||Greg Hayman (AUS)||212.5||Charlie Revolta (SCO)||185||Alan Ogilvie (SCO)||177.5|
|Bantamweight – Overall||Nick Voukelatos (AUS)||245||Clayton Chelley (NZL)||217.5||Teo Yong Joo (SIN)||215|
|Featherweight – Overall||Ray Williams (WAL)||252.5||David Lowenstein (AUS)||250||Jeffrey Brice (WAL)||235|
|Lightweight – Overall||Dean Willey (ENG)||315||Ron Laycock (AUS)||307.5||Langis Côté (CAN)||290|
|Middleweight – Overall||Bill Stellios (AUS)||302.5||Louis Payer (CAN)||300||Neil Taylor (WAL)||270|
|Light Heavyweight – Overall||Dave Morgan (WAL)||350||Robert Kabbas (AUS)||325||Peter May (ENG)||317.5|
|Middle Heavyweight – Overall||Keith Boxell (ENG)||350||David Mercer (ENG)||342.5||Guy Greavette (CAN)||340|
|Sub Heavyweight – Overall||Denis Garon (CAN)||360||Duncan Dawkins (ENG)||332.5||Andrew Saxton (ENG)||327.5|
|Heavyweight – Overall||Kevin Roy (CAN)||375||Gino Frantangelo (AUS)||372.5||Andrew Davies (WAL)||370|
|Super Heavyweight – Overall||Dean Lukin (AUS)||392.5||David Bolduc (CAN)||347.5||Charles Garzarella (AUS)||342.5|
|Light Flyweight||Ron Moncur (CAN)||Duncan Burns (ENG)||David Connelly (SCO)|
|Flyweight||Chris Woodcroft (CAN)||James McAlary (AUS)||Nigel Donohue (ENG)|
|Bantamweight||Mitch Ostberg (CAN)||Steve Reinsfield (NZL)||Brian Aspen (ENG)|
|Featherweight||Paul Hughes (CAN)||Dan Cumming (AUS)||Stephen Bell (NZL)|
|Lightweight||Dave McKay (CAN)||Zsigmund Kelevitz (AUS)||Steve Cooper (ENG)|
|Welterweight||Gary Holmes (CAN)||Geoffrey Marsh (AUS)||Fitz Walker (ENG)|
|Middleweight||Chris Rinke (CAN)||Wally Koenig (AUS)||Tony Bull (ENG)|
|Light Heavyweight||Noel Loban (ENG)||Doug Cox (CAN)||Graeme English (SCO)|
|Heavyweight||Clark Davis (CAN)||Robert Algie (NZL)||David Kilpin (ENG)|
|Super Heavyweight||Wayne Brightwell (CAN)||Albert Patrick (SCO)||Keith Peache (ENG)|
The Commonwealth Games is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and, with the exception of 1942 and 1946, has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. Athletes with a disability are also included as full members of their national teams, making the Commonwealth Games the first fully inclusive international multi-sport event. It is also the world's first multi-sport event which inducts equal number of women's and men's medal events and was implemented recently in the 2018 Commonwealth Games. With such unique features, the World Economic Forum called the event inspiring and significant.
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad and commonly known as Montréal 1976, were an international multi-sport event held from July 17 to August 1, 1976, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam on May 12, 1970. Montreal is the second French speaking city to host the Summer Olympics after Paris, over the bids of Moscow and Los Angeles. It was the first and, so far, only Summer Olympic Games to be held in Canada. Toronto hosted the 1976 Summer Paralympics the same year as the Montreal Olympics, which still remains the only Summer Paralympics to be held in Canada. Calgary and Vancouver later hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, respectively.
The 1970 British Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, from 16 to 25 July 1970. This was the first time the name British Commonwealth Games was adopted, the first time metric units rather than imperial units were used in all events, and also the first time the games were held in Scotland. Also, these games saw the first unique Games trademark logo: an emblem showing the Games emblem intertwined with a St Andrews Cross and a thistle. They were followed by the 1970 Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for wheelchair athletes.
The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott was one part of a number of actions initiated by the United States to protest against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union, which hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics, and its allies would later boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
The 2014 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Glasgow 2014,, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Commonwealth Games as governed by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF). It took place in Glasgow, Scotland, from 23 July to 3 August 2014.
Meadowbank Stadium is a multi-purpose sports facility located in the Meadowbank area of Edinburgh, Scotland. Built on the site of the earlier New Meadowbank and Old Meadowbank sports venues, it was originally built to host the 1970 Commonwealth Games. It also hosted the Games in 1986, becoming the first venue to host the Games twice.
Bermuda sent a delegation to compete at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy from 10–26 February 2006. The Bermudian delegation consisted of a single athlete, skeleton racer Patrick Singleton. This was Bermuda's fifth Winter Olympic Games and Singleton's third consecutive Olympics as the only Bermudian athlete. In his event he came in 19th place.
The Edinburgh Marathon is an annual marathon event, governed by Scottish Athletics and run in Scotland over the traditional distance of 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi). The first marathon event in Edinburgh was in 1982. Further marathons were held in Edinburgh in 1986 and 1999. Since 2003 the Edinburgh Marathon Festival has been held each year, usually in May. The current route begins in the city centre, moves out of Edinburgh into East Lothian, finishing at Musselburgh, East Lothian.
James Barrie Mabbott is a former New Zealand rower who won an Olympic Bronze medal at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Bermuda competed in the first 1930 Games and has competed in a total of seventeen of the twenty Commonwealth Games to date. Bermuda took part in the 1986 Games opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.
New Zealand at the 1986 Commonwealth Games was represented by a team of 127 competitors and 45 officials. Selection of the team for the Games in Edinburgh, Scotland, was the responsibility of the New Zealand Olympic and Commonwealth Games Association. New Zealand's flagbearer at the opening ceremony was sculler Stephanie Foster. The New Zealand team finished fourth on the medal table, winning a total of 38 medals, eight of which were gold.
Richard Davis (Dick) Johnstone is a former track and road cyclist who participated in the 1964 Summer Olympic games and the 1958 and 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Bermuda sent a delegation to compete in the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. from 12–28 February 2010. The territory sent one athlete, cross-country skier Tucker Murphy. This was the country's first appearance in a skiing discipline. Murphy finished 88th in the 15 kilometre freestyle event, the only one he was entered into.
Richard John Edward Patterson is a weightlifting competitor for New Zealand.
Bermuda sent a delegation to compete at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, from 7–23 February 2014. This was Bermuda's seventh appearance at a Winter Olympic Games, and cross-country skier Tucker Murphy's second consecutive Games as the only athlete. In the 15 kilometre race, he finished in 84th place.
New Zealand competed at the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, from 23 July to 3 August 2014. It was the nation's 20th appearance at the Commonwealth Games, having competed at every Games since their inception in 1930. The New Zealand Olympic Committee registered the complete team on 8 July 2014, with 239 athletes competing at the Games across all 17 sports. The team was reduced to 238 prior to the opening ceremony, after judoka Patti Grogan withdrew due to an unspecified health issue.
The Third Commonwealth Paraplegic Games was a multi-sport event that was held in Edinburgh, Scotland from 26 July to 1 August 1970. Dubbed the "little games", they followed the 1970 British Commonwealth Games which were held in Edinburgh from 16 to 25 July of that year.
Myra Nimmo is a Scottish athlete and academic. She competed at the 1974 Commonwealth Games and 1976 Summer Olympics in the long jump, and was the Scottish long jump record holder from 1973 until 2012. Since 2016, she is the Chair of England Athletics.
John M. Morbey is a former British and Bermudian long jumper, triple jumper and sprinter. He competed for Great Britain in the long jump at the 1964 Summer Olympics, finished eleventh. Representing Bermuda, he won a silver medal in the long jump at the 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. Morbey also placed fifteenth in the triple jump and was eliminated in the heats of the 110 yards and 4 x 110 yards relay.
Bermuda sent a delegation to compete at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, from 9–25 February 2018. This was the territory's eighth appearance in the Winter Olympics. For the third consecutive Olympics, Bermuda was represented by one athlete, cross-country skier Tucker Murphy, who finished his only event in 104th place.
| Commonwealth Games |
XIII Commonwealth Games