1998 Commonwealth Games

Last updated

XVI Commonwealth Games
Logo of XVI Commonwealth Games Kuala Lumpur.svg
Host city Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
MottoBersama-sama Gemilangkannya
(Together we'll glorify this moment)
Nations participating69
Athletes participating3638
Events214 in 15 sports
Opening ceremony11 September
Closing ceremony21 September
Officially opened by Tuanku Jaafar
King of Malaysia
Officially closed by Elizabeth II
Athlete's Oath Shalin Zulkifli
Queen's Baton Final Runner Koh Eng Tong
Anthem Forever as One (Roy)
Main venue Bukit Jalil National Stadium
  XV
XVII  

The 1998 Commonwealth Games(Malay: Sukan Komanwel 1998), officially known as the XVI Commonwealth Games(Malay: Sukan Komanwel ke-16), was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by several unprecedented facts in the history of the event. The 1998 games were the first held in an Asian country and the last Commonwealth Games of the 20th century. This was also the first time the games took place in a nation with a head of state other than the Head of the Commonwealth, and the first time the games were held in a country whose majority of the population did not have English as the first language. For the first time ever, the games included team sports. The other bid from the 1998 games came from Adelaide in Australia. [1] Malaysia was the eighth nation to host the Commonwealth Games after Canada, England, Australia, New Zealand, Wales, Jamaica and Scotland. Around 3638 athletes from 69 Commonwealth member nations participated at the games which featured 214 events in 15 sports with 34 of them collected medals.

Contents

Host selection

Kuala Lumpur was selected to stage the games at the General Assembly of the Commonwealth Games Federation in Barcelona, Spain during the 1992 Summer Olympics. [1]

1998 Commonwealth Games Bidding Results
CityCGA NameVotes
Kuala Lumpur Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 40
Adelaide Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 25

Preparation

Venues

[2] [3]

West Malaysia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kuala Lumpur
Red pog.svg
Selangor
Red pog.svg
Kedah
1998 Commonwealth Games host states
Kuala Lumpur
National Sports Complex, Malaysia
National Stadium Bukit Jalil Bjalilinterior.jpg
National Stadium Bukit Jalil
Bukit Kiara Sports Complex
Other venues
Selangor
Kedah

The athletes' village (Vista Kommanwel) with a capacity of 6,000 people is located beside the National Sports Complex in Bukit Jalil. It consists of three tower blocks of 30 storeys and six hillside blocks of 19 storeys with 1,300 condominiums and an International Shopping Zone. The International Broadcast Centre was constructed at Angkasapuri, Kuala Lumpur, while Mint Hotel (now Nouvelle Hotel) served as the Main Press Centre. State broadcaster Radio Televisyen Malaysia was the host broadcaster of the event. [4]

Opening ceremony

The 16th Commonwealth Games opening ceremony took place on 11 September 1998 at 20:00 MST (UTC+08:00). During the ceremony, approximately 4,840 Soka Gakkai volunteers displayed coloured flip cards which depicted sporting images, flags of the Commonwealth nations and messages that heralded the first games in Asia in the 68 years since their inception. The ceremony was preceded by a pre-show concert by Malaysian pop singers such as Jamal Abdillah, Amy Search, Saleem, Zamani, Norzila Binti Haji Aminuddin, Shahrul Anuar Zain, Siti Roziana Binti Zain, Shaheila binti Abdul Majid, Amy Mastura Binti Suhaimi, Ning Baizura binti Sheikh Hamzah and Siti Nurhaliza Binti Tarudin, performance by local comedian Harith Iskander and 16 paratroopers who descended down the stadium.

The ceremony began with the arrival of dignitaries including the Chairman of Commonwealth Games Federation Mr Michael Fennel, Prince Edward, Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah, Prime Minister Dato Seri, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the Yang Dipertuan Agong and Malaysian minister of Youth and Sports Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin. This was followed by the parade of nations — 69 participating nations, led by mascot Wira and previous games' mascots (Canada being the first country to come into the stadium as host country of the previous games, and Malaysia entering last as hosts).The Singaporean delegation was jeered by the crowd during the parade of nations. [5] Then came a performance about a Malaysian rainforest by 2,000 school children who dressed as birds, bees and flowers. [6]

After the performance, the Queen's message was delivered in the ceremonial baton, which had begun the final stages of its journey on the back of an elephant. 1978 Commonwealth Games badminton gold medal winner Sylvia Ng took the last lap with the baton and handed it off to Koh Eng Tong, a weightlifter who won a gold medal in weightlifting for Malaya in the 1950 British Empire Games, to take the final few feet to Prince Edward.

Contrary to tradition, the games were officially opened by the Malaysian head of state, Yang di Pertuan Agong Tuanku Jaafar by striking the gong three times. A burst of fireworks and blurring of the giant bunga raya and a 16-gun salute which represents 1998 Commonwealth Games being the 16th-edition games, signified the beginning of the games. [7] [8] [9] The Commonwealth Games flag was then brought into the stadium raised to the theme song of the Games Forever As One written by local composer, Goh Boon Hoe. Malaysian bowler Shalin Zulkifli later take the oath on behalf of the athletes.

The ceremony concluded with a 40-minute performance, titled "Aur di Tebing" (Bamboo at the riverside) with the theme 'Unity towards Progress', which was conveyed through dance, music, and intricate human graphics. 2,000 performers swirled and danced carrying trays of bunga emas (golden flowers) on their heads during a mass silat display. The show told the Malaysian history from ancient Malacca to the present development in Malaysia, its political, economical and technological achievements as well as its people's vision of peace, prosperity and unity and lifestyle. [6]

Closing ceremony

The closing ceremony took place on 21 September 1998 at 20:00 MST (UTC+08:00). The attendees of the ceremony included Raja Permaisuri Agong, Tuanku Najihah, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and his wife, Commonwealth Games Federation President (CGF),Sir Michael Fennel; Commonwealth of Nations Secretary-general Chief Emeka Anyaoku; Minister of youth and sports Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin and Executive Chairman of Sukom Ninety Eight Berhad, Tan Sri Hashim Mohd. Ali.

The ceremony began with Queen Elizabeth and King Ja'afar's arrival in a limousine, for inspection of guards of honour of the Royal Malay Regiment. The British national anthem God Save The Queen was played followed by Malaysia's national anthem Negaraku. This was followed by a 3-part cultural performance led by a band performance by 400 school students from Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur followed by an upbeat song performance from local artist Jay Jay.

As the protocol says, a 15-minute presentation from Manchester, England, host city of the 2002 edition, was staged which included songs, videos and a live performance from the group New Order at the Albert Square, also the main moment was when message from British Prime Minister Tony Blair was delivered.

A contemporary farewell dance performance by local artists, featured Siti Nurhaliza and Noraniza Idris concludes the cultural performance. Soon afterwards, all the participants, flag-bearers and the volunteers march into the main ground of the stadium and Olympic council of Malaysia president Tan Sri Hamzah Abu Samah later declared the returning of the flags of all the participating nations.

Then the protocol was resumed and the 69 Commonwealth Games Associations flagbearers positioned themselves in a rostrum and the Commonwealth Games flag was lowered by the Malaysian armed forces. Next, the flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation is lowered by Malaysian Armed Forces personnel to the games theme song, Forever as one and is paraded around the stadium before being folded and handed over to the mayor of Kuala Lumpur, Tan Sri Kamarulzaman Sharif, who handed it over to the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation, Jamaican Michael Fennel.Fennel handed the flag to the Chief Citizen of Manchester city, Gordon Conquest. Following, the official speeches were delivered and Queen Elisabeth was invited to declare the Games closed. In a new protocol step, the Queen has withdrew from the stadium alongside the King of Malaysia and other authorities, after the guard of honour march song has played, followed by Auld Lang Syne. The prime minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad, later made an announcement to declare 28 September 1998 as a national public holiday to commemorate the nation's success in hosting the games. The ceremony concluded with a concert performed by Six Commonwealth Top Singers representing the six regions of the Commonwealth Federation and local artists. [10] [11] [12]

Participating teams

Participating countries Commonwealth games 1998 countries map.PNG
Participating countries

Sixty-nine teams were represented at the 1998 Games. The only absent country was Nigeria who suspended from Commonwealth due to the tyrannical dictatorship of Sani Abacha who had died earlier that year. [13]

Participating Commonwealth Games Associations
  • Flag of Anguilla.svg Anguilla
  • Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua and Barbuda
  • Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
  • Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas
  • Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
  • Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados
  • Flag of Belize.svg Belize
  • Flag of Bermuda.svg Bermuda
  • Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana
  • Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg British Virgin Islands
  • Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei
  • Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon
  • Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada
  • Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands
  • Flag of the Cook Islands.svg Cook Islands
  • Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus
  • Flag of Dominica.svg Dominica
  • Flag of England.svg  England
  • Flag of the Falkland Islands (1948-1999).svg Falkland Islands
  • Flag of Fiji.svg Fiji
  • Flag of Ghana.svg Ghana
  • Flag of Gibraltar.svg Gibraltar
  • Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada
  • Flag of Guernsey.svg Guernsey
  • Flag of Guyana.svg Guyana
  • Flag of India.svg  India
  • Flag of the Isle of Man.svg Isle of Man
  • Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica
  • Flag of Jersey.svg Jersey
  • Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya
  • Flag of Kiribati.svg Kiribati
  • Flag of Lesotho (1987-2006).svg Lesotho
  • Flag of Malawi.svg Malawi
  • Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
  • Flag of Maldives.svg Maldives
  • Flag of Malta.svg Malta
  • Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius
  • Flag of Montserrat.svg Montserrat
  • Flag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique
  • Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia
  • Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru
  • Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
  • Flag of Norfolk Island.svg Norfolk Island
  • Ulster Banner.svg Northern Ireland
  • Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
  • Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea
  • Flag of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena and Dependencies
  • Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Flag of Saint Lucia (1979-2002).svg Saint Lucia
  • Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Flag of Samoa.svg Samoa
  • Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
  • Flag of the Seychelles.svg Seychelles
  • Flag of Sierra Leone.svg Sierra Leone
  • Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore
  • Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Solomon Islands
  • Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa
  • Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka
  • Flag of Eswatini.svg Swaziland
  • Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzania
  • Flag of The Gambia.svg The Gambia
  • Flag of Tonga.svg Tonga
  • Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago
  • Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda
  • Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu
  • Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Wales
  • Flag of Zambia.svg Zambia
  • Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwe
Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories
  • Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon
  • Flag of Kiribati.svg Kiribati
  • Flag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique

Calendar

OCOpening ceremonyEvent competitions1Gold medal eventsCCClosing ceremony
September7th
Mon
8th
Tue
9th
Wed
10th
Thu
11th
Fri
12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
Events
CeremoniesOCCCN/A
AquaticsDiving pictogram.svg Diving 2226
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 55556632
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Artistic Swimming 112
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 2871171146
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 2327
Bowling pictogram.svg Bowling 2125
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 1212
Cricket pictogram.svg Cricket 11
Cycling pictogram.svg Cycling 112132313
Gymnastics pictogram.svg Gymnastics 1121011420
Hockey pictogram.svg Hockey 22
Lawn bowls pictogram.svg Lawn bowls 111126
Netball pictogram.svg Netball 11
Rugby sevens pictogram.svg Rugby sevens 11
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 5442453431
Squash pictogram.svg Squash 235
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 666624
Daily medal events7141612312624273918214
Cumulative total721374980106130157196214
September7th
Mon
8th
Tue
9th
Wed
10th
Thu
11th
Fri
12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
Events

Sports overview

The host nation achieved its best-ever haul of ten gold medals which has since been surpassed by its achievement in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, where Malaysia won twelve gold medals.

The 16th Commonwealth Games host newly introduced team sports of cricket, field hockey, netball and rugby sevens and individuals sports of ten-pin bowling and squash, while of athletics, badminton, boxing, cycling, gymnastics, lawn bowls, shooting, swimming and weightlifting to make a total of 15 sports contested.

In front of 20,000 fans at the Petaling Jaya Stadium, rugby sevens in particular were an enormous success with New Zealand collecting its 100th Commonwealth Games medal with a 21–12 win over plucky Fiji, (the reigning world champions). Man of the match was the giant Jonah Lomu who had worked tirelessly during the 10-minutes-each-way final. Led by veteran star David Campese, Australia took the bronze beating Samoa 33–12.

In the squash event many had anticipated a close match between Michelle Martin and Sarah Fitz-Gerald who had both comfortably won their respective semi-finals. Fitz-Gerald had won the previous two years' World Opens and Martin the three prior to that and so it was with some surprise to many that Martin took the gold in three straight sets 9–0, 9–6, 9–5. Fitz-Gerald did avenge this defeat in the final of the world championship later that year, in what many people regard as the greatest women's final ever, coming back from 8–2 down in the fifth to retain her title.
Martin also teamed up with Craig Rowland to take the Commonwealth mixed doubles gold.

Erika-Leigh Stirton took five of the six available gold medals in the rhythmic gymnastics only being beaten into second place in the team event in the hosts took gold. [14] [15]

Medal table

Only the top ten successful nations are displayed here.

The ranking in this table is consistent with International Olympic Committee convention in its published medal tables. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won (in this context, a "nation" is an entity represented by a Commonwealth Games Association). The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by their three-letter country code. [16] [17]

Key

  *   Host nation (Malaysia)

RankCGAGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia  (AUS)806158199
2Flag of England.svg  England  (ENG)364753136
3Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)30313899
4Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia  (MAS)*10141236
5Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa  (RSA)9111434
6Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)872035
7Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya  (KEN)85417
8Flag of India.svg  India  (IND)710825
9Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica  (JAM)4206
10Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales  (WAL)34815
11Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland  (SCO)32712
12Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru  (NRU)3003
13Ulster Banner.svg  Northern Ireland  (NIR)2125
14Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe  (ZIM)2035
15Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana  (GHA)1135
16Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius  (MRI)1124
17Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus  (CYP)1113
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania  (TAN)1113
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago  (TRI)1113
20Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas  (BAH)1102
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique  (MOZ)1102
22Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados  (BAR)1023
23Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho  (LES)1001
24Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon  (CMR)0336
25Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia  (NAM)0213
26Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles  (SEY)0202
27Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka  (SRI)0112
28Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda  (BER)0101
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji  (FIJ)0101
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man  (IOM)0101
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan  (PAK)0101
32Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea  (PNG)0011
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda  (UGA)0011
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia  (ZAM)0011
Totals (34 CGAs)214214245673

Marketing

Wira, the orangutan, the official mascot of the games. 1998 Commonwealth Games Mascot.gif
Wira, the orangutan, the official mascot of the games.

The logo of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an image of the national flower of Malaysia, the hibiscus (the bunga raya ), the first games logo to introduce the colour yellow. (All previous logos had been red, white and blue to reflect the colours of the British Union Flag.) The red, blue, white and yellow colours represents the colours of the Malaysian national flag and Malaysia as a confident, young, dynamic nation. The yellow pollens represent the six regions of the world that includes the 68 Commonwealth member nations.

Mascot

The official mascot of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an orangutan named Wira (Malay for "warrior" or "hero"). It is said that the orangutan is the largest and probably the most intelligent primate in Asia which lives in the tropical rainforests of Malaysia. The adoption of orangutan as a games' mascot is to represent the friendly personality of Malaysia as the games' host as well as the charm, intelligence, and sporting ability of the participating athletes. [18]

Sponsors

A total of 55 companies and organisations sponsored the games, including Malaysian state-owned enterprises.

Medals by event

Aquatics

Athletics

Badminton

Boxing

WeightGoldSilverBronze
Light flyweight (48 kg) Sapok Biki
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Moses Kinyua
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
Boudik Kazanijian
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus
Gary Jones
Flag of England.svg  England
Flyweight (51 kg) Richard Sunee
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius
Liam Cunningham
Ulster Banner.svg  Northern Ireland
Phumzile Matyhila
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Jackson Asiku
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda
Bantamweight (54 kg) Michael Yomba
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania
Herman Ngoudjo
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon
Adnan Yusoh
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Andrew Kooner
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Featherweight (57 kg) Alex Arthur
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
Marty O'Donnell
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Lynch Ipera
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea
James Swan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Lightweight (60 kg) Raymond Narh
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana
Ali Asghar
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Andrew McLean
Flag of England.svg  England
Giovanni Frontin
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius
Light welterweight (63.5 kg) Michael Strange
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Gerry Legras
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles
Casey Johns
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Davis Mwale
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia
Welterweight (67 kg) Jeremy Molitor
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Absolom Okoth
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
Colin McNeil
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
Lynden Hosking
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Light middleweight (71 kg) Chris Bessey
Flag of England.svg  England
Scott MacIntosh
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
James Tony
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana
Jackie Townsley
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
Middleweight (75 kg) John Pearce
Flag of England.svg  England
Jitender Kumar
Flag of India.svg  India
Trevor Stewardson
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Brian Magee
Ulster Banner.svg  Northern Ireland
Light heavyweight (81 kg) Courtney Fry
Flag of England.svg  England
Troy Amos-Ross
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Samuel Odindo
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
Charles Adamu
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana
Heavyweight (91 kg) Mark Simmons
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Roland Raforme
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles
Kevin Evans
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales
Garth da Silva
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Super heavyweight (over 91 kg) Audley Harrison
Flag of England.svg  England
Michael Macaque
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius
Justin Whitehead
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Moyoyo Aloryi
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana

Cricket

EventGoldSilverBronze
Men's cricketFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand

Cycling

Track cycling

EventGoldSilverBronze
Men's 1000 m individual sprint Darryn Hill
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Sean Eadie
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Barry Forde
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados
Women's 1000 m individual sprint Tanya Dubnicoff
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Michelle Ferris
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Lori-Ann Muenzer
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Men's 1000m track time trial Shane Kelly
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Jason Queally
Flag of England.svg  England
Joshua Kersten
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's 3000 m individual pursuit Sarah Ulmer
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Alayna Burns
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Yvonne McGregor
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's 4000 m individual pursuit Brad McGee
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Luke Roberts
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Matt Illingworth
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's 4000 m team pursuit Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Brad McGee
Brett Lancaster
Luke Roberts
Michael Rogers
Timothy Lyons
Flag of England.svg  England
Bradley Wiggins
Colin Sturgess
Jon Clay
Matt Illingworth
Robert Hayles
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Brendon Cameron
Greg Henderson
Lee Vertongen
Timothy Carswell
Men's 25 scratch race Michael Rogers
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Shaun Wallace
Flag of England.svg  England
Timothy Barswell
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Women's 24 km points race Alayna Burns
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Sarah Ulmer
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Annie Gariepy
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Men's 40 km points race Glen Thomson
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Rob Hayles
Flag of England.svg  England
Greg Henderson
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand

Road bicycle racing

EventGoldSilverBronze
Women's 28 km individual time trial Anna Wilson
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Linda Jackson
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Kathy Watt
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's 42 km individual time trial Eric Wohlberg
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Stuart O'Grady
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
David George
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Women's 92 km road race Lyne Bessette
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Susy Pryde
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Anna Wilson
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's 184 km road race Jay Sweet
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Rosli Effandy
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Eric Wohlberg
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada

Gymnastics

EventGoldSilverBronze
Women's balance beam Trudy McIntosh
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Zeena McLaughlin
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Lisa Leveille
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Women's floor exercise Annika Reeder
Flag of England.svg  England
Allana Slater
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Zeena McLaughlin
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's uneven bars Lisa Skinner
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Veronique Leeleve
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Zeena McLaughlin
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's vault Lisa Mason
Flag of England.svg  England
Trudy McIntosh
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Annika Reeder
Flag of England.svg  England
Women's all round individual Zeena McLaughlin
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Allana Slater
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Trudy McIntosh
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's all round team eventFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Allana Slater
Katarina Frketic
Lisa Skinner
Trudy McIntosh
Zeena McLaughlin
Flag of England.svg  England
Annika Reeder
Gemma Cuff
Kelly Hackman
Lisa Mason
Melissa Wilcox
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Crystal Gilmore
Emilie Fournier
Katie Rowland
Lise Leveille
Veronique Leclerc
Men's floor exercise Andrei Kravtsov
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Christian Brezeanu
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
John Smethurst
Flag of England.svg  England
David Phillips
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Men's horizontal or high bar Alexander Jeltkov
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Kris Burley
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Lee McDermott
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's parallel bars Andrei Kravtsov
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Richard Ikede
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Brett Hudson
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's pommel horse Andrei Kravtsov
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Richard Ikede
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Brennon Dowrick
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's rings Pavel Mamine
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Andrew Atherton
Flag of England.svg  England
Athol Myhill
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Men's vault Simon Hutcheon
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Christian Brezeanu
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Brett Hudson
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's all round individual Andrei Kravtsov
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Andrew Atherton
Flag of England.svg  England
Brennon Dowrick
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's all round team eventFlag of England.svg  England
Andrew Atherton
Craig Heap
John Smethurst
Lee McDermott
Ross Brewer
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Andrei Kravtsov
Brennon Dowrick
Brett Hudson
Pavel Mamine
Philippe Rizzo
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Alexander Jeltkov
Grant Golding
Kristan Burley
Peter Schmid
Richard Ikeda
Women's rhythmic clubs Erika Leigh Stirton
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Shaneez Johnston
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Emilie Livingston
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Women's rhythmic hoop Erika Leigh Stirton
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Thye Chee Kiat
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Leigh Marning
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's rhythmic ribbon Erika Leigh Stirton
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Shaneez Johnston
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Carolyn Au Yong
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Women's rhythmic rope Erika Leigh Stirton
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Leigh Marning
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Thye Chee Kiat
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Women's rhythmic all round individual Erika Leigh Stirton
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Leigh Marning
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Shaneez Johnston
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's rhythmic all round teamFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Carolyn Au-Yong
Chee Kiat Thye
El Regina Tajudin
Sarina Sundara Rajah
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Emilie Livingston
Erika Leigh Stirton
Katie Iafolla
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Danielle Leray
Kristy Darrah
Leigh Marning
Shaneez Johnston

(Field) Hockey

Lawn bowls

Netball

Rugby sevens

Shooting

EventGoldSilverBronze
Men's air pistol individual Mick Gault
Flag of England.svg  England
Jaspal Rana
Flag of India.svg  India
Greg Yelavich
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Women's air pistol individual Annemarie Forder
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Christine Trefry
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Tania Corrigan
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Men's air pistol team Nick Baxter and Mick Gault
Flag of England.svg  England
Jaspal Rana and Satendra Kumar
Flag of India.svg  India
John Rochon and Jean-Pierre Huot
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Women's air pistol pairs Annemarie Forder and Christine Trefry
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Tania Corrigan and Jocelyn Lees
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Kamisah Abdul Jalal and Suriani Othman
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Men's air rifle individual Chris Hector
Flag of England.svg  England
Mohd Emran Zakaria
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Zlatko Beneta
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's air rifle individual Nurul Huda Baharin
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Sharon Bowes
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Louise Minett
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's air rifle team Chris Hector and Nigel Wallace
Flag of England.svg  England
Abdul Mutalib Abdul Razak and Mohammed Emran Zakaria
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
David Rattray and Robin Law
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
Women's air rifle pairs Christina Ashcroft and Sharon Bowes
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Belinda Muehlberg and Noemi Rostas
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Louise Minett and Becky Spicer
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's 25 m centre-fire pistol individual Jaspal Rana
Flag of India.svg  India
Allan McDonald
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
John Rochon
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Men's 25 m centre-fire pistol pairs Jaspal Rana and Ashok Pandit
Flag of India.svg  India
John Rochon and Metodi Igorov
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Mike Giustiniano and Bruce Quick
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's Clay Pigeon trap individual Michael Diamond
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Ian Peel
Flag of England.svg  England
Desmond Coe
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Men's free pistol individual Mick Gault
Flag of England.svg  England
Francois Van Tonder
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Bruce Quick
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's free pistol pairs Nick Baxter and Mick Gault
Flag of England.svg  England
David Moore and Bruce Quick
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
John Rochon and Jean-Pierre Huot
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Fullbore rifle Queens prize open pair David Calvert and Martin Millar
Ulster Banner.svg  Northern Ireland
James Paton and Alain Marion
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
David Davies and Christopher Hockley
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales
Fullbore rifle Queens prize open individual James Paton
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Zainal Abidin Md Zain
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Andrew Luckman
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's Olympic trap individual Michael Diamond
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Ian Peel
Flag of England.svg  England
Desmond Coe
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Men's Olympic trap team Mansher Singh and Manavjit Singh
Flag of India.svg  India
Michael Diamond and Ben Kelley
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Bob Borsley and Ian Peel
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's 25 m rapid fire pistol individual Metodi Igorov
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Allan McDonald
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Bhanwar Dhaka
Flag of India.svg  India
Men's 25 m rapid fire pistol pairs Mike Giustiniano and Pat Murray
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Jason Wakeling and Alan Earle
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Allan McDonald and André van Emmenis
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Men's skeet individual Desmond Davies
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales
Joe Trinci
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
David Cunningham
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Men's skeet pairs Costas Stratis and Antonis Nicolaides
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus
Andy Austin and Drew Harvey
Flag of England.svg  England
Douglas McCutcheon and Joe Trinci
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Men's smallbore rifle three positions individual Timothy Lowndes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Wayne Sorensen
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Kenneth Parr
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's free rifle three positions pairs Michael Dion and Wayne Sorensen
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Les Imgrund and Tim Lowndes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Chris Hector and Kenneth Parr
Flag of England.svg  England
Men's free rifle prone individual Stephen Petterson
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
David Moore
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man
Gavin van Rhyn
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Men's free rifle prone pairs Gavin van Rhyn and Michael Thiele
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Philip Scanlan and Neil Day
Flag of England.svg  England
Tim Lowndes and Warren Potent
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Women's free rifle prone individual Roopa Unnikrishnan
Flag of India.svg  India
Carrie Quigley
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Sally Johnston
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Women's free rifle prone pairs Carrie Quigley and Kim Frazer
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Christina Ashcroft and Maureen Spinney
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Susan Bell and Shirley McIntosh
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
Women's smallbore sport rifle three positions individual Susan McCready
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Sharon Bowes
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Roslina Bakar
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Women's smallbore sport rifle Three positions pairs Sharon Bowes and Christina Ashcroft
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Val Martin and Donna Potgieter
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Shirley McIntosh and Janis Thomson
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
Women's sport pistol individual Christine Trefry
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Bibiana Ng Pei Chin
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Kim Eagles
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Women's sport pistol pairs Christine Trefry and Annette Woodward
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Tania Corrigan and Jocelyn Lees
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Bibiana Ng Pei Chin and Norsita Mahmud
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia

Squash

Bowling

EventGoldSilverBronze
Men's singles Kenny Ang
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 6046 points
Bill Rowe
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 5946
Warren Rennox
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 5850
Women's singles Cara Honeychurch
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 6406
Maxine Nable
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 6028
Lai Kin Ngoh
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 5920
Men's doubles Kenny Ang and Ben Heng
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 3522
Antoine Jones and Conrad Lister
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda, 3329
Michael Muir and Frank Ryan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 3229
Women's doubles Cara Honeychurch and Maxine Nable
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 3678
Lai Kin Ngoh and Shalin Zulkifli
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 3548
Pauline Buck and Gemma Burden
Flag of England.svg  England, 3536
Mixed doubles Frank Ryan and Cara Honeychurch
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 3605
Richard Hood and Pauline Buck
Flag of England.svg  England, 3560
Bill Rowe and Jane Amlinger
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 3536

Weightlifting

EventGoldSilverBronze
Men's 56 kg snatch Mehmey Yagci
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 107.5 kg
Arumugam K. Pandian
Flag of India.svg  India 107.5 kg
Matin Guntali
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 105 kg
Men's 56 kg clean and jerk Dharmaraj Wilson
Flag of India.svg  India, 140 kg
Arumugam K. Pandian
Flag of India.svg  India 137.5 kg
Matin Guntali
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 135 kg
Men's 56 kg combined Arumugam K. Pandian
Flag of India.svg  India, 245 kg
Dharmaraj Wilson
Flag of India.svg  India, 242.5 kg
Matin Guntali
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 240 kg
Men's 62 kg snatch Marcus Stephen
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru, 125 kg
Yurik Sarkisyan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 125 kg
Ganapathy Gnanasekar
Flag of India.svg  India, 117.5 kg
Men's 62 kg clean and jerk Marcus Stephen
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru, 167.5 kg
Yurik Sarkisyan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 157.5 kg
Murugesan Arun
Flag of India.svg  India, 155 kg
Men's 62 kg combined Marcus Stephen
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru, 292.5 kg
Yurik Sarkisyan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 282.5 kg
Murugesan Arun
Flag of India.svg  India, 272.5 kg
Men's 69 kg snatch Sebastien Groulx
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 130 kg
Stewart Cruickshank
Flag of England.svg  England, 130 kg
Tony Morgan
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales, 130 kg,
Men's 69 kg clean and jerk Muhamad Hidayat Hamidon
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 167.5 kg
Sebastien Groulx
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 167.5 kg
G. Vadivelu
Flag of India.svg  India, 135.5 kg
Men's 69 kg combined Sebastien Groulx
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 297.5 kg
Muhamad Hidayat Hamidon
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia, 295 kg
Sandeep Kumar
Flag of India.svg  India, 285 kg
Men's 77 kg snatch Satheesha Rai
Flag of India.svg  India, 147.5 kg
Dave Morgan
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales, 145 kg
Damian Brown
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 140 kg
Men's 77 kg clean and jerk Damian Brown
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 187.5 kg
Satheesha Rai
Flag of India.svg  India, 175 kg
Alain Bilodeau
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 167.5 kg
Men's 77 kg combined Damian Brown
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 327.5 kg
Satheesha Rai
Flag of India.svg  India, 322.5 kg
Alain Bilodeau
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 305 kg
Men's 85 kg snatch Stephen Ward
Flag of England.svg  England, 157.5 kg
Leon Griffin
Flag of England.svg  England, 155 kg
David Matam Matam
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon, 147.5 kg
Men's 85 kg clean and jerk Leon Griffin
Flag of England.svg  England, 192.5 kg
Stephen Ward
Flag of England.svg  England, 187.5 kg
David Matam Matam
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon, 180 kg
Men's 85 kg combined Leon Griffin
Flag of England.svg  England, 347.5 kg
Stephen Ward
Flag of England.svg  England, 345 kg
David Matam Matam
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon, 327.5 kg
Men's 94 kg snatch Kiril Kounev
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 165 kg
Anthony Arthur
Flag of England.svg  England, 152.5
Simon Heffernan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 150 kg
Men's 94 kg clean and jerk Kiril Kounev
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 205 kg
Andy Callard
Flag of England.svg  England, 190 kg
Simon Heffernan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 185 kg
Men's 94 kg combined Kiril Kounev
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 370 kg
Andy Callard
Flag of England.svg  England, 340 kg
Simon Heffernan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 335 kg
Men's 105 kg snatch Akos Sandor
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 167.5 kg
Tommy Yule
Flag of England.svg  England, 160 kg
Nigel Avery
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand, 155 kg
Men's 105 kg clean and jerk Akos Sandor
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 192.5 kg
Tommy Yule
Flag of England.svg  England, 190 kg
Karl Grant
Flag of England.svg  England, 187.5 kg
Men's 105 kg combined Akos Sandor
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada, 360 kg
Tommy Yule
Flag of England.svg  England, 350 kg
Nigel Avery
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand, 340 kg
Men's 105+ kg snatch Darren Liddel
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand, 165 kg
Giles Greenwood
Flag of England.svg  England, 162.5 kg
Christopher Rae
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 160 kg
Men's 105+ kg clean and jerk Darren Liddel
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand, 202.5 kg
Jean Bilong
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon, 192.5 kg
Christopher Rae
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 192.5 kg
Men's 105+ kg combined Darren Liddel
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand, 367.5 kg
Christopher Rae
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, 352.5 kg
Giles Greenwood
Flag of England.svg  England, 352.5 kg

Controversy

1998 Klang Valley water crisis

The 1998 Klang Valley water crisis was a water shortage that affected the biggest metropolitan region of the country. This water shortage affected almost all the residents in the Klang Valley, causing the government to impose water rationing prior to the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur.

This crisis was blamed on El Niño despite actual rainfall in the months leading up to February 1998 in Federal Territory [19] not being significantly below average. In fact in November 1997, Klang Gates Dam had its highest recorded rainfall. Similarly in October 1997 the Kajang station not far from the Semenyih dam had its highest rainfall in record.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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  2. "The Official Kuala Lumpur 98 - 16th Commonwealth Games Website". kl98.thecgf.com.
  3. "The Official Kuala Lumpur 98 - 16th Commonwealth Games Website". kl98.thecgf.com.
  4. "The Official Kuala Lumpur 98 - 16th Commonwealth Games Website". kl98.thecgf.com.
  5. Jones, Terry (12 September 1998). "Opening ceremonies were as good as they get". Edmonton Sun . Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  6. 1 2 "Opening, closing programmes". Archived from the original on 16 October 2016.
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Preceded by
Victoria
Commonwealth Games
Kuala Lumpur
XVI Commonwealth Games
Succeeded by
Manchester